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# Most water companies in the United States add fluoride to

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Director
Joined: 25 Aug 2007
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21 Apr 2010, 02:34
00:00

Difficulty:

(N/A)

Question Stats:

86% (01:05) correct 14% (01:47) wrong based on 68 sessions

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1. Most water companies in the United States add fluoride to tap water to help prevent cavities. Some dentists argue, however, that this practice actually causes more harm than good because people overestimate the protection afforded by the fluoride and do not take the proper steps to care for their teeth, such as brushing and flossing after every meal. If water companies did
not add fluoride, the dentists claim, people would be forced to be more active in their dental hygiene and tooth decay would decline as a result.

Which of the following, if true, most weakens the dentists’ claims?
• Fluoride is widely used in commercially available dental care products.
• Most Americans are not aware that fluoride is added to tap water.
• Annual visits to the dentist are the most effective means of controlling tooth decay.
• The United States has the lowest rate of tooth decay in the world.
• Most Americans already brush their teeth daily.

2. The current administration and Congress have once again practiced bad public policy in failing to increase Pell grants or at least limit their reduction for next year’s budget. Pell grants improve access to higher education for those who have historically been disadvantaged in our society by financial or other life circumstances, thereby helping recipients elevate themselves to the middle class. Without that access, the gap between the rich and poor in this country will continue to widen, increasingly straining the stability of our democracy.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the conclusion of this argument?

• Total spending on programs targeted at improving access to higher education
for disadvantaged students will increase in next year’s federal budget.
• The neediest candidates for Pell grants often lack information about their
eligibility for such grants.
• Congress recently authorized a bill that will increase after-school programs in
urban communities.
• On average, an individual Pell grant funds less than 15% of the full cost of
attending a four-year college or university.
• Federal spending on education for next year will increase as a percentage of
the total budget.
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Senior Manager
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Re: Tough CR - Weaken [#permalink]

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21 Apr 2010, 07:31
BB
maybe BA but BB I think
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Manager
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Re: Tough CR - Weaken [#permalink]

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21 Apr 2010, 10:34
ykaiim wrote:
1. Most water companies in the United States add fluoride to tap water to help prevent cavities. Some dentists argue, however, that this practice actually causes more harm than good because people overestimate the protection afforded by the fluoride and do not take the proper steps to care for their teeth, such as brushing and flossing after every meal. If water companies did
not add fluoride, the dentists claim, people would be forced to be more active in their dental hygiene and tooth decay would decline as a result.

Which of the following, if true, most weakens the dentists’ claims?
• Fluoride is widely used in commercially available dental care products.
• Most Americans are not aware that fluoride is added to tap water. this will weaken the claim
• Annual visits to the dentist are the most effective means of controlling tooth decay.
• The United States has the lowest rate of tooth decay in the world.
• Most Americans already brush their teeth daily.

2. The current administration and Congress have once again practiced bad public policy in failing to increase Pell grants or at least limit their reduction for next year’s budget. Pell grants improve access to higher education for those who have historically been disadvantaged in our society by financial or other life circumstances, thereby helping recipients elevate themselves to the middle class. Without that access, the gap between the rich and poor in this country will continue to widen, increasingly straining the stability of our democracy.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the conclusion of this argument?

• Total spending on programs targeted at improving access to higher education
for disadvantaged students will increase in next year’s federal budget.
• The neediest candidates for Pell grants often lack information about their
eligibility for such grants. This should be the answer
• Congress recently authorized a bill that will increase after-school programs in
urban communities.
• On average, an individual Pell grant funds less than 15% of the full cost of
attending a four-year college or university.
• Federal spending on education for next year will increase as a percentage of
the total budget.

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Intern
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Re: Tough CR - Weaken [#permalink]

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21 Apr 2010, 14:47
B & B are the answers

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Re: Tough CR - Weaken [#permalink]

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22 May 2010, 02:04
Anyone want to try with reasoning?
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Re: Tough CR - Weaken [#permalink]

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15 Jul 2010, 04:55
think its B and A. For first - If americans arent already aware - then the dentists' premise for criticism falls apart. For second question - if govt is spending more for disadv ppl's education that weakens the claim that rescinding the pell funding is a bad idea

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Manager
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Re: Tough CR - Weaken [#permalink]

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15 Jul 2010, 06:30
1 - B

2 - B

A • Total spending on programs targeted at improving access to higher education
for disadvantaged students will increase in next year’s federal budget. Gap might decrease or remain same or increase( in case the additional funding is less than what the richies are going to earn)

B • The neediest candidates for Pell grants often lack information about their
eligibility for such grants.

If Govt Increases the Pell grant, it would be not of much help as most of the poor( neediest) candidates would not receive it due to lack of information.

Purely my view. Lets see what OA says.
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Re: Tough CR - Weaken [#permalink]

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15 Jul 2010, 20:46
B and A seems to be the right answer.

1 - B
2 - A - Think its A cause it weakens the claim that Pell grants are the only way that "recipients can elevate themselves to the middle class"..(Attacking the conclusion) ...

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Manager
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Re: Tough CR - Weaken [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2010, 03:34
1st one B. didnt try 2nd one

plz post 1 qstion at a time.
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Re: Tough CR - Weaken [#permalink]

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22 Jul 2010, 06:24
b for the first one

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Re: Tough CR - Weaken   [#permalink] 22 Jul 2010, 06:24
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