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# Musicologists concerned with the “London Pianoforte school,” the group

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Senior RC Moderator
Joined: 02 Nov 2016
Posts: 4847
GPA: 3.39
Musicologists concerned with the “London Pianoforte school,” the group  [#permalink]

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26 Nov 2019, 10:54
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 475, Date: 26-Nov-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details

Musicologists concerned with the “London
Pianoforte school,” the group of composers,
pedagogues, pianists, publishers, and builders who
contributed to the development of the piano in London
(5) at the turn of the nineteenth century, have long
encountered a formidable obstacle in the general
unavailability of music of this “school” in modern
scholarly editions. Indeed, much of this repertory has
more or less vanished from our historical
Parnassum of Muzio Clementi and the nocturnes of
John Field have remained familiar enough (though
more often than not in editions lacking scholarly rigor),
but the work of other leading representatives, like
(15) Johann Baptist Cramer and Jan Ladislav Dussek, has
eluded serious attempts at revival.

Nicholas Temperley’s ambitious new anthology
decisively overcomes this deficiency. What
underscores the intrinsic value of Temperley’s editions
(20) is that the anthology reproduces nearly all of the
original music in facsimile. Making available this cross
section of English musical life—some 800 works by 49
composers—should encourage new critical
perspectives about how piano music evolved in
(25) England, an issue of considerable relevance to our
understanding of how piano music developed on the
European continent, and of how, finally, the instrument
was transformed from the fortepiano to what we know
today as the piano.

(30) To be sure, the concept of the London Pianoforte
school itself calls for review. “School” may well be too
strong a word for what was arguably a group unified
not so much by stylistic principles or aesthetic creed as
by the geographical circumstance that they worked at
(35) various times in London and produced pianos and
piano music for English pianos and English markets.
Indeed, Temperley concedes that their “variety may be
so great as to cast doubt on the notion of a ‘school.’”

The notion of a school was first propounded by
(40) Alexander Ringer, who argued that laws of artistic
survival forced the young, progressive Beethoven to
turn outside Austria for creative models, and that he
found inspiration in a group of pianists connected with
Clementi in London. Ringer’s proposed London
(45) Pianoforte school did suggest a circumscribed and
fairly unified group—for want of a better term, a
school—of musicians whose influence was felt
primarily in the decades just before and after 1800.
After all, Beethoven did respond to the advances of the
(50) Broadwood piano—its reinforced frame, extended
compass, triple stringing, and pedals, for example—and
it is reasonable to suppose that London pianists who
composed music for such an instrument during the
critical phase of its development exercised no small
(55) degree of influence on Continental musicians.
Nevertheless, perhaps the most sensible approach
to this issue is to define the school by the period
(c. 1766–1873) during which it flourished, as
Temperley has done in the anthology.

Spoiler: :: OA
B

1. Which one of the following most accurately states the author’s main point?

(A) Temperley has recently called into question the designation of a group of composers, pedagogues, pianists, publishers, and builders as the London Pianoforte school.
(B) Temperley’s anthology of the music of the London Pianoforte school contributes significantly to an understanding of an influential period in the history of music.
(C) The music of the London Pianoforte school has been revived by the publication of Temperley’s new anthology.
(D) Primary sources for musical manuscripts provide the most reliable basis for musicological research.
(E) The development of the modern piano in England influenced composers and other musicians throughout Europe.

Spoiler: :: OA
E

2. It can be inferred that which one of the following is true of the piano music of the London Pianoforte school?

(A) The nocturnes of John Field typify the London Pianoforte school style.
(B) The Gradus ad Parnassum of Muzio Clementi is the best-known work of these composers.
(C) No original scores for this music are extant.
(D) Prior to Temperley’s edition, no attempts to issue new editions of this music had been made.
(E) In modern times much of the music of this school has been little known even to musicians.

Spoiler: :: OA
D

3. The author mentions the sonatas of Muzio Clementi and the nocturnes of John Field as examples of which one of the following?

(A) works by composers of the London Pianoforte school that have been preserved in rigorous scholarly editions
(B) works that are no longer remembered by most people
(C) works acclaimed by the leaders of the London Pianoforte school
(D) works by composers of the London Pianoforte school that are relatively well known
(E) works by composers of the London Pianoforte school that have been revived by Temperley in his anthology

Spoiler: :: OA
A

4. Which one of the following, if true, would most clearly undermine a portion of Ringer’s argument as the argument is described in the passage?

(A) Musicians in Austria composed innovative music for the Broadwood piano as soon as the instrument became available.
(B) Clementi and his followers produced most of their compositions between 1790 and 1810.
(C) The influence of Continental musicians is apparent in some of the works of Beethoven.
(D) The pianist-composers of the London Pianoforte school shared many of the same stylistic principles.
(E) Most composers of the London Pianoforte school were born on the Continent and were drawn to London by the work of Clementi and his followers.

Spoiler: :: OA
B

5. It can be inferred that the author uses the word “advances” (line 49) to refer to

(A) enticements offered musicians by instrument manufacturers
(B) improvements in the structure of a particular instrument
(C) innovations in the forms of music produced for a particular instrument
(D) stylistic elaborations made possible by changes in a particular instrument
(E) changes in musicians’ opinions about a particular instrument

Spoiler: :: OA
B

6. It can be inferred from the passage as a whole that the author’s purpose in the third paragraph is primarily to

(A) cast doubt on the usefulness of Temperley’s study of the London Pianoforte school
(B) introduce a discussion of the coherency of the London Pianoforte school
(C) summarize Ringer’s argument about the London Pianoforte school
(D) emphasize the complex nature of the musicological elements shared by members of the London Pianoforte school
(E) identify the unique contributions made to music by the London Pianoforte school

Spoiler: :: OA
E

7. The author of the passage is primarily concerned with

(A) explaining the influence of the development of the pianoforte on the music of Beethoven
(B) describing Temperley’s view of the contrast between the development of piano music in England and the development of piano music elsewhere in Europe
(C) presenting Temperley’s evaluation of the impact of changes in piano construction on styles and forms of music composed in the era of the London Pianoforte school
(D) considering an alternative theory to that proposed by Ringer concerning the London Pianoforte school
(E) discussing the contribution of Terperley’s anthology to what is known of the history of the London Pianoforte school

Spoiler: :: OA
B

8. It can be inferred that Temperley’s anthology treats the London Pianoforte school as

(A) a group of pianist-composers who shared certain stylistic principles and artistic creeds
(B) a group of people who contributed to the development of piano music between 1766 and 1873
(C) a group of composers who influenced the music of Beethoven in the decades just before and just after 1800
(D) a series of compositions for the pianoforte published in the decades just before and just after 1800
(E) a series of compositions that had significant influence on the music of the Continent in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries

• Source: LSAT Official PrepTest 21 (December 1996)
• Difficulty Level: 700

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Re: Musicologists concerned with the “London Pianoforte school,” the group  [#permalink]

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01 Dec 2019, 01:56
2
1
Hi everyone,
Got 6/8 correct in 18 minutes.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

P1

Paragraph one tells us about the LPS. The LPS was a popular school at the turn of the 19th century and it faced an issue related to the lack of modern revivals of classic/past composers. While some past composers' music was subject to revivals, the music of many other past leading composers was not.

Brief summary: LPS and the issue related to lack of revivals

P2

Paragraph 2 offers an example of how such lack or revivals was compensated. NT created an anthology that was important for several reasons. First it shows how the piano evolved in England and secondly it helps to understand how english pains music affected the european's piano music. Lastly the anthology gives us meaningful information to understand the transition from the fortepiano to the piano music.

Brief summary: NT's anthology and its significance

P3

Paragraph 3 questions the usage of the word "school" related to the LPS. The author underscores that the musicians who contributed to the school's growth were unified more by their geography than their musical ideals and styles. NT as well suggests that the variety of composition is quite extreme.

Brief summary: LPS should not be regarded as a "school"

P4

Paragraph 4 introduces the information provided by AR, who believed that Beethoven went away from Austria because he was looking for more creative models that he found in London.
We are also given that the Broadway piano was used in London and that this supports the idea that piano music in London influenced the development of piano music in Europe. Lastly we are given that the most appropriate timeframe of the LPS should be before and after the 19th century, when the musicians of the school were more unified.

Brief summary: AR's views and right timeframe of LPS

Main point

The main point is to identify an issue related to the LPS, consider a solution to that issue and to evaluate the notion of school applied to LPS

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1. Which one of the following most accurately states the author’s main point?

Pre-thinking

Main point question

Refer to main point and summaries above

(A) Temperley has recently called into question the designation of a group of composers, pedagogues, pianists, publishers, and builders as the London Pianoforte school.
Temperly did not call into question the school.

(B) Temperley’s anthology of the music of the London Pianoforte school contributes significantly to an understanding of an influential period in the history of music.
This at first might seem a partial scope answer statement because Temperly is discussed in P2 and then there is a shift in the narration as the author talks about the notion of school BUT Temperly's anthology is used also in P4 to establish the time frame of the school. Hence this option is broad enough to encompass the main point of the passage.

(C) The music of the London Pianoforte school has been revived by the publication of Temperley’s new anthology.
The music of past composers is revived by the anthology and not only the music of the school.

(D) Primary sources for musical manuscripts provide the most reliable basis for musicological research.
out of scope

(E) The development of the modern piano in England influenced composers and other musicians throughout Europe.
partial scope. the main point is to use T's anthology to prove this statement

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2. It can be inferred that which one of the following is true of the piano music of the London Pianoforte school?

Pre-thinking

Inference question

(A) The nocturnes of John Field typify the London Pianoforte school style.
we know only: "nocturnes of
John Field have remained familiar enough "

(B) The Gradus ad Parnassum of Muzio Clementi is the best-known work of these composers.
Nowhere we can infer that such compositions were the BEST known

(C) No original scores for this music are extant.
Quite the opposite

(D) Prior to Temperley’s edition, no attempts to issue new editions of this music had been made.
"no attempts" makes this option too extreme

(E) In modern times much of the music of this school has been little known even to musicians.
"but the work of other leading representatives, like
(15) Johann Baptist Cramer and Jan Ladislav Dussek, has
eluded serious attempts at revival."

This portion of the passage gives us the basis to infer such statement

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

3. The author mentions the sonatas of Muzio Clementi and the nocturnes of John Field as examples of which one of the following?

Pre-thinking

Detail question

Let's refer to P1.
Parnassum of Muzio Clementi and the nocturnes of
John Field have remained familiar enough"

Such compositions are an example of compositions that were familiar.

(A) works by composers of the London Pianoforte school that have been preserved in rigorous scholarly editions
We don't know whether they have been well preserved. We just know that they remained familiar

(B) works that are no longer remembered by most people
Quite opposite

(C) works acclaimed by the leaders of the London Pianoforte school
Nowhere it is written that such works were acclaimed

(D) works by composers of the London Pianoforte school that are relatively well known
In line with pre-thinking

(E) works by composers of the London Pianoforte school that have been revived by Temperley in his anthology
These works are discussed before the anthology and are not mentioned later on as well.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

4. Which one of the following, if true, would most clearly undermine a portion of Ringer’s argument as the argument is described in the passage?

Pre-thinking

Weaken question

Let's refer to P4 to understand Ringer's argument.

"who argued that laws of artistic
survival forced the young, progressive Beethoven to
turn outside Austria for creative models, and that he
found inspiration in a group of pianists connected with
Clementi in London."

"fairly unified group—for want of a better term, a
school—of musicians whose influence was felt
primarily in the decades just before and after 1800."

Examples of weakeners are:
#1: Beethoven got out of Austria for other reasons.
#2: During the time frame provided actually the musicians were not very unified

(A) Musicians in Austria composed innovative music for the Broadwood piano as soon as the instrument became available.
This is in line with our 1st weakener. We know that Beethoven went away from Austria on the lookout for innovative inputs. Ringer says that one of the innovations that draw Beethoven to London was the Broadway piano. If the Broadway piano was used as well in Austria, the argument is weakened

(B) Clementi and his followers produced most of their compositions between 1790 and 1810.
irrelevant

(C) The influence of Continental musicians is apparent in some of the works of Beethoven.
irrelevant

(D) The pianist-composers of the London Pianoforte school shared many of the same stylistic principles.
irrelevant

(E) Most composers of the London Pianoforte school were born on the Continent and were drawn to London by the work of Clementi and his followers.
irrelevant

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

5. It can be inferred that the author uses the word “advances” (line 49) to refer to

Pre-thinking

Purpose question

Let's refer to the relevant portion of the passage: "After all, Beethoven did respond to the advances of the
(50) Broadwood piano—its reinforced frame, extended
compass, triple stringing, and pedals, for example—and...."

As we can see it is very easy to understand which are the advances at hand: reinforced frame, compass....
Note that in the purpose question most of the time is very useful to read the sentence before and after the sentence highlighted because working only on the word(s) highlights can be used against us in trap options

(A) enticements offered musicians by instrument manufacturers
Not in line with pre-thinking

(B) improvements in the structure of a particular instrument
in line with pre-thinking

(C) innovations in the forms of music produced for a particular instrument
Trap option mentioned in pre.thinking

(D) stylistic elaborations made possible by changes in a particular instrument
Not in line with pre-thinking

(E) changes in musicians’ opinions about a particular instrument
Not in line with pre-thinking

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

6. It can be inferred from the passage as a whole that the author’s purpose in the third paragraph is primarily to

Pre-thinking

Purpose question

The purpose of the third paragraph is to use the anthology to evaluate the concept of school applied to the LPS

(A) cast doubt on the usefulness of Temperley’s study of the London Pianoforte school
T's anthology actually is quite useful per this paragraph

(B) introduce a discussion of the coherency of the London Pianoforte school
In line with pre-thinking

(C) summarize Ringer’s argument about the London Pianoforte school
it's quite impossible summarize what has not still been presented

(D) emphasize the complex nature of the musicological elements shared by members of the London Pianoforte school
No complex nature is mentioned

(E) identify the unique contributions made to music by the London Pianoforte school
the main topic of this paragraph is the variety present in the school

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

7. The author of the passage is primarily concerned with

Pre-thinking

Main point question

Refer to main point and summaries above

(A) explaining the influence of the development of the pianoforte on the music of Beethoven
Not in line with pre-thinking

(B) describing Temperley’s view of the contrast between the development of piano music in England and the development of piano music elsewhere in Europe
Not in line with pre-thinking

(C) presenting Temperley’s evaluation of the impact of changes in piano construction on styles and forms of music composed in the era of the London Pianoforte school
Not in line with pre-thinking

(D) considering an alternative theory to that proposed by Ringer concerning the London Pianoforte school
Not in line with pre-thinking

(E) discussing the contribution of Terperley’s anthology to what is known of the history of the London Pianoforte school
in line with pre-thinking

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

8. It can be inferred that Temperley’s anthology treats the London Pianoforte school as

Pre-thinking

Inference question

"Nevertheless, perhaps the most sensible approach
to this issue is to define the school by the period
(c. 1766–1873) during which it flourished, as
Temperley has done in the anthology."

(A) a group of pianist-composers who shared certain stylistic principles and artistic creeds
piano composers might be a little limiting.

"Ringer’s proposed London
(45) Pianoforte school did suggest a circumscribed and
fairly unified group—for want of a better term, a
school—of musicians whose influence was felt
primarily in the decades just before and after 1800."

(B) a group of people who contributed to the development of piano music between 1766 and 1873
In line with pre-thinking

(C) a group of composers who influenced the music of Beethoven in the decades just before and just after 1800
inconsistent

(D) a series of compositions for the pianoforte published in the decades just before and just after 1800
non sensical because the school cannot be a series of compositions

(E) a series of compositions that had significant influence on the music of the Continent in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries
same reasoning as for choice D

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

It is a good day to be alive!
Re: Musicologists concerned with the “London Pianoforte school,” the group   [#permalink] 01 Dec 2019, 01:56
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