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n day-to-day functioning, people rely on both memory and knowledge

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n day-to-day functioning, people rely on both memory and knowledge [#permalink]

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Question 1
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6% (04:21) correct 94% (02:23) wrong based on 33

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Question 2
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54% (00:46) correct 46% (00:51) wrong based on 35

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73% (00:25) correct 27% (01:23) wrong based on 33

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n day-to-day functioning, people rely on both memory and knowledge of that memory, referred to as metamemory. For example, a person often cannot immediately recall a name upon meeting someone, but they feel that they know it. This feeling is the result of monitoring memory. Because of this feeling-of-knowing (FOK), most people will continue to search their memory for this name. Once a name is generated, people then monitor and decide if they are confident enough to use that name.

Memory monitoring involves evaluating the ongoing progress of any aspect of memory. Experiments that evaluate memory monitoring typically have individuals make subjective judgments about their memory at various stages of learning and recall. Participants are asked a series of questions. After each question that they answer, they are asked to provide a retrospective confidence (RC) judgment, rating the likelihood that their response is accurate. When participants do not answer a question, they are asked for their prospective FOK judgment, assessing whether they nonetheless feel they do know the answer (for example because they think they may be able to remember it at some point in the future).

Perhaps predictably, RC judgments are highly correlated with actual knowledge of a topic. FOK judgments, however, correlate rather weakly—albeit positively—with actual knowledge. While there are some instances where the FOK is the result of a momentary inability to recall something, more often than not the FOK stems from the sense that one should know something, for example because the field is familiar.


Research has resulted in a general consensus that, when monitoring memory, individuals infer whether a particular response will be, or has been, remembered based on the inputs that are readily available. However, the particular inputs used differ depending on when memory is assessed. Prospective FOK judgments are thought to be based on familiarity of the cue, accessibility of information about the memory, or a combination of the two. In contrast, it is widely accepted that RC judgments are based on the memory-retrieval experience—that is, the “on-line” experience of directly retrieving some previously studied item.

[b]The author uses the term “on-line” at the end of the last paragraph in order to:

A. emphasize the importance of readily available inputs for monitoring memory.
B. enhance the understanding of a major difference between RC judgments and FOK judgments.
C. show how similar RC judgments are to the experience of retrieving data from a computer online.
D. highlight the importance of when a memory is assessed in determining the reliability of an RC judgment.
E. clarify the weaknesses inherent in the process for forming FOK judgments.


Which of the following best describes the role of the highlighted portion in the 3rd paragraph?

A. It is used to support the idea that RC judgments are strongly correlated with knowledge of a topic.
B. It is used to emphasize why FOK judgments, when compared to RC judgments, are also positively correlated with actual knowledge.
C. It is used to explain why the correlation with actual knowledge for FOK judgments is not as strong as the correlation with actual knowledge for RC judgments.
D. It is used to emphasize the difference between a momentary inability to recall something and actual knowledge of a topic.
E. It is used to support the notion that RC judgments should be used more often to assess recall of information than FOK judgments.


According to the passage, an FOK judgment is normally made by experimental subjects

A. before questions are posed to them.
B. after each question.
C. after questions they are unable to answer.
D. after providing an answer to a question.
E. after the answers to all the questions are revealed.

[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #1 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #2 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #3 OA

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Last edited by sidd13 on 15 Sep 2017, 17:03, edited 4 times in total.

Kudos [?]: 43 [1], given: 42

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Location: India
Concentration: Technology, General Management
GMAT 1: 660 Q46 V38
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WE: Information Technology (Computer Software)
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Re: n day-to-day functioning, people rely on both memory and knowledge [#permalink]

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New post 15 Sep 2017, 04:53
For Question Number 3 answer reside in the below line in paragraph 2
When participants do not answer a question, they are asked for their prospective FOK judgment, assessing whether they nonetheless feel they do know the answer (for example because they think they may be able to remember it at some point in the future).
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email: nkmungila@gmail.com
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Kudos [?]: 85 [0], given: 59

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Re: n day-to-day functioning, people rely on both memory and knowledge [#permalink]

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New post 15 Sep 2017, 19:00
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nkmungila wrote:
For Question Number 3 answer reside in the below line in paragraph 2
When participants do not answer a question, they are asked for their prospective FOK judgment, assessing whether they nonetheless feel they do know the answer (for example because they think they may be able to remember it at some point in the future).



It also takes into consideration the definition given from paragraph 1, good or tricky part about this RC is the facts need to be kept in mind together
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Kudos [?]: 43 [1], given: 42

Re: n day-to-day functioning, people rely on both memory and knowledge   [#permalink] 15 Sep 2017, 19:00
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