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# Nearly 2000 years after its initial construction, the United

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Nearly 2000 years after its initial construction, the United [#permalink]

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26 Oct 2011, 21:28
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Nearly 2000 years after its initial construction, the United Nations declared the Roman aqueduct of Segovia to be a Heritage of Humanity in 1985, prompting the Spanish government to begin renovations on the aqueduct, which had been deteriorating.

Nearly 2000 years after its initial construction, the United Nations declared the Roman aqueduct of Segovia to be a Heritage of Humanity in 1985, prompting the Spanish government to begin renovations on the aqueduct, which had been deteriorating.

Since its initial construction nearly 2000 years earlier, the Roman aqueduct of Segovia had been deteriorating, prompting the Spanish government to begin renovations after the United Nations declared the aqueduct to be a Heritage of Humanity in 1985.

After being declared a Heritage of Humanity by the United Nations in 1985, the Spanish government began renovations on the Roman aqueduct of Segovia, which had been deteriorating since its initial construction nearly 2000 years earlier.

In 1985, the United Nations declared the Roman Aqueduct of Segovia to be a Heritage of Humanity and prompted the Spanish government to begin renovations on the aqueduct, which had been deteriorating since its initial construction nearly 2000 years earlier.

In 1985, the United Nations declared the Roman aqueduct of Segovia a Heritage of Humanity, prompting the Spanish government to begin renovations on the aqueduct, which had been deteriorating since its initial construction nearly 2000 years earlier

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Re: Roman aqueduct of Segovia [#permalink]

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28 Oct 2011, 20:30
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^ Another nagging difference between the sentences E and D: D says "the United Nations declared the Roman Aqueduct of Segovia to be a Heritage of Humanity and prompted the Spanish government", while E says "the United Nations declared the Roman aqueduct of Segovia a Heritage of Humanity, prompting the Spanish government to begin renovations on the aqueduct"

Is there a change in meaning here? As in the case of D, the UN has directly prompted the Spanish government to begin renovations. But in E, the act of declaring the Roman aqueduct a heritage prompted the Spanish government to take action. Does this subtle change speak against D? Or am I reading too much here? Please advice.
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Re: Roman aqueduct of Segovia [#permalink]

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04 May 2012, 09:32
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Hi All,

Nearly 2000 years after its initial construction, the United Nations declared the Roman aqueduct of Segovia to be a Heritage of Humanity in 1985, prompting the Spanish government to begin renovations on the aqueduct, which had been deteriorating.

It is VERY important to understand the intended meaning of the sentence to comprehend the use of certain modifiers and verb tenses in the sentences. Some usages have created confusion. So let’s get the meaning here. In 1985, some 2000 years after the construction of the Roman aqueduct of Segovia, the United Nations declared this monument a Heritage of Humanity.
Since the original sentence uses the word “prompting”, we know that the UN did not prompt the renovations. Moreover, it makes sense that the UN’s declaration prompted the Spanish government to renovate this monument. Before this declaration, the Spanish government paid no heed to this monument and that’s the reason why it had been deteriorating since its construction. It is only after the UN declared the monument a heritage that the Spanish government started the renovation and stopped its deterioration.

Now let’s evaluate the errors in the sentence.
1. Since the opening modifier says “Nearly 2000 years after its initial construction”, the subject of the following main clause should be the entity this modifier modifies. This modifier refers to “the Roman aqueduct of Segovia”. But the subject of the main clause is “the UN” and now the opening modifier is illogically modifying the UN. We have modifier error here.
2. Phrase “declared to be” is not idiomatic. The correct idiom is “declared X Y”. We have idiom error here.
PS: There is no issue with “had been deteriorating” because it is an action that started long back in the past. After the UN’s declaration in 1985, the Spanish Government started the renovation of the monument and this stopped its deterioration. So this action of deterioration has already been taken care of in the distant past.
@bugmenott: If we say the aqueduct "has been deteriorating", it will mean that the action of deterioration is still happening. This is not true because the renovation took care of the deterioration that had started happening since its construction more than 2000 years ago.

POE:

Choice A: Nearly 2000 years after its initial construction, the United Nations declared the Roman aqueduct of Segovia to be a Heritage of Humanity in 1985, prompting the Spanish government to begin renovations on the aqueduct, which had been deteriorating. Incorrect for the reasons stated above.

Choice B: Since its initial construction nearly 2000 years earlier, the Roman aqueduct of Segovia had been deteriorating, prompting the Spanish government to begin renovations after the United Nations declared the aqueduct to be a Heritage of Humanity in 1985. Incorrect.
• Firstly, coma + prompting is modifying the preceding clause, suggesting that the deterioration of the monument prompted the Spanish government to renovate the monument. This is not the intended meaning of the sentence.
• Secondly, it repeats the same idiom error as in Choice A.

Choice C: After being declared a Heritage of Humanity by the United Nations in 1985, the Spanish government began renovations on the Roman aqueduct of Segovia, which had been deteriorating since its initial construction nearly 2000 years earlier. Incorrect.
• The opening modifier says “After being declared a Heritage of the Humanity…”. This modifier modifies the Roman aqueduct of Segovia that should be the subject of the following main clause. But the subject of the clause is “the Spanish government”. Hence we have a modifier error here.

Choice D: In 1985, the United Nations declared the Roman Aqueduct of Segovia to be a Heritage of Humanity and prompted the Spanish government to begin renovations on the aqueduct, which had been deteriorating since its initial construction nearly 2000 years earlier. Incorrect.
• This choice also repeats the idiom of Choice A.
• This choice also changes the intended meaning of the sentence by saying that the UN “promoted” the Spanish government to renovate the aqueduct. From the logical intended meaning of the sentence, we know that it’s the UN’s declaration and the not the UN that prompted the renovation.

Choice E: In 1985, the United Nations declared the Roman aqueduct of Segovia a Heritage of Humanity, prompting the Spanish government to begin renovations on the aqueduct, which had been deteriorating since its initial construction nearly 2000 years earlier. Correct. This answer choice rectifies all the errors of the original choice and conveys the intended meaning clearly.

1. Modifiers and the entities they modify must be placed in such a way so that the modifiers modify the entities they are meant to modify.
2. We must use the correct idiom to maintain clarity and conciseness in the sentence.
3. We must be wary of answer choices that change the logical intended meaning of the sentence.

The use of verb+ing modifiers has been explained in details in the Modifier Verb-ing concept file in the preview level 1 concepts. Just register at http://www.e-gmat.com and learn this concept concept for free.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Roman aqueduct of Segovia [#permalink]

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07 Apr 2012, 07:36
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IMO E.....

prompting ... ing form of verb here means result of action of US
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Re: Roman aqueduct of Segovia [#permalink]

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26 Oct 2011, 21:35
I picked E..."declared the Roman aqueduct of Segovia a Heritage" not option D "declared the Roman Aqueduct of Segovia to be a Heritage".
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Re: Roman aqueduct of Segovia [#permalink]

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26 Oct 2011, 22:44
I picked E..."declared the Roman aqueduct of Segovia a Heritage" not option D "declared the Roman Aqueduct of Segovia to be a Heritage".

What do you think about the had been (plural) reference to aqueduct, which IMO is Singular?
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Re: Roman aqueduct of Segovia [#permalink]

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26 Oct 2011, 22:48
Bull78 wrote:
I picked E..."declared the Roman aqueduct of Segovia a Heritage" not option D "declared the Roman Aqueduct of Segovia to be a Heritage".

What do you think about the had been (plural) reference to aqueduct, which IMO is Singular?

Bull78, remember that you can use "had been" for plural or for singular. In this case is singular, look at this portion "its initial construction nearly 2000 years earlier"
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Re: Roman aqueduct of Segovia [#permalink]

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27 Oct 2011, 04:33
Chose 'D' by reading first line and by figuring ||ism However, I understood 'to be' issue.
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Re: Roman aqueduct of Segovia [#permalink]

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27 Oct 2011, 13:57
I chose D... was between that and E. Is "declared A" an idiom? I though declared to be sounded right, guess not lol
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Re: Roman aqueduct of Segovia [#permalink]

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28 Oct 2011, 11:48
Chose E. Declared to be sounded wrong. E is concise.
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Re: Roman aqueduct of Segovia [#permalink]

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29 Oct 2011, 08:19
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Guys, some hints from the author of the question

The idiom is "declare X Y" not "declare X to be Y"

By making paralell the two actions "declared" and "prompted" as in D the meaning is changed. The promting came after the declaration, therefore E is correct.

This one was hard for me.

Good luck
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Re: Roman aqueduct of Segovia [#permalink]

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29 Oct 2011, 20:43
Bull78 wrote:
Nearly 2000 years after its initial construction, the United Nations declared the Roman aqueduct of Segovia to be a Heritage of Humanity in 1985, prompting the Spanish government to begin renovations on the aqueduct, which had been deteriorating.

Nearly 2000 years after its initial construction, the United Nations declared the Roman aqueduct of Segovia to be a Heritage of Humanity in 1985, prompting the Spanish government to begin renovations on the aqueduct, which had been deteriorating.

Since its initial construction nearly 2000 years earlier, the Roman aqueduct of Segovia had been deteriorating, prompting the Spanish government to begin renovations after the United Nations declared the aqueduct to be a Heritage of Humanity in 1985.

After being declared a Heritage of Humanity by the United Nations in 1985, the Spanish government began renovations on the Roman aqueduct of Segovia, which had been deteriorating since its initial construction nearly 2000 years earlier.

In 1985, the United Nations declared the Roman Aqueduct of Segovia to be a Heritage of Humanity and prompted the Spanish government to begin renovations on the aqueduct, which had been deteriorating since its initial construction nearly 2000 years earlier.

In 1985, the United Nations declared the Roman aqueduct of Segovia a Heritage of Humanity, prompting the Spanish government to begin renovations on the aqueduct, which had been deteriorating since its initial construction nearly 2000 years earlier

E says which had been deteriorating since its initial construction nearly 2000 years earlier. can mean it started deteriorating immediately after its construction which is not what the original sentence suggests. C and D also metion the same. B is incorrect. So I chose the original sentence.
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Re: Roman aqueduct of Segovia [#permalink]

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06 Nov 2011, 12:15
Since its initial construction nearly 2000 years earlier, the Roman aqueduct of Segovia had been deteriorating, prompting the Spanish government to begin renovations after the United Nations declared the aqueduct to be a Heritage of Humanity in 1985.

Modification error with B
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Re: Roman aqueduct of Segovia [#permalink]

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07 Nov 2011, 00:55
Initially i was confused between C and E, but i think ill go with E in this, for using active construction.
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Re: Roman aqueduct of Segovia [#permalink]

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12 Mar 2012, 15:37
Since its initial construction nearly 2000 years earlier, the Roman aqueduct of Segovia had been deteriorating, prompting the Spanish government to begin renovations after the United Nations declared the aqueduct to be a Heritage of Humanity in 1985.

Could someone please explain the issue here?

Thanks,

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Re: Roman aqueduct of Segovia [#permalink]

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12 Mar 2012, 16:31
Close call between B and E. I chose B and it was wrong...

"Since its initial construction nearly 2000 years earlier, the Roman aqueduct of Segovia had been deteriorating, prompting the Spanish government to begin renovations after the United Nations declared the aqueduct to be a Heritage of Humanity in 1985."

The reason behind B being wrong is- The usage of prompting is wrong. The correct usage would be- the Roman aqueduct of Segovia had been deteriorating, which prompted the spanish.....
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Re: Roman aqueduct of Segovia [#permalink]

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12 Mar 2012, 17:45
The reason behind B being wrong is- The usage of prompting is wrong. The correct usage would be- the Roman aqueduct of Segovia had been deteriorating, which prompted the spanish.....

Could you please elaborate a bit more here, what is the tense issue that you are referring to?

Is this past perfect continuous?

Thanks
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Re: Roman aqueduct of Segovia [#permalink]

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19 Mar 2012, 10:56
In 1985, the United Nations declared the Roman aqueduct of Segovia a Heritage of Humanity, prompting the Spanish government to begin renovations on the aqueduct, which had been deteriorating since its initial construction nearly 2000 years earlier

please explain why we need a comma after "In 1985..." ???? thanx
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Re: Roman aqueduct of Segovia [#permalink]

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19 Mar 2012, 12:27
A) "its" incorrectly modifies united nations .

B) Declared To be is wrong idiom usage.

C) usage of being , "After being declared " modifies spanish govt.

D) "declared to be a" wrong usage , united nations prompted is wrong.

E)Correct
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Re: Roman aqueduct of Segovia [#permalink]

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19 Mar 2012, 13:16
E. Modifier issue with A and C. B changes meaning. Left with D and E. D also changes the meaning and suggest that the united nations prompted the Spanish government when in fact the action of the United Nations to declare the Aqueduct to be a heritage of humanity is supposed to have prompted the Spanish government. Hence E.
Re: Roman aqueduct of Segovia   [#permalink] 19 Mar 2012, 13:16

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