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# Nearly a century ago, biologists found that if they separate

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Re: Nearly a century ago, biologists found that if they separate  [#permalink]

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14 Apr 2013, 21:09
2
Option C is correct answer which can be directly inferred from the following lines:
A debate arose over what exactly was happening. Which embryo cells are determined, just when do they become irreversibly committed to their fates, and what are the "morphogenetic determinants" that tell a cell what to become?
.........
Now investigators think they know at least some of the molecules that act as morphogenetic determinants in early development.
..............
Studying sea urchins, biologist Paul Gross found that an unfertilized egg contains substances that function as morphogenetic determinants.
..................................
The substances that Gross studied are maternal messenger RNA's products of certain of the maternal genes.

Thanks
ssbisht
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Re: Nearly a century ago, biologists found that if they separate  [#permalink]

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07 Mar 2014, 03:30
1
Bumping for review and further discussion*.

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Re: Nearly a century ago, biologists found that if they separate  [#permalink]

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10 Mar 2014, 22:58
For 2nd question why E ,not A. it says hiostones move to the nucleus and determine th cell determination ,histones secreted fromm rna o basically morphognic dterminats are in nucleus where thy combine with dna.
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Re: Nearly a century ago, biologists found that if they separate  [#permalink]

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11 Mar 2014, 22:32
1
Passage wrote:
They are located in the cytoplasm of the egg cell. That part of the cell's protoplasm that lies outside of the nucleus

A is wrong for this reason. The passage clearly says that in the EARLY EMBRYO the morphological determinants lie outside the nucleus.

POE clearly eliminates all other answer choices since all answer choices are not neutral but rather contradictory to what is said in the passage. The only answer we are left with is E.

Passage wrote:
Nearly a century ago, biologists found that if they separated an invertebrate animal embryo into two parts at an early stage of its life, it would survive and develop as two normal embryos.

This statement from the passage serves as the reasoning behind picking E as the right answer.

For 2nd question why E ,not A. it says hiostones move to the nucleus and determine th cell determination ,histones secreted fromm rna o basically morphognic dterminats are in nucleus where thy combine with dna.

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Re: Nearly a century ago, biologists found that if they separate  [#permalink]

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16 Mar 2014, 23:22
16 minutes
Got 8/9 correct
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Re: Nearly a century ago, biologists found that if they separate  [#permalink]

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17 Mar 2014, 04:57
6/9 13 minutes....

Not tough passage but lots of inferable questions.
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Re: Nearly a century ago, biologists found that if they separate  [#permalink]

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26 Apr 2014, 10:57
It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following is
dependent on the fertilization of an egg?
(A) Copying of maternal genes to produce maternal messenger RNA’s
(B) Synthesis of proteins called histones
(C) Division of a cell into its nucleus and the cytoplasm
(D) Determination of the egg cell’s potential for division
(E) Generation of all of a cell’s morphogenetic determinants

Why synthesis of protein histones is dependent on fertilization.........How can I infer this?
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Re: Nearly a century ago, biologists found that if they separate  [#permalink]

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02 May 2014, 12:38
This was a neat question. Bumping for others to see. Thanks!
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Re: Nearly a century ago, biologists found that if they separate  [#permalink]

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03 May 2014, 01:33
1
I got question 2 & 5 wrong. Not surprsingly these two were tad technical in nature. Completed the whole RC in 13.5mins. The 1st question was tricky one. The closest options were between scientists & undergrad students. The fact that the author had to explain the difference between cytoplasm and protoplasm, kind of indicates to the fact that the piece is not meant for professionals. That was my take.
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Re: Nearly a century ago, biologists found that if they separate  [#permalink]

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12 May 2014, 02:58
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Re: Nearly a century ago, biologists found that if they separate  [#permalink]

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09 Aug 2014, 20:39
In Question 2, para 2 last line states that cell determination begins even before the fertilization of eggs is started. Therefore, option D that unfertilized and fertilized eggs both must be identical.

Where is the reasoning going wrong?
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Re: Nearly a century ago, biologists found that if they separate  [#permalink]

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26 Oct 2014, 05:13
2
For all the people who think... How can "Undergraduate biology majors in a molecular biology courses" be the answer for the first question.....

Here is my explanation.

In the very beginning of the passage it is clearly mentioned "A century ago..."

1. The passage is most probably directed at which kind of audience?

(A) State legislators deciding about funding levels for a state-funded biological laboratory ---> Out of Scope

(B) Scientists specializing in molecular genetics ----> We don't really teach a hundred year old concept and observation to Scientists who Specialise in this very same field. Since this is an old and fundamental concept, the scientists must already have known about these issues and discoveries much better than anyone else and so they don't need to be explained about these concepts..Hence they are not the target audience

(D) Marine biologists studying the processes that give rise to new species ----> This passage is not just directed towards Marine organisms. Also 'new species' is OFS

(E) Undergraduate biology majors in a molecular biology course ---> Yes, it is very logical to essay that we really teach hundred year old scientific discoveries to students in that field. SO they can be the target audience....
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Re: Nearly a century ago, biologists found that if they separate  [#permalink]

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04 Nov 2014, 03:26
gmatfighter12 wrote:
I got number 1, 2 and 5 wrong in 12 mins.

And yes, I don't agree with number 1 and 2. How come the target audience is undergraduate student?

DNA wrap around them to form a structure that resem-
segments wrapped around the histones; the string is the
intervening DNA. And it is the structure of these beaded
(50) DNA strings that guides the fate of the cells in which
they are located.

This is really basic info. The passage cannot address scientists and researchers with such basic stuff. Hence, undergrad students. This was my reasoning, you may choose to differ.
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Re: Nearly a century ago, biologists found that if they separate  [#permalink]

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18 Feb 2015, 07:55
It took me 18' and these were my responses:
1. E
2. C WRONG (correct E) --> mistake understood
3. D
4. B WRONG (correct E)--> . I was between B and E, but couldn't decide between the two... Shoud have chosen E, because of the word "experiment" in B.
5. A
6. B
7. C
8. D
9. D

I will explain my line of reasoning in answering 2 of the questions. I chose 6 and 9, because people asked about them and they have not been explained. I think the rest of the questions people wanted an explanation for have been addressed.

Q. 6: These are the parts of the passage I combined to answer B.
" In the unfertilized egg, the substances are inactive and are not distributed homogeneously. When the egg is fertilized, the substances become active and, presumably, govern the behavior of the genes they interact with" plus in the folowing paragraph "The substances that Gross studied are maternal messenger RNA’s... He and other biologists studying a wide variety of organisms have found that these particular RNA’s direct, in large part, the synthesis of histones...".

Q. 9: (D) The predicament of a linguist trying to develop a theory of language acquisition when knowledge of the structure of language itself is rudimentary at best.
I got to D because it says in the passage that scentists were asking the wrong questions. So, they didn't have a frim basis to move on from.
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Re: Nearly a century ago, biologists found that if they separate  [#permalink]

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18 Mar 2015, 08:42
Made 2-3 mistakes. Doesn't look like a gmat type passage. Too dense.
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Re: Nearly a century ago, biologists found that if they separate  [#permalink]

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19 Mar 2015, 02:24
Text wansn't that tough, the questions however were not easy. It was a nice read. One wrong overall, took me some time though. I went for E on the second one too
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Re: Nearly a century ago, biologists found that if they separate  [#permalink]

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09 Jul 2015, 09:11
DmitryFarber wrote:
2. It can be inferred from the passage that the morphogenetic determinants present in the early embryo are
(A) located in the nucleus of the embryo cells
(B) evenly distributed unless the embryo is not developing normally
(C) inactive until the embryo cells become irreversibly committed to their final function
(D) identical to those that were already present in the unfertilized egg
(E) present in larger quantities than is necessary for the development of a single individual

One tricky thing here is that we have several places to look for an answer. However, since the question is about embryos, not eggs, we are better off looking at the first paragraph. (E) is supported because in some cases we can get two individuals from one embryo. If that's true, there must be more than enough MD to make one.

(A) We don't know anything about the nucleus of embryo cells, but we're told that the MD lie outside the nucleus of egg cells.
(B) The egg part says that the MD are not evenly distributed.
(C) We never find out when the cells become irreversibly committed.
(D) We are never told if the MD are all the same. Maybe some MD are created, replaced, or destroyed, or maybe the dad provides some.

I agree with ur explanation regarding option E.
But if u see below sentences

Now investigators think they know at least some of the molecules that act as morphogenetic determinants in early development. They have been able to show that, in a sense, cell determination begins even before an egg is fertilized.

cant we say that since morphogenetic determinants exist in early development and cell determination begins even before an egg is fertilized, morphogenetic determinants present in the early embryo are identical to those that were already present in the unfertilized egg.

According this I feel option D is correct.
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Re: Nearly a century ago, biologists found that if they separate  [#permalink]

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13 Jul 2015, 09:36
On 6th question: we need to choose the best possible answer. My strategy was whichever step that, mentioned in the passage, happens later during the process of fertilization is more (or should) be dependent on fertilization. Hence the option B.

(A) Copying of maternal genes to produce maternal messenger RNA’s
(B) Synthesis of proteins called histones
(C) Division of a cell into its nucleus and the cytoplasm
(D) Determination of the egg cell’s potential for division
(E) Generation of all of a cell’s morphogenetic determinants
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Re: Nearly a century ago, biologists found that if they separate  [#permalink]

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11 Sep 2015, 02:34
rohitmanglik wrote:
In Question 2, para 2 last line states that cell determination begins even before the fertilization of eggs is started. Therefore, option D that unfertilized and fertilized eggs both must be identical.

Where is the reasoning going wrong?

Hi Rohit,

The question is about the morphogenetic componenents and hence they could be in different states inspite of being identical in number.

Also though the components of unfertilized and fertilized eggs are the same,they need not be identical.definitely the components would have undegone some change

after fetilization of the egg.Hope this helps
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Re: Nearly a century ago, biologists found that if they separate  [#permalink]

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13 Feb 2016, 20:49
A very interesting passage - looking forward to many more!
Re: Nearly a century ago, biologists found that if they separate &nbs [#permalink] 13 Feb 2016, 20:49

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