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Nearly a century ago, biologists found that if they separate

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Director
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Joined: 28 Mar 2017
Posts: 591

Kudos [?]: 147 [0], given: 133

Re: Nearly a century ago, biologists found that if they separate [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jun 2017, 05:25
1. It can be inferred from the passage that the morphogenetic determinants present in the early embryo are
(A) located in the nucleus of the embryo cells -It is the opposite of what the passage states. The passage states that these are present in the cytoplasm, which is outside the nucleus.
(B) evenly distributed unless the embryo is not developing normally - The are not homogeneous in distribution
(C) inactive until the embryo cells become irreversibly committed to their final function -No such thing stated
(D) identical to those that were already present in the unfertilized egg -This means to say that a new set of determinents were generated which are identical to those present in the cell earlier. This is completely absurd.
(E) present in larger quantities than is necessary for the development of a single individual -CORRECT. When the cells divide they still are able to develop.


2. The main topic of the passage is
(A) the early development of embryos of lower marine organisms - Wrong due to highlighted part of option. Nowhere its stated.
(B) the main contribution of modern embryology to molecular biology - No such thing stated in the passage.
(C) the role of molecular biology in disproving older theories of embryonic development - The molecular biology doesn't disprove anything.
(D) cell determination as an issue in the study of embryonic development - CORRECT. "Later biologists found that the situation was not so simple. It matters in which plane the embryo is cut. If it is cut in a plane different from the one used by the early investigators, it will not form two whole embryos. Which embryo cells are determined" - This part states the complete picture of the entire passage
(E) scientific dogma as a factor in the recent debate over the value of molecular biology -Irrelevant


3. According to the passage, when biologists believed that the cells in the early embryo were undetermined, they made which of the following mistakes?
(A) They did not attempt to replicate the original experiment of separating an embryo into two parts. -Irrelevant
(B) They did not realize that there was a connection between the issue of cell determination and the outcome of the separation experiment. -They did realise this
(C) They assumed that the results of experiments on embryos did not depend on the particular animal species used for such experiments. -Irrelevant
(D) They assumed that it was crucial to perform the separation experiment at an early stage in the embryo’s life. They did realise this
(E) They assumed that different ways of separating an embryo into two parts would be equivalent as far as the fate of the two parts was concerned. -CORRECT. They initially did this mistake, because when they came to know that cutting the cell in different ways will lead to different outcomes, they realised there are different ways to cut the cells, and each way won't result in equivalent fate.


4. It can be inferred from the passage that the initial production of histones after an egg is fertilized takes place
(A) in the cytoplasm -CORRECT. The determinants can be found in cytoplasm. RNA, being a determinent, was initially present in cytoplasm. Therefore histones should be in the cytoplasm initially
(B) in the maternal genes -wrong
(C) throughout the protoplasm -wrong
(D) in the beaded portions of the DNA strings -wrong
(E) in certain sections of the cell nucleus -wrong


5. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following is dependent on the fertilization of an egg?
(A) Copying of maternal genes to produce maternal messenger RNA’s -RNA are products of maternal genes.
(B) Synthesis of proteins called histones -CORRECT. When the eggs are unfertilised, the determinents are inactive. When the eggs fertilize the determinents get into action by synthesis of histones
(C) Division of a cell into its nucleus and the cytoplasm -Wrong
(D) Determination of the egg cell’s potential for division -The cells' seperation potential is not given anywhere
(E) Generation of all of a cell’s morphogenetic determinants -These determinants are already present in the cell


6. According to the passage, the morphogenetic determinants present in the unfertilized egg cell are which of the following?
(A) Proteins bound to the nucleus -Wrong
(B) Histones -Wrong
(C) Maternal messenger RNA’s -CORRECT
(D) Cytoplasm -Wrong
(E) No beaded intervening DNA -Wrong
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Kudos [?]: 147 [0], given: 133

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Re: Nearly a century ago, biologists found that if they separate [#permalink]

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New post 13 Oct 2017, 07:35
GMATNinja,

How are we supposed to determine who the target audience is for this paper? I have never come across a question like this, and I find the answer perplexing. This could have been directed at any audience.

My gripe with the answer E is that we are forced to assume these students are not freshmen with a high school level background.

Any help on this would be greatly appreciated!
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D-Day: November 18th, 2017

Kudos [?]: 63 [0], given: 74

Re: Nearly a century ago, biologists found that if they separate   [#permalink] 13 Oct 2017, 07:35

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