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# Nearly all employees of the factory who have completed their high

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Nearly all employees of the factory who have completed their high  [#permalink]

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09 Aug 2015, 10:10
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75% (hard)

Question Stats:

56% (01:33) correct 44% (02:10) wrong based on 750 sessions

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Nearly all employees of the factory who have completed their high school diploma have earned their factory safety certificate, having easily completed the eight week training course. The high school graduates who haven't earned the certificate are ones who have evening obligations that have prevented them from taking the course. Overall, though, most of the factory workers have not earned the certificate.

If the statements above are true, which one of the following also must be true?

A) A large proportion of students with high school diplomas have evening obligations that have prevented them from taking the eight week training course.
B) No factory worker without a high school diploma has completed the course and earned the certificate.
C) Most of the workers who have earned the certificate are high school graduates.
D) A large proportion of the factory workers have not graduated from high school.
E) Most of the people who take the training course are able to earn the safety certificate.

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Re: Nearly all employees of the factory who have completed their high  [#permalink]

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09 Aug 2015, 10:59
Initially marked C....but carefully analyzing the argument came across D...

Suppose 100 workers are high school graduates,90 among them got certificate.Some workers who are not high school graduates also completed.Let that number be 20.But most workers haven't got certificates,suppose this number is 500.These 500 are those who are not high school graduated.So out of 720(500+20+100) 520(500+20) are not high school graduates.
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Re: Nearly all employees of the factory who have completed their high  [#permalink]

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10 Aug 2015, 04:49
Harley1980 wrote:
Nearly all employees of the factory who have completed their high school diploma have earned their factory safety certificate, having easily completed the eight week training course. The high school graduates who haven't earned the certificate are ones who have evening obligations that have prevented them from taking the course. Overall, though, most of the factory workers have not earned the certificate.

If the statements above are true, which one of the following also must be true?

A) A large proportion of students with high school diplomas have evening obligations that have prevented them from taking the eight week training course.
B) No factory worker without a high school diploma has completed the course and earned the certificate.
C) Most of the workers who have earned the certificate are high school graduates.
D) A large proportion of the factory workers have not graduated from high school.
E) Most of the people who take the training course are able to earn the safety certificate.

Is it an inference question or assumption question coz must be true is inference questions usually
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Nearly all employees of the factory who have completed their high  [#permalink]

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10 Aug 2015, 06:04
amatya wrote:
Harley1980 wrote:
Nearly all employees of the factory who have completed their high school diploma have earned their factory safety certificate, having easily completed the eight week training course. The high school graduates who haven't earned the certificate are ones who have evening obligations that have prevented them from taking the course. Overall, though, most of the factory workers have not earned the certificate.

If the statements above are true, which one of the following also must be true?

A) A large proportion of students with high school diplomas have evening obligations that have prevented them from taking the eight week training course.
B) No factory worker without a high school diploma has completed the course and earned the certificate.
C) Most of the workers who have earned the certificate are high school graduates.
D) A large proportion of the factory workers have not graduated from high school.
E) Most of the people who take the training course are able to earn the safety certificate.

Is it an inference question or assumption question coz must be true is inference questions usually

Hello amatya
"Must be true" and "Inference" are just different names for the same type of questions.

Here is good article about MBT questions
concept-article-how-to-tackle-must-be-true-or-inference-cr-162910.html
and excerpt from it:
Difference between Inference (must be true) and Assumption questions
Inference can be easily and directly deduced from the statements of the question stem while assumption will contain NEW information and can never be directly deduced from the question stem.
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Re: Nearly all employees of the factory who have completed their high  [#permalink]

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10 Aug 2015, 06:38
1
amatya wrote:
Harley1980 wrote:
Nearly all employees of the factory who have completed their high school diploma have earned their factory safety certificate, having easily completed the eight week training course. The high school graduates who haven't earned the certificate are ones who have evening obligations that have prevented them from taking the course. Overall, though, most of the factory workers have not earned the certificate.

If the statements above are true, which one of the following also must be true?

A) A large proportion of students with high school diplomas have evening obligations that have prevented them from taking the eight week training course.
B) No factory worker without a high school diploma has completed the course and earned the certificate.
C) Most of the workers who have earned the certificate are high school graduates.
D) A large proportion of the factory workers have not graduated from high school.
E) Most of the people who take the training course are able to earn the safety certificate.

Is it an inference question or assumption question coz must be true is inference questions usually

Do not assume that any stem that contains the words MUST be true is an assumption question.

A simple explanation-

What information MUST be true for the argument/ conclusion to hold/be true?-----> Assumption
Here,You have to choose an option that will help make the argument/conclusion true.

What information MUST be true BASED on the argument?------> Inference
Here,You have to choose an option that is true based on the argument.( Reverse of the assumption stem.)

This is more or less what you need to know to make out the difference between the two types.

Hope the above helps!!!

I donot mind Kudos !!!
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Re: Nearly all employees of the factory who have completed their high  [#permalink]

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20 Aug 2015, 01:26
3
I have attached my version in the image. If anyone could please tell me if my reasoning is flawed or correct. It'd help me a lot
Thanks!
Attachments

Untitled.jpg [ 176.08 KiB | Viewed 4963 times ]

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Re: Nearly all employees of the factory who have completed their high  [#permalink]

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22 Sep 2015, 19:11
debaratidg wrote:
I have attached my version in the image. If anyone could please tell me if my reasoning is flawed or correct. It'd help me a lot
Thanks!

I made the same image and knew that D is right.

But why is E wrong ?
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Re: Nearly all employees of the factory who have completed their high  [#permalink]

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22 Sep 2015, 21:41
rukna wrote:
debaratidg wrote:
I have attached my version in the image. If anyone could please tell me if my reasoning is flawed or correct. It'd help me a lot
Thanks!

I made the same image and knew that D is right.

But why is E wrong ?

Hi

E does sound right. --> E) Most of the people who take the training course are able to earn the safety certificate.

But there is a flaw: See the passage tells us ONLY about high school graduates ---> Subgroup A : people who completed high school and have earned this certificate and Subgroup B : Those, who have passed HS but havent been able to commit to finishing the course to earn the certificate.

Now, E says "MOST" of the people......certificate ---> We dont know who has passed and who have failed. There may be people who are no HS Grads, and have taken the course but failed, or maybe a very small percentage of them might have taken the course and passed. So in such situations, you're nor sure, the possibilities are many.

Hence E is wrong
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Re: Nearly all employees of the factory who have completed their high  [#permalink]

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23 Sep 2015, 05:12
1
rukna wrote:
debaratidg wrote:
I have attached my version in the image. If anyone could please tell me if my reasoning is flawed or correct. It'd help me a lot
Thanks!

I made the same image and knew that D is right.

But why is E wrong ?

Hello rukna

E is wrong because it says: "Most of the people who take the training course are able to earn the safety certificate."
From the argument we know that "most of the factory workers have not earned the certificate."
But we don't know whether they took this course or not. If they took this course then answer E is correct if not then answer E is incorrect.

This is inference question so we should pick answer that is 100% correct and answer D has several possibilities that's why it wrong.
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Nearly all employees of the factory who have completed their high  [#permalink]

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10 Nov 2015, 14:33
My explanation:

Nearly all employees of the factory who have completed their high school diploma have earned their factory safety certificate, having easily completed the eight week training course. The high school graduates who haven't earned the certificate are ones who have evening obligations that have prevented them from taking the course. Overall, though, most of the factory workers have not earned the certificate.

If the statements above are true, which one of the following also must be true?

A) A large proportion of students with high school diplomas have evening obligations that have prevented them from taking the eight week training course. - "high school diploma" not discussed within scope having evening obligations
B) No factory worker without a high school diploma has completed the course and earned the certificate. - "no" is again exggearted statement
C) Most of the workers who have earned the certificate are high school graduates. - 180 statement ie; MOST of workers did not earn certificate
D) A large proportion of the factory workers have not graduated from high school.
E) Most of the people who take the training course are able to earn the safety certificate. - Generalized statement by extending the stimulus to "people"
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Re: Nearly all employees of the factory who have completed their high  [#permalink]

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11 Nov 2015, 17:05
1
A=factory workers
B=high school diploma
C=safety certificate
O= obligation

Most A who had B has C.
If one has no C the he has O
Most A has no C.

which means Most A have O or Most A does not have B

Option D

Sorry if it it is a dumb logic.
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Re: Nearly all employees of the factory who have completed their high  [#permalink]

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15 Nov 2015, 02:35
My explanation:

Nearly all employees of the factory who have completed their high school diploma have earned their factory safety certificate, having easily completed the eight week training course. The high school graduates who haven't earned the certificate are ones who have evening obligations that have prevented them from taking the course. Overall, though, most of the factory workers have not earned the certificate.

If the statements above are true, which one of the following also must be true?

A) A large proportion of students with high school diplomas have evening obligations that have prevented them from taking the eight week training course. - "high school diploma" not discussed within scope having evening obligations
B) No factory worker without a high school diploma has completed the course and earned the certificate. - "no" is again exggearted statement
C) Most of the workers who have earned the certificate are high school graduates. - 180 statement ie; MOST of workers did not earn certificate
D) A large proportion of the factory workers have not graduated from high school.
E) Most of the people who take the training course are able to earn the safety certificate. - Generalized statement by extending the stimulus to "people"

You are wrong in your logic for eliminating C. Look closely the option. its not 180 opposite. Its talking about those who have got the certificate.
Hint: Reason why its wrong is you can adjust the no of those who have got the certificate and are not HS passed out.

Thanks Harley1980 for reasoning behind E. I see it clearly now.
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Re: Nearly all employees of the factory who have completed their high  [#permalink]

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11 Mar 2016, 19:48
1
Harley1980 wrote:
Nearly all employees of the factory who have completed their high school diploma have earned their factory safety certificate, having easily completed the eight week training course. The high school graduates who haven't earned the certificate are ones who have evening obligations that have prevented them from taking the course. Overall, though, most of the factory workers have not earned the certificate.

If the statements above are true, which one of the following also must be true?

A) A large proportion of students with high school diplomas have evening obligations that have prevented them from taking the eight week training course.
B) No factory worker without a high school diploma has completed the course and earned the certificate.
C) Most of the workers who have earned the certificate are high school graduates.
D) A large proportion of the factory workers have not graduated from high school.
E) Most of the people who take the training course are able to earn the safety certificate.

Picked D, as it is the most reasonable one..
A. no. we know that the majority of those with diplomas - completed the course and got the certificate.
B. we are told only about those who got diploma..we cannot generalize about those who did not...suppose that 20 people are with diploma. 19 completed and got certificate. 80 no diploma. 2 completed. total we have 21 completed. still most of the workers did not earn the certificate. since it is possible - b is out.
C. suppose we have 20 workers with diploma. 19 earned the certificate. 80 are without diploma. 20 earned certificate. overall - 39 earned certificate, but the majority of workers did not. out
D. since overall - most factory workers have not earned the certificate, we can conclude that:
at least 51 workers out of 100 did not get the certificate.
suppose 50 graduated high school. 50 not. out of first 50 - 48 passed. out of other 50 - 1 passed. so overall majority failed - but we have 50/50.
E. we do not know about those who did not graduated from HS. so no.

any expert can comment on where my logic failed while analyzing D?
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Re: Nearly all employees of the factory who have completed their high  [#permalink]

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19 Jun 2016, 05:52
I think C is just the replica of the question.. and D can be inferred from it.....
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Re: Nearly all employees of the factory who have completed their high  [#permalink]

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28 Apr 2017, 10:37
My 2 cents:
I selected C when i attempted this question, but here is my explanation as to why D is correct:

Nearly all employees of the factory who have completed their high school diploma have earned their factory safety certificate, having easily completed the eight week training course.
The high school graduates who haven't earned the certificate are ones who have evening obligations that have prevented them from taking the course. Overall, though, most of the
factory workers have not earned the certificate.

If the statements above are true, which one of the following also must be true?
A) A large proportion of students with high school diplomas have evening obligations that have prevented them from taking the eight week training course.
B) No factory worker without a high school diploma has completed the course and earned the certificate.
C) Most of the workers who have earned the certificate are high school graduates.
D) A large proportion of the factory workers have not graduated from high school.
E) Most of the people who take the training course are able to earn the safety certificate.

Premise-1:
# of HS graduates = 100
Most of HSD have earned the safety certificate = 90
Remaining HSD who haven't earned SC are those who have evening obligations = 10

Premise-2: Most of the factory workers have not earned the certificate.
Let,Total # of factory worker = 1000
HSD = 100
Remaining without HSD = 900
Some of non-HSD with SC = 150
non-HSD without SC = 750
Thus, PLEASE NOTE that Premise-2 makes it IMPOSSIBLE for # of workers with HSD > # of non-HSD workers BECAUSE most of HSD workers have earned SC and most of the workers haven't.

C) Most of the workers who have earned the certificate are high school graduates.
This is possible BUT can't be infered, as in our example even though majority of HS graduates have SC but still it is < # of non-HSD with SC. So INCORRECT.
I couldn't think of this case while trying to solve this problem.

D) A large proportion of the factory workers have not graduated from high school.
BECAUSE
P-2: Most of the factory workers have not earned the certificate. &
Nearly all employees of the factory who have completed their high school diploma have earned their factory safety certificate
# of HSD holders < # of non-HSD and # non-HSD is the biggest chunk of work force. Also big portion of non-HSD hasn't earned the SC.

If you like, kudo!!!
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Re: Nearly all employees of the factory who have completed their high  [#permalink]

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09 Jan 2018, 23:06
This question perfectly shows why GMAT questions are much different from LSAT questions. The key word here is "nearly all", and two first sentences basically are just the comparison between grads from high-schools who have certificates and those who don't in the same company.
A is completely contrasting to D.
C is a common pattern in inference questions, that is, there is only one way of deduction, not the other way.
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Re: Nearly all employees of the factory who have completed their high  [#permalink]

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10 Jan 2018, 01:46
Hi guys,

What if most factory workers have completed high school degree but can't earn certificate due to evening obligations? If that's the case, its still possible that most factory workers don't have the certificates despite the fact that they all graduated from high school.

Thoughts?
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Re: Nearly all employees of the factory who have completed their high  [#permalink]

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10 Jan 2018, 08:23
1
emeraldweapon wrote:
Hi guys,

What if most factory workers have completed high school degree but can't earn certificate due to evening obligations? If that's the case, its still possible that most factory workers don't have the certificates despite the fact that they all graduated from high school.

Thoughts?

"Nearly all " is the key word here. This indicates that the fraction of "factory workers have completed high school degree but can't earn certificate due to evening obligations" is small. Then, the conclusion talks about "majority..." => D
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Re: Nearly all employees of the factory who have completed their high  [#permalink]

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25 May 2018, 20:39

Official Explanation Magoosh:

The credited answer is (D). If most factory workers with high school degrees have completed the training, then most of the factory workers who haven't completed the training must be folks without high school degrees. Since the factory workers who haven't completed the training in the vast majority, and since factory workers with high school degrees can only account for a very small number of these, then most of the factory workers must not have high school degrees.

We don't know how many factory workers with high school degrees have evening obligations. We know that the factory workers with high school degrees who haven't completed the training have evening obligations that prevent them from completing it, but among the factory workers with high school degrees who have completed the training, we don't know what proportion has evening obligations, and how the size of this group might compare to the number of the factory workers with high school degrees who haven't completed the training. Choice (A) is incorrect.

As explained above, the information lead us to deduce that many factory workers without high school degrees haven't completed the training course, but that does mean that none have. Choice (B) is too extreme, and it is incorrect.

We don't know the relative proportions of worker with or without high school degrees; as discuss above, we have grounds to suspect that the latter is a larger group. We know that many of the factory workers with high school degrees have completed the training and have earned the certificate, but we have no idea what proportion of the factory workers without high school degrees have done so, and how the number of this latter group compares to the former group. We have no way to know which is greater. Choice (C) is incorrect.

The information suggests that, among high school graduates, most of the folks who took the course were able to earn the certificate with little difficulty. Is this generally the case? Is it the case for folks who weren't able, for whatever reason, to complete their high school degree? We don't know. The prompt provides no information on this point. Choice (E) is incorrect.
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Re: Nearly all employees of the factory who have completed their high  [#permalink]

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20 Jul 2018, 10:54
A,B and E are irrelevant. Contenders are C and D. C cannot be the answer because:

Let us assume a situation

Non high sch with training: 40 people
Non high sch without training: 80 people
High school with training: 20 people
High school without training: 10 people

From the above hypothetical situation,
No of people who have completed the training is 60 which is less than that who have haven't (90 people).

However most of the people here aren't high school graduates(violation of option C).

So by POE, E is the winner
Re: Nearly all employees of the factory who have completed their high &nbs [#permalink] 20 Jul 2018, 10:54

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