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# Nearly all mail that is correctly addressed arrives at its

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17 Jul 2010, 16:17
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Nearly all mail that is correctly addressed arrives at its destination within two business days of being sent. In fact, correctly addressed mail takes longer than this only when it is damaged in transit. Overall, however, most mail arrives three business days or more after being sent.
If the statements above are true, which one of the following must be true?

(A) A large proportion of the mail that is correctly addressed is damaged in transit.
(B) No incorrectly addressed mail arrives within two business days of being sent.
(C) Most mail that arrives within two business days of being sent is correctly addressed.
(D) A large proportion of mail is incorrectly addressed.
(E) More mail arrives within two business days of being sent than arrives between two and three business days after being sent.

For me, both A and D are correct.
Could anybody clarify?
Thanks,
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Nearly all mail that is correctly addressed arrives at its [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2010, 16:57
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I think A is wrong, because the argument states that nearly all mail that is correctly addressed arrives within 2 business days. Therefore, a minor proportion of the mail that is correctly addressed is damaged in transit.

Finally, the only way to raise the statistics of overall mail (correctly and incorrectly addressed) to 3 business days is if most of mails is incorrectly addressed (answer D).
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Re: Nearly all mail that is correctly addressed arrives at its [#permalink]

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18 Jul 2010, 00:53
I opt for A ...
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Re: Nearly all mail that is correctly addressed arrives at its [#permalink]

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18 Jul 2010, 02:01
vbarrozo is right. A can't be correct because of "nearly all". So if most email arrives in 3 or more days, the reason is not the damage in transit, but rather incorrectly address.

B and C: there is no way we can know this with the stem given.
So that leaves only D as the reasonable answer.
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Re: Nearly all mail that is correctly addressed arrives at its [#permalink]

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02 Aug 2010, 12:57
D .for me too above explanation is good ....
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Re: Nearly all mail that is correctly addressed arrives at its [#permalink]

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02 Aug 2010, 14:14
thanks all.
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Re: Nearly all mail that is correctly addressed arrives at its [#permalink]

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03 Aug 2010, 10:28
Went for D!!
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Re: Nearly all mail that is correctly addressed arrives at its [#permalink]

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03 Aug 2010, 11:12
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D for me as well. A is typical GMAT trap.
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Re: Nearly all mail that is correctly addressed arrives at its [#permalink]

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09 Aug 2010, 07:03
D is correct.
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Re: Nearly all mail that is correctly addressed arrives at its [#permalink]

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09 Aug 2010, 11:51
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How can A be the answer?
2 cases
1) Less than 2 days - correctly addressed
2) More than 2 days - damaged or incorrectly addressed.
Both cases are almost mutually exclusive - 99%. There can be 1% exception. A is worst choice that directly contradicts the premise.

Choice E - There is no data to verify E.

noboru wrote:
Nearly all mail that is correctly addressed arrives at its destination within two business days of being sent. In fact, correctly addressed mail takes longer than this only when it is damaged in transit. Overall, however, most mail arrives three business days or more after being sent.
If the statements above are true, which one of the following must be true?
(A) A large proportion of the mail that is correctly addressed is damaged in transit.
(B) No incorrectly addressed mail arrives within two business days of being sent.
(C) Most mail that arrives within two business days of being sent is correctly addressed.
(D) A large proportion of mail is incorrectly addressed.
(E) More mail arrives within two business days of being sent than arrives between two and three business days after being sent.

For me, both A and D are correct.
Could anybody clarify?
Thanks,

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Re: Nearly all mail that is correctly addressed arrives at its [#permalink]

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09 Sep 2010, 10:48
Thanks for the explanation nusmavrik
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Re: Nearly all mail that is correctly addressed arrives at its [#permalink]

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10 Sep 2010, 22:43
my openion is d ,reason is also given below
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Re: Nearly all mail that is correctly addressed arrives at its [#permalink]

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19 Feb 2013, 13:09
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noboru wrote:
Nearly all mail that is correctly addressed arrives at its destination within two business days of being sent. In fact, correctly addressed mail takes longer than this only when it is damaged in transit. Overall, however, most mail arrives three business days or more after being sent.
If the statements above are true, which one of the following must be true?
(A) A large proportion of the mail that is correctly addressed is damaged in transit.
(B) No incorrectly addressed mail arrives within two business days of being sent.
(C) Most mail that arrives within two business days of being sent is correctly addressed.
(D) A large proportion of mail is incorrectly addressed.
(E) More mail arrives within two business days of being sent than arrives between two and three business days after being sent.

fameatop wrote:
Hi Mike,
I am not able to understand why option C is incorrect & D is correct. Can you kindly throw some light on the same. Waiting eagerly for your detailed explanation.
Regards, Fame

Apparently this is a practice LSAT Analytical Reasoning question, and it's an excellent question. I'm not sure whether MLSAT is the source, but it is discussed on this page:
http://www.manhattanlsat.com/forums/post407.html

OK, let's think in terms of categories.

Category P === correctly addressed mail
Category Q === incorrectly addressed mail

That's the big breakdown. At the outset, we have no idea of the relative breakdown of these two, but the whole "population" of mail falls into one of these two categories.

Category P has the further breakdown
Category P1 = correct addressed and not damaged ---- this is "nearly all" of Category P, and this arrives "within two business days of being sent"
Category P2 = correctly addressed by damaged in transit --- this is some very small fraction of Category P (whatever the opposite of "nearly all" is!), and it doesn't arrive quickly

We absolutely know that mail in Category P1 arrives within two days. How fast does mail in category Q arrive? We can draw absolutely no conclusion about this. We also have no idea what proportion arrives earlier and what proportion arrives late.

Given the last piece of information --- "most mail arrives three business days or more after being sent" --- from this, we absolutely know that P1 does not account for a majority of mail. If P1 is less than half of mail, we know P2 is going to account for such a small percentage that it doesn't matter, and this means Q must account for the majority of mail. This is precisely what (D) says. This is by far the best answer, the only possible right answer.

Why is (A) wrong? This directly contradicts the statement that NEARLY ALL correct addressed mail arrives within two days and therefore is not damaged.

Why is (C) wrong? Well, this one could be true, but it is not necessarily true --- it doesn't reach the standard of "must be true" for which the question is asking. Consider these two scenarios.

Scenario #1:
P1 = 39%
P2 = 1%
Q = 60%, and all of it arrives late
This scenario is consistent with all the statements in the argument, and this supports answer (C)

Scenario #2:
P1 = 19%
P2 = 1%
Q = 80%, and this consists of two sub-categories
Q1 = 25% --- arrive in two days days
Q2 = 55% --- arrives in three or more days
Now, all the statements in the argument are still true --- it's still true that the majority of mail --- 56% (P2 + Q2) arrives late --- but now if we look at the 44% that arrives on time, 25/44 comes from Q, the incorrectly addressed mail, and 19/44 comes P, the correctly addressed mail. Thus, the majority of mail that arrives on time, 25/44, comes from category Q, the incorrectly addressed mail. This is a scenario totally consistent with the argument in which (C) is false.

Thus, we can construct scenarios consistent with the argument that make (C) either true or false, so it is not a candidate for a "must be true" answer.

The only viable answer is (D), the OA.

Please let me know if anyone reading this has any further questions.

Mike
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Re: Nearly all mail that is correctly addressed arrives at its [#permalink]

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21 Feb 2013, 11:50
Sorry guys, I'm having a hard time with the OA - the only way for D to satisfy a 'must be true' answer is to assume that
-damaged in transit mail does never arrive- (let's say, complete mail package destruction - the possibility of mail arriving with some dent and also considered as damaged is ruled out)
Then you have only two possible combinations:

if correctly addressed, then arrives within 2 days
if not correctly addressed, then does not arrive within 2 days
Since most mail arrives at 3 or more days since delivered, then it must be that most mail is incorrectly addressed.

The whole logic rests on the assumption that damaged mail does never arrive...but this is an assumption, and if you need an extra assumption then can't be a 'must be true' answer.

Can anyone help?
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Re: Nearly all mail that is correctly addressed arrives at its [#permalink]

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20 Sep 2013, 14:25
Like most of us, I went for A, but after going over all the explanations on various forums, here is my understanding of why A is incorrect with an assumption.

Premise 1: Nearly all mail that is correctly addressed arrives at its destination within two business days of being sent. [Fact]
Premise 2: In fact, correctly addressed mail takes longer than this only when it is damaged in transit. [Condition explaining why the "Nearly all" correctly addressed mails arrive on time and not "All"]

Conclusion: Overall, however, most mail arrives three business days or more after being sent.

MCA' - Mails not correctly addressed
M - Mails
M = MCA + MCA' [MCA and MCA' are mutually exclusive]

[Assumption: All mails delivered with in 2 business days is correctly addressed]

As per Premise 1, MCA takes 2 BD, therefore negating MCA' takes NOT 2BD (possibly > 2BD)

As per conclusion, M take > 2 BD i.e. (MCA + MCA') takes > 2BD.

If the argument is true, then M has to be comprised of largely MCA'. This what D says - A large proportion of mail is incorrectly addressed.

But, if we completely ignore MCA' and focus on the fractions of MCA(i.e. what proportion of MCA is damaged in transit), we are mistaken. This is what A says - A large proportion of the mail that is correctly addressed is damaged in transit.
Irrespective of whether a large proportion of MCA is damaged, if the overall proportion of MCA' is more then more mails take more that 2 business days.

Premise 2, along with the language of the question, shifts our focus to damaged and not damaged discussion, whereas the questions is in the context of correctly and incorrectly addressed mails.

Please let me know, in case you find an discrepancy with the explanation.
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Re: Nearly all mail that is correctly addressed arrives at its [#permalink]

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12 Oct 2013, 04:12
Its D. The clue lies in the last sentence. C is a typical trap that is to be avoided in must be true questions.
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Re: Nearly all mail that is correctly addressed arrives at its [#permalink]

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12 Oct 2013, 04:46
ElEsi wrote:
Sorry guys, I'm having a hard time with the OA - the only way for D to satisfy a 'must be true' answer is to assume that
-damaged in transit mail does never arrive- (let's say, complete mail package destruction - the possibility of mail arriving with some dent and also considered as damaged is ruled out)
Then you have only two possible combinations:

if correctly addressed, then arrives within 2 days
if not correctly addressed, then does not arrive within 2 days
Since most mail arrives at 3 or more days since delivered, then it must be that most mail is incorrectly addressed.

The whole logic rests on the assumption that damaged mail does never arrive...but this is an assumption, and if you need an extra assumption then can't be a 'must be true' answer.

Can anyone help?

This is exactly what I thought ... D needn't be true since the alternative is that most mails are damaged in transit ... which is why I went for C
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Re: Nearly all mail that is correctly addressed arrives at its [#permalink]

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31 Dec 2013, 16:10
noboru wrote:
Nearly all mail that is correctly addressed arrives at its destination within two business days of being sent. In fact, correctly addressed mail takes longer than this only when it is damaged in transit. Overall, however, most mail arrives three business days or more after being sent.
If the statements above are true, which one of the following must be true?
(A) A large proportion of the mail that is correctly addressed is damaged in transit.
(B) No incorrectly addressed mail arrives within two business days of being sent.
(C) Most mail that arrives within two business days of being sent is correctly addressed.
(D) A large proportion of mail is incorrectly addressed.
(E) More mail arrives within two business days of being sent than arrives between two and three business days after being sent.

For me, both A and D are correct.
Could anybody clarify?
Thanks,

Dam! Get traped with this one!

Of course, if the mail correctly adress represents only 1% of the total then... A large proportion of mail is incorrectly addressed.

Really good question! Should have been more carefull!
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Re: Nearly all mail that is correctly addressed arrives at its [#permalink]

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01 Jan 2014, 09:09
CONCLUSION- Overall, however, most mail arrives three business days or more after being sent.
If the statements above are true, which one of the following must be true?
(A) A large proportion of the mail that is correctly addressed is damaged in transit.NO! THE CONCLUSION COULD BE DUE TO MORE INCORRECT ADDRESSED LETTERS ALSO..
(B) No incorrectly addressed mail arrives within two business days of being sent.NOWHERE SUCH A THING TOLD
(C) Most mail that arrives within two business days of being sent is correctly addressed.NOWHERE SUCH A THING TOLD
(D) A large proportion of mail is incorrectly addressed. THIS HAS TO BE TRUE BECAUSE OF LAW OF AVERAGES AND WEIGHTAGES.
(E) More mail arrives within two business days of being sent than arrives between two and three business days after being sent.NOWHERE SUCH A THING TOLD

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Re: Nearly all mail that is correctly addressed arrives at its [#permalink]

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06 Aug 2014, 01:48
noboru wrote:
Nearly all mail that is correctly addressed arrives at its destination within two business days of being sent. In fact, correctly addressed mail takes longer than this only when it is damaged in transit. Overall, however, most mail arrives three business days or more after being sent.
If the statements above are true, which one of the following must be true?
(A) A large proportion of the mail that is correctly addressed is damaged in transit.
(B) No incorrectly addressed mail arrives within two business days of being sent.
(C) Most mail that arrives within two business days of being sent is correctly addressed.
(D) A large proportion of mail is incorrectly addressed.
(E) More mail arrives within two business days of being sent than arrives between two and three business days after being sent.

For me, both A and D are correct.
Could anybody clarify?
Thanks,

My reasoning is as follows:

Pre-think - It is possible that a large proportion of the mails are either incorrectly addressed or correctly addressed and damaged in transit.

(A) A large proportion of the mail that is correctly addressed is damaged in transit. - It may be possible but not must be true.
(B) No incorrectly addressed mail arrives within two business days of being sent. - It is no where mentioned that no incorrectly addressed mails will reach within two business days. However, this may be true but not must be true.
(C) Most mail that arrives within two business days of being sent is correctly addressed. - I think this is the answer. As the stimulus says that "Nearly all mail that is correctly addressed arrives at its destination within two business days of being sent" and this implies that a large proportion of the mails that arrive within two business days are correctly addressed.
(D) A large proportion of mail is incorrectly addressed. - Same as A.
(E) More mail arrives within two business days of being sent than arrives between two and three business days after being sent. - This is definitely false according to the last line of the stimulus.

Please correct me if I am wrong.

Cheers,
Anuj
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Re: Nearly all mail that is correctly addressed arrives at its   [#permalink] 06 Aug 2014, 01:48

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