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# Networks of blood vessels in bats' wings serve only to disperse heat g

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Re: Networks of blood vessels in bats' wings serve only to disperse heat g [#permalink]

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09 Oct 2015, 13:54
My thoughts on this even tough I picked E and I would assume that I got it rigth

Bats....> Flap wings => produce heat => Blood V. cool down
Now it says the ONLY function of Blood V. is to cool down.
conclusion is that cuz Dino had Blood V. Dino was also flapping wings? and what is to be assumed in order to support that Dino was Flapping

For A, the lines of reasonung goes like this:
Easier to flip the negations on both sides to get both positve because is easier to comperhend.
so it says Dinos had Blood V. cus they had use of the BV, now what was the purpose of the BV, it is to ONLY reduce HEAT, BUt why HEAT was Produced, cuz of Wing Flap > there it is, they Flaped the wings. If we negate this will see that if no USE of the BV no need to reduce heat so Dino was ONLY Gliding

For E: Jumps direclty to IF Dino was Flapping, but not prooved that Dino was Flaping, it only says if flapping BV are the only Means to reduce heat, sort of restating the statement, and on assumption question we need new info not restating the argument, that will be always wrong.

And final words I would say this is hard question and under test conditions I dont think It would be feasable to deconstruct all this in 2 mnts. E is excelent catch and most people would choose E and move on with thoughts in mind that they got it right which in fact is not true.

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Re: Networks of blood vessels in bats' wings serve only to disperse heat g [#permalink]

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02 Nov 2015, 08:51
B is too extreme for me (All creatures...). Regarding E, is more a conclusion than an assumption. Besides, by stating that "Heat generated by Sandactylus in flapping its wings in flight could not have been dispersed by anything other than the blood vessels in its wings" is like an overstatement since the passage does not say so about bats; "networks of blood vessels in bats' wings are used for heat dispersion and that's their only use in the case of bats but it cannot be assumed that is the only mechanism for heat dispersion, even in the case of bats. So I had to go with A in this case.

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Re: Networks of blood vessels in bats' wings serve only to disperse heat g [#permalink]

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27 Apr 2016, 02:51
Options C and D are out of scope
option B is making generalized claim about all creatures, so it is also incorrect
option E is saying heat generated by Sandactylus in flapping its wing is exclusively dispersed by its blood vessels and nothing else, so incorrect
We can also apply the negation test to see that only after negating option A does the argument falls apart

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Re: Networks of blood vessels in bats' wings serve only to disperse heat g [#permalink]

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23 May 2016, 09:35
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'The heat generated by Sandactylus' as presented in option E is stated as a known fact and used to construct an assumption. This can't be the correct assumption because the first and more fundamental assumption inherent in the hypothesis revolves around the Sandactylus generating heat in the first place.

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Re: Networks of blood vessels in bats' wings serve only to disperse heat g [#permalink]

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09 Jul 2016, 17:01
rhine29388 wrote:
Negate option C and the argument falls apart

No way! That is out of the scope of the passage. There is nothing about the efectiveness of flapping versus gliding in the passage. That is a typical resource test makers use to make you fall into a trap using similar wording while changing meaning and/or adding new information.

In Any case negate choice "A" and the argument falls apart: >>> "Sandactylus would have had networks of blood vessels in the skin of its wings even if these networks were of no use to Sandactytus." If this were the case then the conclusion derived from the paleontologist's discovery would indeed fall apart.

OA must be "A"

Posted from my mobile device

Last edited by edusacco on 10 Jul 2016, 05:22, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Networks of blood vessels in bats' wings serve only to disperse heat g [#permalink]

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09 Jul 2016, 19:12
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kdhong wrote:
Networks of blood vessels in bats' wings serve only to disperse heat generated in flight. This heat is generated only because bats flap their wings. Thus paleontologists' recent discovery that the winged dinosaur Sandactylus had similar networks of blood vessels in the skin of its wings provides evidence for the hypothesis that Sandactylus flew by flapping its wings, not just by gliding.

The argument in the passage relies on which of the following assumptions?

A. Sandactylus would not have had networks of blood vessels in the skin of its wings if these networks were of no use to Sandactylus.
B. All creatures that fly by flapping their wings have networks of blood vessels in the skin of their wings.
C. Winged dinosaurs that flapped their wings in flight would have been able to fly more effectively than winged dinosaurs that could only glide.
D. If Sandactylus flew by flapping its wings, then paleontologists would certainly be able to find some evidence that it did so.
E. Heat generated by Sandactylus in flapping its wings in flight could not have been dispersed by anything other than the blood vessels in its wings.

this is gmatprep question and oa is A.
the hardest thing to do is to eliminate choice E. when we face two choice for assumption question, the only weapon is negation test. negation of A falsify argument . negation of E dose not falsify argument.
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Re: Networks of blood vessels in bats' wings serve only to disperse heat g [#permalink]

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30 Dec 2016, 08:19
Networks of blood vessels in bats' wings serve only to disperse heat generated in flight. This heat is generated only because bats flap their wings. Thus paleontologists' recent discovery that the winged dinosaur Sandactylus had similar networks of blood vessels in the skin of its wings provides evidence for the hypothesis that Sandactylus flew by flapping its wings, not just by gliding.

The argument in the passage relies on which of the following assumptions?

A. Sandactylus would not have had networks of blood vessels in the skin of its wings if these networks were of no use to Sandactylus.
B. All creatures that fly by flapping their wings have networks of blood vessels in the skin of their wings.
C. Winged dinosaurs that flapped their wings in flight would have been able to fly more effectively than winged dinosaurs that could only glide.
D. If Sandactylus flew by flapping its wings, then paleontologists would certainly be able to find some evidence that it did so.
E. Heat generated by Sandactylus in flapping its wings in flight could not have been dispersed by anything other than the blood vessels in its wings.

My opinion:

This is a Defender Assumption question, as it contains Defender Assumption Flag 'Relies' , So assumption can be formulated using 'Status Quo method'.

Identify the parameters which may affect the argument and keep them in Status quo, or negate any potential attack on the argument.
Also for defender assumption, always begin with answer choices with Negator word in them

Here Answer option 'A' and 'E' has negator word in them... Best option is A

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Re: Networks of blood vessels in bats' wings serve only to disperse heat g [#permalink]

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31 Dec 2016, 11:07
Here is the problem with B:

"All creatures that fly by flapping their wings have networks of blood vessels in the skin of their wings."

This is a typical logic trick. Basically, it is testing whether situation A (flapping wings means blood vessels are present) rules out situation B (gliding means blood vessels are not present). Clearly, situation A being true does not rule out situation B. Knowing something about A is not sufficient to make a determination of characteristics of B. If on the other hand the answer read "only creatures that fly by flapping their wings have networks of blood vessels in the skin of their wings", we could make a determination of the characteristics of B.

Hope this helps.

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Re: Networks of blood vessels in bats' wings serve only to disperse heat g [#permalink]

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04 Jun 2017, 18:44
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chshashankreddy wrote:
Networks of blood vessels in bats’ wings serve only to disperse heat generated in flight. This heat is generated only because bats flap their wings. Thus paleontologists’ recent discovery that the winged dinosaur Sandactylus had similar networks of blood vessels in the skin of its wings provides evidence for the hypothesis that Sandactylus flew by flapping its wings, not just by gliding.

The argument in the passage relies on which of the following assumptions?

(A) Sandactylus would not have had networks of blood vessels in the skin of its wings if these networks were of no use to Sandactytus.

(B) All creatures that fly by flapping their wings have networks of blood vessels in the skin of their wings.

(C) winged dinosaurs that flapped their wingsin flight would have been able to fly more effectively than winged dinosaurs that could only glide.

(D) If Sandactylus flew by flapping its wings, then paleontologists would certainly be able to findsome evidence that it did so.

(E) Heat generated by Sandactylus in flapping its wings in flight could not have been dispersed by anything other than the blood vessels in its wings.
:
Fact:Networks of blood vessels in bats’ wings serve only to disperse heat generated in flight. This heat is generated only because bats flap their wings. winged dinosaur Sandactylus had similar networks of blood vessels in the skin of its wings.

Missing Information:Sandactylus would not have had networks of blood vessels in the skin of its wings if these networks were of no use to Sandactytus. i.e., the network of blood vessels had a purpose

Conclusion: This provides evidence for the hypothesis that Sandactylus flew by flapping its wings, not just by gliding

The right choice needs to fill a gap. Choice A does that and hence is the missing information.

So we see that the missing information starts from the fact shown in bold and leads to the conclusion.
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Re: Networks of blood vessels in bats' wings serve only to disperse heat g [#permalink]

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05 Jul 2017, 10:58
"the hypothesis that Sandactylus flew by flapping its wings, not just by gliding"

E already supports this conclusion. In other words, negating E would not break the above hypothesis.

The argument in propositional logic:

P1. For all Bats, BV (Blood Vessels) -> Dissipate Heat
P2. For all Bats, Heat -> Flap Wing

Hypothesis: Sandactylus, BV, Flap Wing?

From P1 & P2 and using transitive inference,
For all Bats, BV -> Flap Wing

For above to work for Sandactylus too, we need:
P1S. For all Sandactylus, BV (Blood Vessels) -> Dissipate Heat
P2S. For all Sandactylus, Heat -> Flap Wing

A) BV (NOT ->) nothing OR BV (NOT ->) Foo
Gives support to P1S.

E. For all Sandactylus, Dissipate Heat -> BV
This converse strengthens P1S but not necessarily needed for the argument.

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Re: Networks of blood vessels in bats' wings serve only to disperse heat g [#permalink]

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16 Aug 2017, 20:44
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
diegmat wrote:
Networks of blood vessels in bats' wings serve only to disperse heat generated in flight. This heat is generated only because bats flap their wings. Thus paleontologists' recent discovery that the winged dinosaur Sandactylus had similar networks of blood vessels in the skin of its wings provides evidence for the hypothesis that Sandactylus flew by flapping its wings, not just by gliding.

The argument in the passage relies on which of the following assumptions?

A) Sandactylus would not have had networks of blood vessels in the skin of its wings if these networks were of no use to Sandactylus.

B) All creatures that fly by flapping their wings have networks of blood vessels in the skin of their wings.

C) Winged dinosaurs that flapped their wings in flight would have been able to fly more effectively than winged dinosaurs that could only glide.

D) If Sandactylus flew by flapping its wings, then paleontologists would certainly be able to find some evidence that it did so.

E) Heat generated by Sandactylus in flapping its wings in flight could not have been dispersed by anything other than the blood vessels in its wings.

Responding to a pm:

This is not an easy question - especially if you are trying to explain the answer.
So first let's try to understand how the argument is structured. I will use variables to make it easier:

Networks of blood vessels in wings - A
heat generated in flight by flapping wings - B

Given Argument:
Bats have A. Bats have B. A's only job is to get rid of B.

What is the assumption? That A must have had a purpose in Dinos too (getting rid of B). You cannot have A without having a job for it. Just because Dinos had A, we are concluding that they must have had B too. We are assuming that A must have had a purpose. This is option (A) and is the answer.

Are we assuming that we cannot get rid of B without A? No. (This is what option (E) says)
When would this be the assumption?
If the argument were a little different: Dinos had B. Hence, Dinos had A too.
In this argument, the assumption would have been that we cannot get rid of B without A.
But given the original argument, this is not the assumption. Hence, answer is not (E).

In case of A, I am not clear how can we assume that the function of networks of blood vessels in Bat's wings is SAME as the function of networks of blood vessels in Dino's wings! It may happen that networks of blood vessels in Bat's wings are used for only to disperse heat generated in flight, whereas networks of blood vessels in Bat's wings are used for only to circulate blood or anything else.

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Re: Networks of blood vessels in bats' wings serve only to disperse heat g [#permalink]

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18 Aug 2017, 02:56
Mahmud6 wrote:
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
diegmat wrote:
Networks of blood vessels in bats' wings serve only to disperse heat generated in flight. This heat is generated only because bats flap their wings. Thus paleontologists' recent discovery that the winged dinosaur Sandactylus had similar networks of blood vessels in the skin of its wings provides evidence for the hypothesis that Sandactylus flew by flapping its wings, not just by gliding.

The argument in the passage relies on which of the following assumptions?

A) Sandactylus would not have had networks of blood vessels in the skin of its wings if these networks were of no use to Sandactylus.

B) All creatures that fly by flapping their wings have networks of blood vessels in the skin of their wings.

C) Winged dinosaurs that flapped their wings in flight would have been able to fly more effectively than winged dinosaurs that could only glide.

D) If Sandactylus flew by flapping its wings, then paleontologists would certainly be able to find some evidence that it did so.

E) Heat generated by Sandactylus in flapping its wings in flight could not have been dispersed by anything other than the blood vessels in its wings.

Responding to a pm:

This is not an easy question - especially if you are trying to explain the answer.
So first let's try to understand how the argument is structured. I will use variables to make it easier:

Networks of blood vessels in wings - A
heat generated in flight by flapping wings - B

Given Argument:
Bats have A. Bats have B. A's only job is to get rid of B.

What is the assumption? That A must have had a purpose in Dinos too (getting rid of B). You cannot have A without having a job for it. Just because Dinos had A, we are concluding that they must have had B too. We are assuming that A must have had a purpose. This is option (A) and is the answer.

Are we assuming that we cannot get rid of B without A? No. (This is what option (E) says)
When would this be the assumption?
If the argument were a little different: Dinos had B. Hence, Dinos had A too.
In this argument, the assumption would have been that we cannot get rid of B without A.
But given the original argument, this is not the assumption. Hence, answer is not (E).

In case of A, I am not clear how can we assume that the function of networks of blood vessels in Bat's wings is SAME as the function of networks of blood vessels in Dino's wings! It may happen that networks of blood vessels in Bat's wings are used for only to disperse heat generated in flight, whereas networks of blood vessels in Bat's wings are used for only to circulate blood or anything else.

I understand what you are saying. Here is something to consider: Even if you feel that it is an assumption, do you suggest another option as the answer? If yes, which one and why?
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Re: Networks of blood vessels in bats' wings serve only to disperse heat g [#permalink]

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18 Aug 2017, 04:13
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
Mahmud6 wrote:

In case of A, I am not clear how can we assume that the function of networks of blood vessels in Bat's wings is SAME as the function of networks of blood vessels in Dino's wings! It may happen that networks of blood vessels in Bat's wings are used for only to disperse heat generated in flight, whereas networks of blood vessels in Bat's wings are used for only to circulate blood or anything else.

I understand what you are saying. Here is something to consider: Even if you feel that it is an assumption, do you suggest another option as the answer? If yes, which one and why?

No, no, I am not suggesting another option as the answer. I understand all other options are not correct. I asked to be clarified whether my understanding is correct.

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Re: Networks of blood vessels in bats' wings serve only to disperse heat g [#permalink]

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29 Aug 2017, 09:49
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If we negate (E) - Heat generated by Sandactylus in flaping its wings in flight could have been dispersed by things other than the blood vessels in its wings. It does not invalidate our conclusion. However, if we negate (A), it reads Sandactylus would have had networks of blood vessels in the skin of its wings if these networks were of no
use of to Sandactylus . If the vessels were "of no use" to Sandactylus, this directly undermines the evidence on which the entire conclusion is based which is Network of blood vessels in bats' wings serve only to disperse heat generated in flight.

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Re: Networks of blood vessels in bats' wings serve only to disperse heat g [#permalink]

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30 Aug 2017, 10:19
GMATNinja abhimahna GMATNinjaTwo

Please explain why "E" is wrong and why "A" is correct? Also, please give the correct negation of each option.

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Re: Networks of blood vessels in bats' wings serve only to disperse heat g [#permalink]

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30 Aug 2017, 10:43
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gmatexam439 wrote:
GMATNinja abhimahna GMATNinjaTwo

Please explain why "E" is wrong and why "A" is correct? Also, please give the correct negation of each option.

Regards

Hi gmatexam439 ,

Here I go :

The passage says

1) Vessels serve ONLY to disperse heat.
2) Heat is generated ONLY while flapping wings.

=> I flap my wings, heat is generated and now it MUST disperse out of my vessels.

Then it concludes, since dinosaurs had these vessels therefore they used to flew.

Come on! This is non sense. Having some body part doesn't mean we are going to use it, right? What if they had those features but they never used it?

Hence, my pre thinking assumption is If THEY have a body feature, they have to use it anyhow.

Statement A is doing the same. Let's negate it.

They have had networks even if they don't use it. Ohh WOW, my conclusion is broken. How dare author say they used to fly? Call him, I wanna talk to him.

Moving on to option E.

(E) Heat generated by Sandactylus in flapping its wings in flight could not have been dispersed by anything other than the blood vessels in its wings.

We are already told that heat generated is dispersed ONLY by vessels. So, saying the same thing in different manner won't do any benefit. E can never be the answer.

Let's negate it.

Heat generated could be dispersed by other things too. Come on!! I am trying to break my premise. I cannot do so. (Look at the implication I drew after writing my two premises above.)

Hence, E is 100% wrong.

Does that make sense?
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Re: Networks of blood vessels in bats' wings serve only to disperse heat g [#permalink]

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30 Aug 2017, 11:00
abhimahna wrote:
gmatexam439 wrote:
GMATNinja abhimahna GMATNinjaTwo

Please explain why "E" is wrong and why "A" is correct? Also, please give the correct negation of each option.

Regards

Hi gmatexam439 ,

Here I go :

The passage says

1) Vessels serve ONLY to disperse heat.
2) Heat is generated ONLY while flapping wings.

=> I flap my wings, heat is generated and now it MUST disperse out of my vessels.

Then it concludes, since dinosaurs had these vessels therefore they used to flew.

Come on! This is non sense. Having some body part doesn't mean we are going to use it, right? What if they had those features but they never used it?

Hence, my pre thinking assumption is If THEY have a body feature, they have to use it anyhow.

Statement A is doing the same. Let's negate it.

They have had networks even if they don't use it. Ohh WOW, my conclusion is broken. How dare author say they used to fly? Call him, I wanna talk to him.

Moving on to option E.

(E) Heat generated by Sandactylus in flapping its wings in flight could not have been dispersed by anything other than the blood vessels in its wings.

We are already told that heat generated is dispersed ONLY by vessels. So, saying the same thing in different manner won't do any benefit. E can never be the answer.

Let's negate it.

Heat generated could be dispersed by other things too. Come on!! I am trying to break my premise. I cannot do so. (Look at the implication I drew after writing my two premises above.)

Hence, E is 100% wrong.

Does that make sense?

Damn. While solving the previous question, I used this same technique that premise can't be falsified and we can't state the already known information in different words.
Again in this question I missed that point.

I think these are what you call minute details. My consistency is not great. Need to practice hard and more.

Thanks a lot like always bruh.

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Re: Networks of blood vessels in bats' wings serve only to disperse heat g [#permalink]

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31 Aug 2017, 22:18
Someone please explain Why B and D are wrong confused here

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Re: Networks of blood vessels in bats' wings serve only to disperse heat g [#permalink]

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01 Sep 2017, 23:51
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Expert's post
haardiksharma wrote:
Someone please explain Why B and D are wrong confused here

Quote:
B. All creatures that fly by flapping their wings have networks of blood vessels in the skin of their wings.

It doesn't matter whether all creatures that fly by flapping their wings have networks of blood vessels in the skin of their wings. The author is simply arguing that the discovery "provides evidence for the hypothesis that Sandactylus flew by flapping its wings." For example, not EVERYONE who has a fancy car has a lot of money. However, having a fancy sports car can still be evidence that someone has a lot of money.

Quote:
D. If Sandactylus flew by flapping its wings, then paleontologists would certainly be able to find some evidence that it did so.

If choice (D) were not true, we would have: "If Sandactylus flew by flapping its wings, then paleontologists might be able to find some evidence that it did so." The author argues that the discovery provides evidence for the hypothesis that Sandactylus flew by flapping its wings. This argument does not require that, if Sandactylus did in fact fly by flapping its wings, paleontologists would DEFINITELY find evidence that it did so. (D) is not a required assumption.

I hope this helps!
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Re: Networks of blood vessels in bats' wings serve only to disperse heat g [#permalink]

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02 Sep 2017, 22:50
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Kudos [?]: 12 [0], given: 150

Re: Networks of blood vessels in bats' wings serve only to disperse heat g   [#permalink] 02 Sep 2017, 22:50

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