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# Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past tw

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25 Apr 2016, 04:16
egmat,

A question, in the course you say that , -ing mod modifies the preceding CLAUSE. However "Neuroscientists" is not a clause, its a Subject\noun, so is the ,-ing construction correct?.. I eliminated A because of it. I thought that construction without comma would be the correct one since if there is no comma, then -ing modifies the preceding noun.

Thank you!
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26 Apr 2016, 03:04
iliavko wrote:
A question, in the course you say that , -ing mod modifies the preceding CLAUSE. However "Neuroscientists" is not a clause, its a Subject\noun, so is the ,-ing construction correct?

Well, since this is an official question, it is obviously correct.

Quote:
I thought that construction without comma would be the correct one since if there is no comma, then -ing modifies the preceding noun.

Yes, but that is only true if there is a clause before the present participial phrase.
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26 Apr 2016, 03:51
Thank you for the replies.

Does it mean that the comma after Neuroscientists is optional?
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26 Apr 2016, 04:40
iliavko wrote:
Thank you for the replies.

Does it mean that the comma after Neuroscientists is optional?

Oh no; without a comma, the having + past-participle structure is always incorrect on GMAT.

You might want to remember this. Let me know and I can dig out an official example in this regard.
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Re: Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past tw  [#permalink]

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23 May 2016, 13:38
Dear Daagh
Please explain when to use having +past participle as a modifier and get sure that it is correct sentence. is it meaning that forces to accept such construction. I always read advises to go away from such construction in answer choices.
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Re: Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past tw  [#permalink]

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05 Aug 2016, 12:36
egmat wrote:

Hi Mugdha,

Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are now drawing solid conclusions about how the human brain grows and how babies acquire language.

Once again, I would say that you have done a good job in analyzing this one. However, the clause split for this one is not accurate. Let's look at the clauses in this sentence:

Cl. 1: Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are now drawing solid conclusions about
Cl. 2: how the human brain grows and
Cl. 3: how babies acquire language.

Since we cannot have a clause without an SV pair, the additional information cannot be identified as a clause because it does not have a Subject and a Verb.

I would never advise to skip the additional information completely while doing the PoE. The best way to answer questions where answer choices confuse us is to stay focused on the meaning of the sentence. You have understood the intended meaning of this sentence alright. Now let's compare that meaning with the meaning that we get from choices D and E.

Choice D: Neuroscientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, - Per this choice, now the focus (main point) of the sentence is that Neuroscientists have amassed a lot of knowledge... However, per the original sentence, the focus of the sentence is that Neuroscientists are now drawing conclusions... This choice shifts the focus of the sentence completely. The main point of the sentence in Choice A is now an additional information in this choice. On this basis, we can eliminate this answer choice.

Choice E: Neuroscientists have amassed, over the past twenty years, a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, - Incorrect for the same reason as explained above.

So keep the intended logical meaning of the sentence as the main guide while doing the PoE.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

This is what your response was in a previous post

Choice D: Neuroscientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood: Incorrect. In this choice, "now drawing" acts as a comma + verb-ing modifier. The focus on the main information here has shifted from " are now developing" in the original sentence to "have amassed". In the original sentence, the action that is primary is "now developing" and "amassing knowledge" comes as an additional information. This choic reverses that order by making the main action additional information and the additional information into the main action. This is a clear shift in the intended meaning.

Can you please explain if the rule that you have explained before is valid for this question?
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Re: Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past tw  [#permalink]

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29 Dec 2016, 07:52
IMO A.

D and E are missing verb - 'are'.
B and C - meaning error.
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29 Dec 2016, 22:13
Got this one in ~20 seconds. Just had to check for what came after the second comma.
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Re: Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past tw  [#permalink]

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09 May 2017, 02:43
egmat wrote:
Hi All,

2) Modifier “having amassed…” correctly modifies the preceding noun neuroscientists. There is no construction error in the modifying phrase also. Thus, there is no error in this sentence.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

''Having'' is an adverbial modifier; it modifies WHOLE the clause before it. So, how an adverbial modifier modifies a single word ''Neuroscientists''?
Thank you__
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Re: Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past tw  [#permalink]

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14 May 2017, 11:22
Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are now drawing solid conclusions about how the human brain grows and how babies acquire language.

A)Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about how the human brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are

B)Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years,and are

C)Neuroscientists amassing a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years,and are

D)Neuroscientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge over past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood,

E) Neuroscientists have amassed, over the past twenty years, a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood ,

It will be helpful if experts can advise the solution and reason for the solution

A Correct.
B The phrase before "and are" is a fragment.
C The phrase before "and are" is a fragment.
D The phrase "now drawing" is a fragment.
E The phrase "now drawing" is a fragment.
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Re: Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past tw  [#permalink]

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27 May 2017, 19:23
Hi, Please correct option A . I eliminated option A because of awkwardness I saw after comparing 2 options.

Option A in the above question is different from what it is given in the stimulus.
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20 Jul 2017, 09:12
Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are now drawing solid conclusions about how the human brain grows and how babies acquire language.

Ignoring the fluff in the original sentence shows that only choice A is correct in using the phrase 'Neuroscientists are now drawing....'

B & C- use an incorrect conjunction 'and'
D & E- skip the verb altogether and is wrong.
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Re: Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past tw  [#permalink]

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20 Jul 2017, 10:43
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Quote:
Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years

There is some doubt about this structure that since having amassed is an adverbial modifier, it should modify the previous clause and since there is no clause before the said modifier, but only a noun, this structure is inherently wrong.
IMO, this is not a correct perception.
Now let's look at this structure.
Quote:
Having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about, Neuroscientists

Can we now argue that this structure is wrong because there is no clause before the modifier?
The point is the verb + ing modifier, which we assumed, as an adverbial modifier becomes an adjective modifier when placed in the beginning of the clause.
The issue in question---
1. Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years --- is actually --
--Having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years, Neuroscientists --
Therefore, per se, that part is legal.
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04 Aug 2017, 03:56
Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are now drawing solid conclusions about how the human brain grows and how babies acquire language.

A)Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about how the human brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are

B)Neuroscientists,having amassed a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years,and are

C)Neuroscientists amassing a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years,and are

D)Neuroscientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge over past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood,

E) Neuroscientists have amassed, over the past twenty years, a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood ,

It will be helpful if experts can advise the solution and reason for the solution

For anyone attempting this question, please note in option A there is a typo. " How " should not be there in option A .
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Re: Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past tw  [#permalink]

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20 Jul 2018, 09:22
Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and....
In this correct answer choice noun modifier phrase "about the brain..." isn't touching the noun it intends to modify i.e. "knowledge". Is that acceptable?

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Re: Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past tw  [#permalink]

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22 Jul 2018, 06:24
EducationAisle wrote:
iliavko wrote:
Thank you for the replies.

Does it mean that the comma after Neuroscientists is optional?

Oh no; without a comma, the having + past-participle structure is always incorrect on GMAT.

You might want to remember this. Let me know and I can dig out an official example in this regard.

Hi EducationAisle!

OA: Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are now drawing solid conclusions about how the human brain grows and how babies acquire language.

Question: Usualy in GMAT SC "having ..." takes past perfect. But I also know that -ing modifier takes the tense of the main verb. Can we infer that in this case"having" is in present perfect, not in past perfect?
Otherwise how to justify usage of past perfect instead of simple construction such as: Neuroscientists, amassed a wealth..., are now drawing.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
About option D: Neuroscientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge over past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, now drawing solid conclusions about how the human brain grows and how babies acquire language.

Question: Is the only problem of this option that it shifts focus from main action "are now drawing solid conclusions" to "have amassed a wealth of knowledge'? Otherwise the sentence sounds pretty (grammatically and logically) correct.

Thanks!
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Re: Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past tw  [#permalink]

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23 Jul 2018, 00:04
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Hero8888 wrote:
Hi EducationAisle!

OA: Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are now drawing solid conclusions about how the human brain grows and how babies acquire language.

Question: Usualy in GMAT SC "having ..." takes past perfect. But I also know that -ing modifier takes the tense of the main verb. Can we infer that in this case"having" is in present perfect, not in past perfect?
Otherwise how to justify usage of past perfect instead of simple construction such as: Neuroscientists, amassed a wealth..., are now drawing.

Hi Hero8888, you are correct! Having + Past Participle basically depicts an action that completed before the main verb in the sentence. Hence,

i) If the main verb is in past, Having + Past Participle acts like past perfect
ii) If the main verb is in present (as is the case in option A here), Having + Past Participle acts like present perfect

Quote:
About option D: Neuroscientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge over past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, now drawing solid conclusions about how the human brain grows and how babies acquire language.

Question: Is the only problem of this option that it shifts focus from main action "are now drawing solid conclusions" to "have amassed a wealth of knowledge'? Otherwise the sentence sounds pretty (grammatically and logically) correct.

These type of Present participles (are now drawing solid conclusions..) should depict simultaneous result of the previous clause (For example: Peter met with an accident, sustaining severe injuries). Option D does not represent this scenario and is hence, incorrect.
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Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past tw  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 23 Jul 2018, 06:35
Everything has fallen into place. Thanks, your help is priceless!
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Originally posted by Hero8888 on 23 Jul 2018, 06:34.
Last edited by Hero8888 on 23 Jul 2018, 06:35, edited 1 time in total.
Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past tw &nbs [#permalink] 23 Jul 2018, 06:34

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