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Senior Manager
Joined: 04 Aug 2008
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29 Oct 2008, 07:39
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I just developed a new strategy for RC and here it is available to you as well.

I tried several strategies but nothing has worked for me, I could not answer questions if I just skim thru the passage or I would lose time reading the whole thing and ended up losing focus when answering question anyway.

So, here is the deal.

The good thing this tehnique really works for me and I want to share it with anyone whose brain works in a similar way. The bad news is that this strategy require you to take notes but very simple tho.

LEts start...

First, mark your paragraphs with Roman numbers I, II, III, IV etc... (Hope passage wont be longer then VIII cuz i forgot the Roman numbers lol)

Second, start reading your passage but (IMPORTANT!) from the last passage (eg IV) towards first (eg I)

Now, while you are reading take very simple notes as illustrated in this example: (remember to start from the bottom paragraph IV)

I
Recent years have brought minority-owned businesses in the United States unprecedented opportunities—as well as new and significant risks. Civil rights activists have long argued that one of the principal reasons why Blacks, Hispanics, and other minority groups have difficulty establishing themselves in business is that they lack access to the sizable orders and subcontracts that are generated by large companies. Now Congress, in apparent agreement, has required by law that businesses awarded federal contracts of more than \$500,000 do their best to find minority subcontractors and record their efforts to do so on forms filed with the government. Indeed, some federal and local agencies have gone so far as to set specific percentage goals for apportioning parts of public works contracts to minority enterprises.

II
Corporate response appears to have been substantial. According to figures collected in 1977, the total of corporate contracts with minority businesses rose from \$77 million in 1972 to \$1.1 billion in 1977. The projected total of corporate contracts with minority businesses for the early 1980’s is estimated to be over 53 billion per year with no letup anticipated in the next decade. Promising as it is for minority businesses, this increased patronage poses dangers for them, too. First, minority firms risk expanding too fast and overextending themselves financially, since most are small concerns and, unlike large businesses, they often need to make substantial investments in new plants, staff, equipment, and the like in order to perform work subcontracted to them. If, thereafter, their subcontracts are for some reason reduced, such firms can face potentially crippling fixed expenses. The world of corporate purchasing can be frustrating for small entrepreneurs who get requests for elaborate formal estimates and bids. Both consume valuable time and resources, and a small company’s efforts must soon result in orders, or both the morale and the financial health of the business will suffer.

III
A second risk is that White-owned companies may seek to cash in on the increasing apportionments through formation of joint ventures with minority-owned concerns. Of course, in many instances there are legitimate reasons for joint ventures; clearly, White and minority enterprises can team up to acquire business that neither could acquire alone. But civil rights groups and minority business owners have complained to Congress about minorities being set up as “fronts” with White backing, rather than being accepted as full partners in legitimate joint ventures.

IV
Third, a minority enterprise that secures the business of one large corporate customer often runs the danger of becoming—and remaining—dependent. Even in the best of circumstances, fierce competition from larger, more established companies makes it difficult for small concerns to broaden their customer bases: when such firms have nearly guaranteed orders from a single corporate benefactor, they may truly have to struggle against complacency arising from their current success.

Notes:
I intro-civil rights activists-access-congress-money-fed n local agencies-percentages
II big corp response-increase 72-77- risks for minors-expanding-fixed costs-morale-financial
III second risk-joint ventures-sometimes legit-sometimes not
IV minority-danger-dependent-example-single benefactor

You can take more or less detailed notes its up to you. Notes act as a compass toretrieve and organize information fast.

Now try questions (IMPORTANT) but read them upside-down as well starting from E D C B A marking off the obvious wrong choices, when you narrow down choices to 2 pick one and proceed

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) present a commonplace idea and its inaccuracies
(B) describe a situation and its potential drawbacks
(C) propose a temporary solution to a problem
(D) analyze a frequent source of disagreement
(E) explore the implications of a finding
2. The passage supplies information that would answer which of the following questions?
(A) What federal agencies have set percentage goals for the use of minority-owned businesses in public works contracts?
(B) To which government agencies must businesses awarded federal contracts report their efforts to find minority subcontractors?
(C) How widespread is the use of minority-owned concerns as “fronts” by White backers seeking to obtain subcontracts?
(D) How many more minority-owned businesses were there in 1977 than in 1972?
(E) What is one set of conditions under which a small business might find itself financially overextended?
3. According to the passage, civil rights activists maintain that one disadvantage under which minority-owned businesses have traditionally had to labor is that they have
(A) been especially vulnerable to governmental mismanagement of the economy
(B) been denied bank loans at rates comparable to those afforded larger competitors
(C) not had sufficient opportunity to secure business created by large corporations
(D) not been able to advertise in those media that reach large numbers of potential customers
4. The passage suggests that the failure of a large business to have its bids for subcontracts result quickly in orders might cause it to
(A) experience frustration but not serious financial harm
(B) face potentially crippling fixed expenses
(C) have to record its efforts on forms filed with the government
(D) increase its spending with minority subcontractors
(E) revise its procedure for making bids for federal contracts and subcontracts
5. The author implies that a minority-owned concern that does the greater part of its business with one large corporate customer should
(A) avoid competition with larger, more established concerns by not expanding
(B) concentrate on securing even more business from that corporation
(C) try to expand its customer base to avoid becoming dependent on the corporation
(D) pass on some of the work to be done for the corporation to other minority-owned concerns
(E) use its influence with the corporation to promote subcontracting with other minority concerns
6. It can be inferred from the passage that, compared with the requirements of law, the percentage goals set by “some federal and local agencies” (lines 14-15) are
(A) more popular with large corporations
(B) more specific
(C) less controversial
(D) less expensive to enforce
(E) easier to comply with
7. Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the author’s assertion that, in the 1970’s, corporate response to federal requirements (lines 18-19) was substantial
(A) Corporate contracts with minority-owned businesses totaled \$2 billion in 1979.
(B) Between 1970 and 1972, corporate contracts with minority-owned businesses declined by 25 percent.
(C) The figures collected in 1977 underrepresented the extent of corporate contracts with minority-owned businesses.
(D) The estimate of corporate spending with minority-owned businesses in 1980 is approximately \$10 million too high.
(E) The \$1.1 billion represented the same percentage of total corporate spending in 1977 as did \$77 million in 1972.
8. The author would most likely agree with which of the following statements about corporate response to working with minority subcontractors?
(A) Annoyed by the proliferation of “front” organizations, corporations are likely to reduce their efforts to work with minority-owned subcontractors in the near future.
(B) Although corporations showed considerable interest in working with minority businesses in the 1970’s, their aversion to government paperwork made them reluctant to pursue many government contracts.
(C) The significant response of corporations in the 1970’s is likely to be sustained and conceivably be increased throughout the 1980’s.
(D) Although corporations are eager to cooperate with minority-owned businesses, a shortage of capital in the 1970’s made substantial response impossible.
(E) The enormous corporate response has all but eliminated the dangers of over-expansion that used to plague small minority-owned businesses
_________________

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Manager
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29 Oct 2008, 09:39
Great post, thank you.
+1 for you
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Senior Manager
Joined: 04 Aug 2008
Posts: 372

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29 Oct 2008, 11:09
1
KUDOS
Thanks for your feedback. Let me know how this strategy works for you as u practice and did u notice an improvement.
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Senior Manager
Joined: 21 Apr 2008
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Schools: Kellogg, MIT, Michigan, Berkeley, Marshall, Mellon

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01 Nov 2008, 03:11
Hi guys,

I use this strategy, but I prefer to start on the first paragraph...

IMO, for non-native speakers, taking notes helps us to understand better the text

Cheers
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http://gmatclub.com/forum/johnlewis1980-s-profile-feedback-is-more-than-welcome-80538.html

I'm not linked to GMAT questions anymore, so, if you need something, please PM me

I'm already focused on my application package

My experience in my second attempt
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My experience in my third attempt
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Manager
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22 Mar 2010, 21:28
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Not sure whether I am going to try it out or not but anyways, interesting approach.

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22 Mar 2010, 21:39
Thanks for finding this post.

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23 Mar 2010, 05:49
Interesting approach. Will experiment it! Thank you.

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05 Jun 2010, 02:02
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nice approach...
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03 Jul 2010, 13:17
interesting. but, where are the answers?

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17 Apr 2013, 04:56
I found this approach very helpful. Helped me focus on what each paragraph is looking for as oppose to get caught up in my own impression and ideas of the topic. My only question is why read the answer choices starting from the bottom (E.)? Does advantage does that give?

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19 Jul 2013, 07:17
woluyemi wrote:
I found this approach very helpful. Helped me focus on what each paragraph is looking for as oppose to get caught up in my own impression and ideas of the topic. My only question is why read the answer choices starting from the bottom (E.)? Does advantage does that give?

I have the same question. Can the OP please clarify?
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19 Jul 2013, 07:36
HulkSmashGMAT wrote:
woluyemi wrote:
I found this approach very helpful. Helped me focus on what each paragraph is looking for as oppose to get caught up in my own impression and ideas of the topic. My only question is why read the answer choices starting from the bottom (E.)? Does advantage does that give?

I have the same question. Can the OP please clarify?

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19 Jul 2013, 08:50
2
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Expert's post
With GMAT, it is whatever works for you best - I would encourage you to try reading questions from the bottom and see if that has any impact on your result.

The logic/rationale is that GMAT has a few errors hidden in the answer choices - at least 4 that is; and they are masked with expectation of you reading from top to bottom. When you read from bottom up the answer choices, you are disrupting the question writer's path he was trying to put you on and thus POTENTIALLY getting yourself an advantage. Now, how real that advantage is, will be determined when you try it on the OG/GMAT Prep questions (I would not bother this with other test provider questions since they are different enough)
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19 Jul 2013, 10:08
bb wrote:
With GMAT, it is whatever works for you best - I would encourage you to try reading questions from the bottom and see if that has any impact on your result.

The logic/rationale is that GMAT has a few errors hidden in the answer choices - at least 4 that is; and they are masked with expectation of you reading from top to bottom. When you read from bottom up the answer choices, you are disrupting the question writer's path he was trying to put you on and thus POTENTIALLY getting yourself an advantage. Now, how real that advantage is, will be determined when you try it on the OG/GMAT Prep questions (I would not bother this with other test provider questions since they are different enough)

bb I see your point. Thanks for that!

It is kinda similar to substituting options from last to first on problem solving. I will try this strategy out and see if it works out.
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02 Nov 2015, 02:15
spiridon wrote:
I just developed a new strategy for RC and here it is available to you as well.

I tried several strategies but nothing has worked for me, I could not answer questions if I just skim thru the passage or I would lose time reading the whole thing and ended up losing focus when answering question anyway.

So, here is the deal.

The good thing this tehnique really works for me and I want to share it with anyone whose brain works in a similar way. The bad news is that this strategy require you to take notes but very simple tho.

LEts start...

First, mark your paragraphs with Roman numbers I, II, III, IV etc... (Hope passage wont be longer then VIII cuz i forgot the Roman numbers lol)

Second, start reading your passage but (IMPORTANT!) from the last passage (eg IV) towards first (eg I)

Now, while you are reading take very simple notes as illustrated in this example: (remember to start from the bottom paragraph IV)

I
Recent years have brought minority-owned businesses in the United States unprecedented opportunities—as well as new and significant risks. Civil rights activists have long argued that one of the principal reasons why Blacks, Hispanics, and other minority groups have difficulty establishing themselves in business is that they lack access to the sizable orders and subcontracts that are generated by large companies. Now Congress, in apparent agreement, has required by law that businesses awarded federal contracts of more than \$500,000 do their best to find minority subcontractors and record their efforts to do so on forms filed with the government. Indeed, some federal and local agencies have gone so far as to set specific percentage goals for apportioning parts of public works contracts to minority enterprises.

II
Corporate response appears to have been substantial. According to figures collected in 1977, the total of corporate contracts with minority businesses rose from \$77 million in 1972 to \$1.1 billion in 1977. The projected total of corporate contracts with minority businesses for the early 1980’s is estimated to be over 53 billion per year with no letup anticipated in the next decade. Promising as it is for minority businesses, this increased patronage poses dangers for them, too. First, minority firms risk expanding too fast and overextending themselves financially, since most are small concerns and, unlike large businesses, they often need to make substantial investments in new plants, staff, equipment, and the like in order to perform work subcontracted to them. If, thereafter, their subcontracts are for some reason reduced, such firms can face potentially crippling fixed expenses. The world of corporate purchasing can be frustrating for small entrepreneurs who get requests for elaborate formal estimates and bids. Both consume valuable time and resources, and a small company’s efforts must soon result in orders, or both the morale and the financial health of the business will suffer.

III
A second risk is that White-owned companies may seek to cash in on the increasing apportionments through formation of joint ventures with minority-owned concerns. Of course, in many instances there are legitimate reasons for joint ventures; clearly, White and minority enterprises can team up to acquire business that neither could acquire alone. But civil rights groups and minority business owners have complained to Congress about minorities being set up as “fronts” with White backing, rather than being accepted as full partners in legitimate joint ventures.

IV
Third, a minority enterprise that secures the business of one large corporate customer often runs the danger of becoming—and remaining—dependent. Even in the best of circumstances, fierce competition from larger, more established companies makes it difficult for small concerns to broaden their customer bases: when such firms have nearly guaranteed orders from a single corporate benefactor, they may truly have to struggle against complacency arising from their current success.

Notes:
I intro-civil rights activists-access-congress-money-fed n local agencies-percentages
II big corp response-increase 72-77- risks for minors-expanding-fixed costs-morale-financial
III second risk-joint ventures-sometimes legit-sometimes not
IV minority-danger-dependent-example-single benefactor

You can take more or less detailed notes its up to you. Notes act as a compass toretrieve and organize information fast.

Now try questions (IMPORTANT) but read them upside-down as well starting from E D C B A marking off the obvious wrong choices, when you narrow down choices to 2 pick one and proceed

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) present a commonplace idea and its inaccuracies
(B) describe a situation and its potential drawbacks
(C) propose a temporary solution to a problem
(D) analyze a frequent source of disagreement
(E) explore the implications of a finding
2. The passage supplies information that would answer which of the following questions?
(A) What federal agencies have set percentage goals for the use of minority-owned businesses in public works contracts?
(B) To which government agencies must businesses awarded federal contracts report their efforts to find minority subcontractors?
(C) How widespread is the use of minority-owned concerns as “fronts” by White backers seeking to obtain subcontracts?
(D) How many more minority-owned businesses were there in 1977 than in 1972?
(E) What is one set of conditions under which a small business might find itself financially overextended?
3. According to the passage, civil rights activists maintain that one disadvantage under which minority-owned businesses have traditionally had to labor is that they have
(A) been especially vulnerable to governmental mismanagement of the economy
(B) been denied bank loans at rates comparable to those afforded larger competitors
(C) not had sufficient opportunity to secure business created by large corporations
(D) not been able to advertise in those media that reach large numbers of potential customers
4. The passage suggests that the failure of a large business to have its bids for subcontracts result quickly in orders might cause it to
(A) experience frustration but not serious financial harm
(B) face potentially crippling fixed expenses
(C) have to record its efforts on forms filed with the government
(D) increase its spending with minority subcontractors
(E) revise its procedure for making bids for federal contracts and subcontracts
5. The author implies that a minority-owned concern that does the greater part of its business with one large corporate customer should
(A) avoid competition with larger, more established concerns by not expanding
(B) concentrate on securing even more business from that corporation
(C) try to expand its customer base to avoid becoming dependent on the corporation
(D) pass on some of the work to be done for the corporation to other minority-owned concerns
(E) use its influence with the corporation to promote subcontracting with other minority concerns
6. It can be inferred from the passage that, compared with the requirements of law, the percentage goals set by “some federal and local agencies” (lines 14-15) are
(A) more popular with large corporations
(B) more specific
(C) less controversial
(D) less expensive to enforce
(E) easier to comply with
7. Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the author’s assertion that, in the 1970’s, corporate response to federal requirements (lines 18-19) was substantial
(A) Corporate contracts with minority-owned businesses totaled \$2 billion in 1979.
(B) Between 1970 and 1972, corporate contracts with minority-owned businesses declined by 25 percent.
(C) The figures collected in 1977 underrepresented the extent of corporate contracts with minority-owned businesses.
(D) The estimate of corporate spending with minority-owned businesses in 1980 is approximately \$10 million too high.
(E) The \$1.1 billion represented the same percentage of total corporate spending in 1977 as did \$77 million in 1972.
8. The author would most likely agree with which of the following statements about corporate response to working with minority subcontractors?
(A) Annoyed by the proliferation of “front” organizations, corporations are likely to reduce their efforts to work with minority-owned subcontractors in the near future.
(B) Although corporations showed considerable interest in working with minority businesses in the 1970’s, their aversion to government paperwork made them reluctant to pursue many government contracts.
(C) The significant response of corporations in the 1970’s is likely to be sustained and conceivably be increased throughout the 1980’s.
(D) Although corporations are eager to cooperate with minority-owned businesses, a shortage of capital in the 1970’s made substantial response impossible.
(E) The enormous corporate response has all but eliminated the dangers of over-expansion that used to plague small minority-owned businesses

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