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# New research by Paul Fildes and K. Whitaker challenges the

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New research by Paul Fildes and K. Whitaker challenges the  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 23 Aug 2018, 10:33
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New research by Paul Fildes and K. Whitaker challenges the theory that strains of bacteria can be "trained" to mutate by withholding a metabolite necessary for their regular function. In particular, they consider the case of bacteria typhosum, which needs tryptophan in order to reproduce. Earlier researchers had grown the bacteria in a medium somewhat deficient in tryptophan and observed the growth of mutant strains of the bacteria which did not need tryptophan in order to reproduce.

Fildes and Whitaker argue that the withholding of tryptophan did not induce these mutant strains of bacteria. Rather, these mutants were already present in the original sample of bacteria typhosum, albeit in a concentration too small to detect. In experimenting with the bacteria grown in agar cultures, they found that by plating out huge quantities of the bacteria, one could locate mutant strains. Because of the possibility that the lack of uniformity of the agar cultures had in fact trained mutant strains, they conducted similar experiments with liquid cultures and again found that mutant strains of the bacteria were present in the original sampling. From these experiments, Fildes and Whitaker conclude that the mutants are of genetic origin and are not induced by environmental training. They asserted that the concentration of tryptophan is unrelated to the appearance of these mutants in the bacteria.

To confirm these results, Fildes and Whitaker used an innovative plating technique using pile fabrics, such as velvet or velveteen, to accurately imprint the growth found on an original agar plate to a series of replica agar plates. The process entails taking the original agar plate, inverting it onto the velvet while using light finger pressure to transfer growth, and then imprinting the fabric, with its pattern of growth, on the new agar plates. By using this replica plating method, Fildes and Whitaker demonstrated that the mutants were in fact genetically present or preadapted, as the locations of the mutant strains of bacteria on the replica plates were identical to the locations of the mutant strains on the original agar plate.

1. It can be inferred from the passage that the replica plating method is effective for which of the following reasons?

A) It allows researchers to determine the relative sizes of different populations of bacteria.

B) It shows that no new mutant strains developed after transfer from the original agar plate.

C) It eliminates the possibility that the agar culture was contaminated by a different type of bacteria.

D) It demonstrates that no tryptophan was present in the original agar culture.

E) It establishes that the original agar culture contained the necessary metabolites for bacterial reproduction.

[2] Which of the following most accurately states the purpose of the passage?

A) To defend a scientific hypothesis from attack by an innovative technique

B) To describe a process by which bacteria can be trained to mutate

C) To present the results of an experiment designed to test an established theory

D) To argue against an established protocol on the grounds that it is outdated

E) To challenge a scientific technique used to prove a questionable theory

[3]According to the passage, Fildes and Whitaker conducted the experiment with liquid culture because

A) agar culture contained tryptophan

B) liquid culture allowed for easier plating

C) agar culture could not support a sufficiently large number of bacteria

D) liquid culture offered a more consistent medium

E) agar culture did not adhere well to pile fabric

Originally posted by crejoc on 09 Aug 2009, 10:21.
Last edited by workout on 23 Aug 2018, 10:33, edited 1 time in total.
Formatted and added the timers
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Joined: 24 Apr 2009
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Re: New research by Paul Fildes and K. Whitaker challenges the  [#permalink]

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10 Aug 2009, 09:49
2
crejoc wrote:
New research by Paul Fildes and K. Whitaker challenges the theory that strains of bacteria can be "trained" to mutate by withholding a metabolite necessary for their regular function. In particular, they consider the case of bacteria typhosum, which needs tryptophan in order to reproduce. Earlier researchers had grown the bacteria in a medium somewhat deficient in tryptophan and observed the growth of mutant strains of the bacteria which did not need tryptophan in order to reproduce.
Fildes and Whitaker argue that the withholding of tryptophan did not induce these mutant strains of bacteria. Rather, these mutants were already present in the original sample of bacteria typhosum, albeit in a concentration too small to detect. In experimenting with the bacteria grown in agar cultures, they found that by plating out huge quantities of the bacteria, one could locate mutant strains. Because of the possibility that the lack of uniformity of the agar cultures had in fact trained mutant strains, they conducted similar experiments with liquid cultures and again found that mutant strains of the bacteria were present in the original sampling. From these experiments, Fildes and Whitaker conclude that the mutants are of genetic origin and are not induced by environmental training. They asserted that the concentration of tryptophan is unrelated to the appearance of these mutants in the bacteria.
To confirm these results, Fildes and Whitaker used an innovative plating technique using pile fabrics, such as velvet or velveteen, to accurately imprint the growth found on an original agar plate to a series of replica agar plates. The process entails taking the original agar plate, inverting it onto the velvet while using light finger pressure to transfer growth, and then imprinting the fabric, with its pattern of growth, on the new agar plates. By using this replica plating method, Fildes and Whitaker demonstrated that the mutants were in fact genetically present or preadapted, as the locations of the mutant strains of bacteria on the replica plates were identical to the locations of the mutant strains on the original agar plate.

[1]It can be inferred from the passage that the replica plating method is effective for which of the following reasons?

A) It allows researchers to determine the relative sizes of different populations of bacteria.

B) It shows that no new mutant strains developed after transfer from the original agar plate. SEE BOLDFACE IN PARA 3

C) It eliminates the possibility that the agar culture was contaminated by a different type of bacteria.

D) It demonstrates that no tryptophan was present in the original agar culture.

E) It establishes that the original agar culture contained the necessary metabolites for
bacterial reproduction.

[2] Which of the following most accurately states the purpose of the passage?

A) To defend a scientific hypothesis from attack by an innovative technique NO INNOVATIVE TECHNIQUE IS DISCUSSED IN THE PASSAGE..HENCE WRONG

B) To describe a process by which bacteria can be trained to mutate THIS IS NOT THE PURPOSE OF THE PASSAGE.

C) To present the results of an experiment designed to test an established theory CHECK THE BOLD FACE SENTENCE IN PARA 1

D) To argue against an established protocol on the grounds that it is outdated NOT MENTIONED

E) To challenge a scientific technique used to prove a questionable theory CHALLENGE TO SCIENTIFIC THEORY IS NOT MENTIONED..

[3]According to the passage, Fildes and Whitaker conducted the experiment with liquid culture because

A) agar culture contained tryptophan

B) liquid culture allowed for easier plating

C) agar culture could not support a sufficiently large number of bacteria

D) liquid culture offered a more consistent medium SEE THE BOLDFACED STATEMENT IN PARAGRAPH 2

E) agar culture did not adhere well to pile fabric

OA:
B , C , D

PLEASE EXPLAIN ANSWERS..
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Re: New research by Paul Fildes and K. Whitaker challenges the  [#permalink]

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11 Aug 2009, 19:25
thanks for the explanations kudos..
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Re: New research by Paul Fildes and K. Whitaker challenges the  [#permalink]

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11 Mar 2010, 14:12
I agree with vicksikand on 2) IMO it should be E...clearly mentions in first para "challenges"...

also, can someone pls elaborate on answer to question 1...will greatly be thanked by kudos.
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Re: New research by Paul Fildes and K. Whitaker challenges the  [#permalink]

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27 May 2010, 06:13
From these experiments, Fildes and Whitaker conclude that the:
1. Mutants are of genetic origin and are not induced by environmental training.
2. The concentration of tryptophan is unrelated to the appearance of these mutants in the bacteria.

Now, to confirm these results, Fildes and Whitaker used an innovative plating technique using pile fabrics, ... demonstrated that the mutants were in fact genetically present or preadapted, as the identical locations of the mutant strains of bacteria on the replica plates...

If the mutants were not already present, then the locations would be different rather than identical. This is what is stated in the last sentence of the passage.

[1]It can be inferred from the passage that the replica plating method is effective for which of the following reasons?

A) It allows researchers to determine the relative sizes [Irrelevant]of different populations of bacteria.

B) It shows that no new mutant strains developed after transfer from the original agar plate.

C) It eliminates the possibility that the agar culture was contaminated by a different type of bacteria. [Out of scope]

D) It demonstrates that no tryptophan was present in the original agar culture. [This is opposite of what is stated above]

E) It establishes that the original agar culture contained the necessary metabolites for bacterial reproduction. [No such findings in the plating method]

amma4u wrote:
I agree with vicksikand on 2) IMO it should be E...clearly mentions in first para "challenges"...

also, can someone pls elaborate on answer to question 1...will greatly be thanked by kudos.

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Re: New research by Paul Fildes and K. Whitaker challenges the  [#permalink]

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21 Apr 2012, 16:11
has anyone come up with a reasonable argument against vicksikand? I am in the same boat as him.
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Re: New research by Paul Fildes and K. Whitaker challenges the  [#permalink]

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17 Sep 2017, 00:07
crejoc wrote:
New research by Paul Fildes and K. Whitaker challenges the theory that strains of bacteria can be "trained" to mutate by withholding a metabolite necessary for their regular function. In particular, they consider the case of bacteria typhosum, which needs tryptophan in order to reproduce. Earlier researchers had grown the bacteria in a medium somewhat deficient in tryptophan and observed the growth of mutant strains of the bacteria which did not need tryptophan in order to reproduce.
Fildes and Whitaker argue that the withholding of tryptophan did not induce these mutant strains of bacteria. Rather, these mutants were already present in the original sample of bacteria typhosum, albeit in a concentration too small to detect. In experimenting with the bacteria grown in agar cultures, they found that by plating out huge quantities of the bacteria, one could locate mutant strains. Because of the possibility that the lack of uniformity of the agar cultures had in fact trained mutant strains, they conducted similar experiments with liquid cultures and again found that mutant strains of the bacteria were present in the original sampling. From these experiments, Fildes and Whitaker conclude that the mutants are of genetic origin and are not induced by environmental training. They asserted that the concentration of tryptophan is unrelated to the appearance of these mutants in the bacteria.
To confirm these results, Fildes and Whitaker used an innovative plating technique using pile fabrics, such as velvet or velveteen, to accurately imprint the growth found on an original agar plate to a series of replica agar plates. The process entails taking the original agar plate, inverting it onto the velvet while using light finger pressure to transfer growth, and then imprinting the fabric, with its pattern of growth, on the new agar plates. By using this replica plating method, Fildes and Whitaker demonstrated that the mutants were in fact genetically present or preadapted, as the locations of the mutant strains of bacteria on the replica plates were identical to the locations of the mutant strains on the original agar plate.

[1]It can be inferred from the passage that the replica plating method is effective for which of the following reasons?

A) It allows researchers to determine the relative sizes of different populations of bacteria.

B) It shows that no new mutant strains developed after transfer from the original agar plate.

C) It eliminates the possibility that the agar culture was contaminated by a different type of bacteria.

D) It demonstrates that no tryptophan was present in the original agar culture.

E) It establishes that the original agar culture contained the necessary metabolites for
bacterial reproduction.

[2] Which of the following most accurately states the purpose of the passage?

A) To defend a scientific hypothesis from attack by an innovative technique

B) To describe a process by which bacteria can be trained to mutate

C) To present the results of an experiment designed to test an established theory

D) To argue against an established protocol on the grounds that it is outdated

E) To challenge a scientific technique used to prove a questionable theory

[3]According to the passage, Fildes and Whitaker conducted the experiment with liquid culture because

A) agar culture contained tryptophan

B) liquid culture allowed for easier plating

C) agar culture could not support a sufficiently large number of bacteria

D) liquid culture offered a more consistent medium

E) agar culture did not adhere well to pile fabric

OA:
B , C , D

PLEASE EXPLAIN ANSWERS..

GMATNinja Sir could you please help me in such passages, they seem too much convoluted to me - also, the OA mentioned for the Primary Purpose question seems wrong to me. How to approach such passages - especially question 1?
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Re: New research by Paul Fildes and K. Whitaker challenges the  [#permalink]

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20 Oct 2017, 01:44
amma4u wrote:
I agree with vicksikand on 2) IMO it should be E...clearly mentions in first para "challenges"...

also, can someone pls elaborate on answer to question 1...will greatly be thanked by kudos.

OE:
(A) The “innovative technique” is the replica plating method discussed in the third
paragraph. This technique was used to support the scientific hypothesis of Fildes
and Whitaker. Thus, the passage did not need to “defend [Fildes and Whitaker’s]
scientific hypothesis from attack by [the] innovative technique.” In addition, the
passage did not even defend the theory that Fildes and Whitaker were challenging.

(B) The first sentence of the passage makes it clear that the focus will be to
“challenge the theory that strains of bacteria can be “trained” to mutate,”

(C) CORRECT. The second and third paragraphs discuss the experiments
performed by Fildes and Whitaker that were designed to test the established theory,
mentioned in the first paragraph, that “strains of bacteria can be “trained” to mutate.”
This answer choice summarizes the entire passage.

(D) Fildes and Whitaker argue against a theory, not an established protocol. There is
no mention in the passage that a particular protocol is outdated.

(E) The passage does not state that either Fildes and Whitaker’s theory, or the
theory they were challenging was questionable.
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Re: New research by Paul Fildes and K. Whitaker challenges the  [#permalink]

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30 Dec 2017, 05:49
TaN1213 wrote:
amma4u wrote:
I agree with vicksikand on 2) IMO it should be E...clearly mentions in first para "challenges"...

also, can someone pls elaborate on answer to question 1...will greatly be thanked by kudos.

OE:
(A) The “innovative technique” is the replica plating method discussed in the third
paragraph. This technique was used to support the scientific hypothesis of Fildes
and Whitaker. Thus, the passage did not need to “defend [Fildes and Whitaker’s]
scientific hypothesis from attack by [the] innovative technique.” In addition, the
passage did not even defend the theory that Fildes and Whitaker were challenging.

(B) The first sentence of the passage makes it clear that the focus will be to
“challenge the theory that strains of bacteria can be “trained” to mutate,”

(C) CORRECT. The second and third paragraphs discuss the experiments
performed by Fildes and Whitaker that were designed to test the established theory,
mentioned in the first paragraph, that “strains of bacteria can be “trained” to mutate.”
This answer choice summarizes the entire passage.

(D) Fildes and Whitaker argue against a theory, not an established protocol. There is
no mention in the passage that a particular protocol is outdated.

(E) The passage does not state that either Fildes and Whitaker’s theory, or the
theory they were challenging was questionable.

Hi,

Can you post the OE for 2 question?

Regards
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Re: New research by Paul Fildes and K. Whitaker challenges the  [#permalink]

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23 Aug 2018, 08:45
gmatexam439 wrote:
TaN1213 wrote:
amma4u wrote:
I agree with vicksikand on 2) IMO it should be E...clearly mentions in first para "challenges"...

also, can someone pls elaborate on answer to question 1...will greatly be thanked by kudos.

OE:
(A) The “innovative technique” is the replica plating method discussed in the third
paragraph. This technique was used to support the scientific hypothesis of Fildes
and Whitaker. Thus, the passage did not need to “defend [Fildes and Whitaker’s]
scientific hypothesis from attack by [the] innovative technique.” In addition, the
passage did not even defend the theory that Fildes and Whitaker were challenging.

(B) The first sentence of the passage makes it clear that the focus will be to
“challenge the theory that strains of bacteria can be “trained” to mutate,”

(C) CORRECT. The second and third paragraphs discuss the experiments
performed by Fildes and Whitaker that were designed to test the established theory,
mentioned in the first paragraph, that “strains of bacteria can be “trained” to mutate.”
This answer choice summarizes the entire passage.

(D) Fildes and Whitaker argue against a theory, not an established protocol. There is
no mention in the passage that a particular protocol is outdated.

(E) The passage does not state that either Fildes and Whitaker’s theory, or the
theory they were challenging was questionable.

Hi,

Can you post the OE for 2 question?

Regards

2.
The replica plating method is discussed in the third paragraph. The first two sentences describe the process, while the third sentence explains what was learned by using this method. The correct inference about the effectiveness of the replica plating method will be a virtual rephrasing of the facts presented in the third paragraph.
(A) We cannot infer that the replica plating method allows researchers to determine the relative sizes of different populations of bacteria. The population sizes of various bacteria populations were never discussed.
(B) CORRECT. The last sentence of the passage states that “the locations of the mutant strains of bacteria on the replica plates were identical to the locations of the mutant strains on the original agar plate,” citing this as proof that “the mutants were in fact genetically present or preadapted.” In other words, the mutant strains did not develop after transfer from the original agar plate.
(C) The only type of bacteria mentioned in the passage was bacteria typhosum, so we cannot infer that the replica plating method eliminates the possibility that the agar culture was contaminated by a different type of bacteria.
(D) The role of tryptophan is discussed in the first and second paragraphs. This answer choice goes too far by asserting that “no tryptophan was present in the original agar culture.” We do not have enough information to make that inference.
(E) According to the first paragraph, “the necessary metabolites for bacterial reproduction” are defined as the substances “necessary for their (bacteria’s) regular function.” In the case of bacteria typhosum, that substance is tryptophan. We do not have enough information to infer that the replica plating method establishes that the original agar culture contained tryptophan. If fact, the presence of mutant strains of bacteria on the replica plates would contradict this statement rather than support it.
Re: New research by Paul Fildes and K. Whitaker challenges the &nbs [#permalink] 23 Aug 2018, 08:45
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# New research by Paul Fildes and K. Whitaker challenges the

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