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# Normally a bone becomes fossilized through the action of groundwater

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Re: Normally a bone becomes fossilized through the action of groundwater  [#permalink]

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24 May 2020, 16:25
1
abhish27 wrote:
GMATNinja How is E here incorrect? I am unable to understand how option E is altering the meaning ?

The problem with choice (E), as described in this post, is that all three "-ing" modifiers (permeating, washing, and replacing) seem to modify the preceding clause: "Normally a bone becomes fossilized through the action of groundwater."

So do all three of these actions ("permeating", "washing", and "replacing") happen as a result of the fossilization process? Does the bone itself do those three things while the bone is becoming fossilized??

Instead, it's the groundwater that permeates the bone, washes away its organic components, and replaces them with minerals. This logical meaning is clearer in choice (A).

I hope that helps!
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Re: Normally a bone becomes fossilized through the action of groundwater  [#permalink]

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22 Jun 2020, 23:50
here in option A.. them goes for organic substances .. then how come replaces is used as replaces represent singular and them is for plural
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Re: Normally a bone becomes fossilized through the action of groundwater  [#permalink]

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23 Jun 2020, 00:56
1
pragya007 wrote:
here in option A.. them goes for organic substances .. then how come replaces is used as replaces represent singular and them is for plural

Hi Pragya, the structure of A is:

....of groundwater, which permeates the bone, washes away its organic components, and replaces them with minerals.

So, which (referring to singular groundwater) is the subject for the verb replaces.

Basically, the sentence is conveying that groundwater replaces organic components with minerals.
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Re: Normally a bone becomes fossilized through the action of groundwater  [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2020, 10:04
which permeates the bone, washes away its organic components, and replaces them with minerals.

Why its wrong to think the permeation of Ground water into the bone washes away its organic components(causality)

hence I chose c .

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Re: Normally a bone becomes fossilized through the action of groundwater  [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2020, 11:30
Quote:
Normally a bone becomes fossilized through the action of groundwater, which permeates the bone, washes away its organic components, and replaces them with minerals.

Doesn't this sentence violate the rule - 1 clause cannot have more than 1 verb?
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Re: Normally a bone becomes fossilized through the action of groundwater  [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2020, 15:43
rsrighosh wrote:
Quote:
Normally a bone becomes fossilized through the action of groundwater, which permeates the bone, washes away its organic components, and replaces them with minerals.

Doesn't this sentence violate the rule - 1 clause cannot have more than 1 verb?

Hmm, I'm not sure what rule you're talking about.

• "Tim likes to eat, drink, and be fat and drunk." - Here's an independent clause with three verbs.
• "Tim likes to hang out with people who eat sushi, drink whiskey, and dance the lambada." - Here we have a "who" clause that contains three verbs.

Either of these examples is completely fine, as is choice (A) in this question.

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Re: Normally a bone becomes fossilized through the action of groundwater  [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2020, 18:31
EMPOWERgmatVerbal wrote:
H

So why else is option E incorrect, even though it uses parallel structure? The GMAT requires the use of the serial comma (aka the Oxford comma) for every item in a list, including the last item in a list of 3+ items. Answer E doesn’t use a serial comma for the third item, so it’s wrong.

But even more fundamentally, (options D and E), insert “permeating” as an -ing modifier right after the comma, which opens up a confusing ambiguous reference because “permeating” could mean that:

1) groundwater permeates the bone
2) the action of groundwater permeates the bone
3) or even the fossilization through the action of groundwater permeates the bone

A is both parallel, and retains the intended message.

Don’t study for the GMAT. Train for it.

1. Oxford comma is not optional for list of items: A,B and C- i thin it is clear enough. We use comma before and if new clause comes after and.
Do you mean even for phrase also we need a comma before and?

2. is not "action of groundwater rather than ground water" modifying permeating the bone, washing away its organic components and replacing them?
please clarify. how ground water itself can permeate bone but its action can permeate.
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Normally a bone becomes fossilized through the action of groundwater  [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2020, 20:54
Quote:
rsrighosh wrote:
Quote:
Normally a bone becomes fossilized through the action of groundwater, which permeates the bone, washes away its organic components, and replaces them with minerals.

Doesn't this sentence violate the rule - 1 clause cannot have more than 1 verb?

Hmm, I'm not sure what rule you're talking about.

"Tim likes to eat, drink, and be fat and drunk." - Here's an independent clause with three verbs.
"Tim likes to hang out with people who eat sushi, drink whiskey, and dance the lambada." - Here we have a "who" clause that contains three verbs.

Either of these examples is completely fine, as is choice (A) in this question.

GMATNinja

Let me rephrase my question:-Doesn't A violate the rule:- One subject cannot have more than one verb.
Let me give an example:-

I saw a question:-

Considered one of the most intelligent of the New World monkeys, capuchins cleverly create an insecticide and crush millipedes, rubbing the remains of the bugs over its back.

A) capuchins cleverly create an insecticide and crush millipedes, rubbing the remains

B) capuchins cleverly create an insecticide, they crush millipedes, and with such rub the remains

C) capuchins use their cleverness to create an insecticide, crush millipedes, and rub the remains

D) the capuchin cleverly creates an insecticide, crushes millipedes, and it rubs the remains

E) the capuchin cleverly creates an insecticide, crushing millipedes and rubbing the remains

Here option E is right but D is not. As per my understanding, D contains two verbs for the subject capuchin "creates" and "crushes" which makes the sentence incorrect

why A is correct in this situation but D is incorrect in the Capuchin question.

"Tim likes to eat, drink, and be fat and drunk."
"Tim likes to hang out with people who eat sushi, drink whiskey, and dance the lambada."

The main verb for Tim is "likes" which is a single verb.
Also, in the second sentence "who" = "people"... and "people" is having 3 verbs - eat, drink, dance... isn't this structure incorrect? -- or am i wrong in understanding the rule?
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Normally a bone becomes fossilized through the action of groundwater   [#permalink] 16 Jul 2020, 20:54

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