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# Noun + Noun Modifiers: The most "versatile" modifier

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Re: NOUN + NOUN MODIFIERS Before we start discussing about the [#permalink]

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27 Jul 2013, 00:17
A group of paleontologists recently announced that a site in Utah has yielded fossils of some of the biggest armored dinosaurs ever found, and that they were at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur type previously found in North America.

(A) and that they were at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur type previously- Incorrect Comparison. Fossils are compared to dinosaur type. @Shraddha could you please confirm whether the usage of 'that' is a must in this type of 'and' parallel marker? if it is must, then why so?
(B) and they are at least 25 million years older than those of any similar dinosaur type that previously was-'was' is incorrect as 'that previously was...' refers to those i.e fossils (plural). @Shraddha: If 'was' in this sentence was 'were', is this sentence correct? This sentence has no 'that'.
(C) and the fossils are at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur types that previously were-Incorrect. Same error as A
(D) fossils that are at least 25 million years older than those of any similar dinosaur type previously-No errors visible.Correct usage of Absolute Phrase. Absolute phrase modifies 'fossils'
(E) fossils at least 25 million years older than similar dinosaur types previously-Incorrect. Same error as A
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Re: NOUN + NOUN MODIFIERS Before we start discussing about the [#permalink]

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31 Jul 2013, 06:59
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Expert's post
Hi All,

Here is the detailed solution of this one.

A group of paleontologists recently announced that a site in Utah has yielded fossils of some of the biggest armored dinosaurs ever found, and that they were at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur type previously found in North America.

Since the meaning of the sentence is pretty simple to understand, let’s move on to error analysis.

Error Analysis:

1. The paleontologists found some fossils and on the basis of this discovery, they announced these dinosaurs were at least 25 million years older than any other similar type previously found in North America. Hence, these two actions are not independent of each other. There is a causal relationship here. Hence, presenting these two information as two independent entities in a parallel list does not make sense.

2. Although it’s a not a deterministic error, it’s worth mentioning. Comma + and is used to join more than two entities in the list. Here it has been used to join two entities. Since comma lies in the non-underlined portion of the sentence, we do need suitable structure.

3. Also pronoun “they” can refer to “dinosaurs” as well as “fossils”.

PoE:

(A) and that they were at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur type previously: Incorrect for the reasons stated above.

(B) and they are at least 25 million years older than those of any similar dinosaur type that previously was: Incorrect.
1. This choice repeats all the errors of Choice A.
2. “those of” now stands for “fossils”. This leads to incorrect comparison. Logically, the comparison should be between two types of “dinosaurs”. But here the comparison is incorrect any way. If “they” refers to “fossils”, then the comparison is between fossils. This is certainly incorrect. If “they” refers to “dinosaurs” then the comparison is illogical because now “dinosaurs” are compared to “fossils”.

(C) and the fossils are at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur types that previously were: Incorrect. Incorrect. This choice as illogical comparison. Entities compared – “fossils” and “any similar dinosaur types”.

(D) fossils that are at least 25 million years older than those of any similar dinosaur type previously: Correct.

(E) fossils at least 25 million years older than similar dinosaur types previously: Incorrect. Same comparison error as in choice C.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: NOUN + NOUN MODIFIERS Before we start discussing about the [#permalink]

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05 Aug 2013, 10:30
egmat wrote:
Hi All,

Here is the detailed solution of this one.

A group of paleontologists recently announced that a site in Utah has yielded fossils of some of the biggest armored dinosaurs ever found, and that they were at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur type previously found in North America.

Since the meaning of the sentence is pretty simple to understand, let’s move on to error analysis.

Error Analysis:

1. The paleontologists found some fossils and on the basis of this discovery, they announced these dinosaurs were at least 25 million years older than any other similar type previously found in North America. Hence, these two actions are not independent of each other. There is a causal relationship here. Hence, presenting these two information as two independent entities in a parallel list does not make sense.

2. Although it’s a not a deterministic error, it’s worth mentioning. Comma + and is used to join more than two entities in the list. Here it has been used to join two entities. Since comma lies in the non-underlined portion of the sentence, we do need suitable structure.

3. Also pronoun “they” can refer to “dinosaurs” as well as “fossils”.

PoE:

(A) and that they were at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur type previously: Incorrect for the reasons stated above.

(B) and they are at least 25 million years older than those of any similar dinosaur type that previously was: Incorrect.
1. This choice repeats all the errors of Choice A.
2. “those of” now stands for “fossils”. This leads to incorrect comparison. Logically, the comparison should be between two types of “dinosaurs”. But here the comparison is incorrect any way. If “they” refers to “fossils”, then the comparison is between fossils. This is certainly incorrect. If “they” refers to “dinosaurs” then the comparison is illogical because now “dinosaurs” are compared to “fossils”.

(C) and the fossils are at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur types that previously were: Incorrect. Incorrect. This choice as illogical comparison. Entities compared – “fossils” and “any similar dinosaur types”.

(D) fossils that are at least 25 million years older than those of any similar dinosaur type previously: Correct.

(E) fossils at least 25 million years older than similar dinosaur types previously: Incorrect. Same comparison error as in choice C.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

here there are other errors too right?? What about tense errors? So here the correct ans is a noun modifier right?
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Re: NOUN + NOUN MODIFIERS Before we start discussing about the [#permalink]

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28 Aug 2013, 00:43
Hi Egmat,

All these Noun + Noun Modifiers are phrases or clauses?

Regards,
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Re: NOUN + NOUN MODIFIERS Before we start discussing about the [#permalink]

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25 Oct 2013, 17:16
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gorupruthi wrote:
egmat wrote:
Hi Folks,

Try this official question (OG Verbal 2#100) to aee if you have understood the concept discussed in the article well.

Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, an asteroid bigger than Mount Everest slammed into North America, which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks the end of the geologic era known as the Cretaceous Period.

A. which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks
B. which caused the plant and animal extinctions marking
C. and causing plant and animal extinctions that mark
D. an event that caused plant and animal extinctions, and it marks
E. an event that caused the plant and animal extinctions that mark

Thanks.

It is a great great article. Note that i have not mistakenly written "great" 2 times :)
I have 1 doubt in respect to tense in this question.Why we are using Mark in present tense . Acc. to my analysis since that happened 65million years ago.
Also i got confused and assumed "it" in choice D should refer to Event , because original choice structure is like not giving any indication that "marks" should be the verb of extinctiojns.So thats why i chose D as correct one.
Please clarify that how i can avoid such mistakes.

Regards,
Gourav

Great to read this article. I have question of understanding this sentence correctly. I chose D as correct answer (although base on your analysis, it's wrong). Same with Gourav, think "an event that caused plant and animal extinctions, and it marks " is true because "event" refer to "an asteroid bigger than Mount Everest slammed into North America". The event "an asteroid bigger than Mount Everest slammed into North America" leads to two things: 1>plant and animal extinctions and 2>marks the end of the geologic era. It's logical to think that "asteroid slammed into North America" causes the end of the geologic era because this is the end of "GEOLOGIC" not the "LIVES" of plant and animal. That's why D is an option. How do you think?

Best regards,
Lucy
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Re: Noun + Noun Modifiers: The most "versatile" modifier [#permalink]

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17 Nov 2013, 00:25
Amazing work indeed. Noun+Noud modifiers, a topic that was very confusing earlier, is now checked.
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Re: Noun + Noun Modifiers: The most "versatile" modifier [#permalink]

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17 Nov 2013, 06:52

I need help with the following:

James created a magnificent design by using latest graphic design tools, a work acknowleged and appreciated by all investors.

I understand that the underlined text is a noun+noun modifier. But i believe it is also an independent clause -it has a clear subject(work) and a verb (acknowledged and appreciated).

My question is why is an IC(the first sentence) connected to another IC(the underlined sentence) by just a comma?

Thanks
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Re: NOUN + NOUN MODIFIERS Before we start discussing about the [#permalink]

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23 Dec 2013, 22:43
catfreak wrote:
Thanks Shraddha. Found a question on Noun + Noun Modifier

Astronomers have theorized that the Big Bang governs the behavior of interstellar dust, particles that comprise the atoms and molecules created in the progenitive explosion and persisting in even the emptiest regions of space.
persisting
persists
persisted
they persist
are persisting

OA - A
Can you please explain why C is wrong. The explanation talks about parallelism but how is it possible to have present participle parallel to past participle.

1) dividing the sentence into subject verb pairs:
Astronomers have theorized - Astronomers have
that the Big Bang governs the behavior of interstellar dust, particlesthat -> theory(subject) governs(verb)
that comprise the atoms and molecules created in the progenitive explosion and persisting in even the emptiest regions of space.that -> particles(subject) created(verb)

2) Verb form is all correct
3) checking the usage of 'and'
particles that comprise the atoms and molecules created in the progenitive explosion - Parallel as atom consists of two things
and persisting in even the emptiest regions of space - this and is connecting two modifiers of the particles i.e they comprise atoms and molecules also they(particles) persisting in the empty spaces as well. Hence, to keep the parallelism the modifiers must be parallel i.e. Present Participal form is best suited here.

option B is incorrect because particles are plural - hence persists is wrong word.
Option C,D and E are not accurate.

Please correct me in case above is not correct.
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Re: NOUN + NOUN MODIFIERS Before we start discussing about the [#permalink]

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23 Dec 2013, 23:17
GmatDestroyer2013 wrote:
catfreak wrote:
Thanks Shraddha. Found a question on Noun + Noun Modifier

Astronomers have theorized that the Big Bang governs the behavior of interstellar dust, particles that comprise the atoms and molecules created in the progenitive explosion and persisting in even the emptiest regions of space.
persisting
persists
persisted
they persist
are persisting

OA - A
Can you please explain why C is wrong. The explanation talks about parallelism but how is it possible to have present participle parallel to past participle.

1) dividing the sentence into subject verb pairs:
Astronomers have theorized - Astronomers have
that the Big Bang governs the behavior of interstellar dust, particlesthat -> theory(subject) governs(verb)
that comprise the atoms and molecules created in the progenitive explosion and persisting in even the emptiest regions of space.that -> particles(subject) created(verb)

2) Verb form is all correct
3) checking the usage of 'and'
particles that comprise the atoms and molecules created in the progenitive explosion - Parallel as atom consists of two things
and persisting in even the emptiest regions of space - this and is connecting two modifiers of the particles i.e they comprise atoms and molecules also they(particles) persisting in the empty spaces as well. Hence, to keep the parallelism the modifiers must be parallel i.e. Present Participal form is best suited here.

option B is incorrect because particles are plural - hence persists is wrong word.
Option C,D and E are not accurate.

Please correct me in case above is not correct.

'Persisted' in option B is a verb not a modifier.
It is the action of 'atoms and molecules' and not 'particles' which is the subject.
How can this be corrected? By removing the verb and replacing it with a verb-ing modifier.

Additionally, the sentence would now be of the construction ->
Astronomers have theorized that the Big Bang governs the behavior of interstellar dust, particles that comprise the atoms and molecules created in the progenitive explosion and persisting in even the emptiest regions of space.

Both are modifiers; separated by 'and' and are parallel.
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Re: Noun + Noun Modifiers: The most "versatile" modifier [#permalink]

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24 Dec 2013, 02:41
Wow! Your step by step process of explanation seems to be the best so far. Thank you for such a nice and self explanatory article.
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Re: Noun + Noun Modifiers: The most "versatile" modifier [#permalink]

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25 Dec 2013, 07:04
Would persist have also worked here even though it was not an answer choice?
Seems like that is the most natural choice.
Thanks
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Re: Noun + Noun Modifiers: The most "versatile" modifier [#permalink]

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25 Dec 2013, 08:41
Policarpa wrote:
Would persist have also worked here even though it was not an answer choice?
Seems like that is the most natural choice.
Thanks

The sentence is of the construction ->
Astronomers have theorized that the Big Bang governs the behavior of interstellar dust, particles that comprise the atoms and molecules created in the progenitive explosion and persisting in even the emptiest regions of space.

Both are modifiers; separated by 'and' and are parallel.

'Persist' is a verb. And the underlined part is a modifier. A verb cannot be parallel with the modifier.
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What are modifiers ??

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Re: Noun + Noun Modifiers: The most "versatile" modifier [#permalink]

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10 Jan 2014, 04:18
Hi There,

Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, an asteroid bigger than Mount Everest slammed into North America, which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks the end of the geologic era known as the Cretaceous Period.

A. which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks -which has wrong referent
B. which caused the plant and animal extinctions marking -which has wrong referent
C. and causing plant and animal extinctions that mark -Parallelism error- caused
D. an event that caused plant and animal extinctions, and it marks -ambigious referent for it
E. an event that caused the plant and animal extinctions that mark- an event + marks should be the verb

Can someone pls advise me that in choice E why the verb is mark not marks

Tks/Brgds

Anurag
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Re: Noun + Noun Modifiers: The most "versatile" modifier [#permalink]

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10 Jan 2014, 04:49
anuragd wrote:
Hi There,
Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, an asteroid bigger than Mount Everest slammed into North America, which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks the end of the geologic era known as the Cretaceous Period.

A. which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks -which has wrong referent
B. which caused the plant and animal extinctions marking -which has wrong referent
C. and causing plant and animal extinctions that mark -Parallelism error- caused
D. an event that caused plant and animal extinctions, and it marks -ambigious referent for it
E. an event that caused the plant and animal extinctions that mark- an event + marks should be the verb

Can someone pls advise me that in choice E why the verb is mark not marks

Tks/Brgds

Anurag

Because mark is modifying extinctions and not event
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Re: Noun + Noun Modifiers: The most "versatile" modifier [#permalink]

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08 May 2014, 09:47
undoubtedly, a super article. I hope at least I will not make mistake in these type of sentences.
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Re: Noun + Noun Modifiers: The most "versatile" modifier [#permalink]

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29 May 2014, 22:23
Thanks E GMAT. You are doing a fab job. I will follow you now.. For your answer and explanation.
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Re: Noun + Noun Modifiers: The most "versatile" modifier [#permalink]

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08 Jul 2014, 21:51
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BOOKMARKED
Hi,
Regarding the above mentioned question, I would like to know since the modifiers are referring to an event in the past, why they are both using present tense verbs?

In 2000, just 24 products were responsible for increase in the money spent on prescriptions.the phenomenon that is explained not just by the fact that:
a. drugs are becoming more expensive.
b. doctors are prescribing expensive drugs.

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Re: Noun + Noun Modifiers: The most "versatile" modifier [#permalink]

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21 Aug 2014, 02:21
For some who is starting to prepare for GMAT and very much afraid of this terms, your articles are going to be very helpful !!!
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Re: Noun + Noun Modifiers: The most "versatile" modifier [#permalink]

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22 Oct 2014, 05:13
awesome article
able to understand clearly about modifiers...

Do you guys have more articles about modifiers..
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Noun + Noun Modifiers: The most "versatile" modifier [#permalink]

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26 Jun 2015, 05:02
Hi e-GMAT,

Don't you think that in the following sentence that you have analysed, the 'a phenomenon that most scientists agree ... fossil fuels' part is an appositive, rather than an absolute phrase?

Or at least can the mentioned part be considered an appositive?!

Thanks,
Noun + Noun Modifiers: The most "versatile" modifier   [#permalink] 26 Jun 2015, 05:02

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