Check GMAT Club Decision Tracker for the Latest School Decision Releases https://gmatclub.com/AppTrack

 It is currently 22 May 2017, 21:57

### GMAT Club Daily Prep

#### Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

# Events & Promotions

###### Events & Promotions in June
Open Detailed Calendar

# Noun + Noun Modifiers: The most "versatile" modifier

Author Message
TAGS:

### Hide Tags

e-GMAT Representative
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 2022
Followers: 2210

Kudos [?]: 7736 [151] , given: 291

Noun + Noun Modifiers: The most "versatile" modifier [#permalink]

### Show Tags

14 Aug 2012, 14:55
151
KUDOS
Expert's post
106
This post was
BOOKMARKED
NOUN + NOUN MODIFIERS

Before we start discussing about the functions of noun + noun modifiers, let’s do a little warm up exercise here. Following are the three sentences. On the basis of the usage of modifier, identify which of the following are correct.

1. James created a magnificent design by using latest graphic design tools, a work acknowledged and appreciated by all investors.
2. James created a magnificent design by using latest graphic design tools, an experiment that many feared to do because of the instability in the output resulting from these tools.
3. James created a magnificent design by using latest graphic design tools, expensive but super helpful devices developed especially for minute detailing and elaboration.

NOUN + NOUN MODIFIERS: CONFUSION

All the above mentioned “warm up” sentences are correct. Well, I would not be surprised to know that the answer surprised you. The modifier that all the three sentences have here follows the structure of noun + noun modifier. The usage of this modifier in all the above mentioned sentences is correct.

1. James created a magnificent design by using latest graphic design tools, a work acknowledged and appreciated by all investors.
2. James created a magnificent design by using latest graphic design tools, an experiment that many feared to do because of the instability in the output resulting from these tools.
3. James created a magnificent design by using latest graphic design tools, expensive but super helpful devices developed especially for minute detailing and elaboration.

Noun + Noun modifiers are very versatile modifiers. Unlike the structure of other modifiers, their structure does not restrict their modification to a particular entity in the sentence. For example, verb-ed or verb-ing modifier without a preceding comma can only modify the preceding noun entity.

The noun + noun modifiers are very versatile because despite having a definite structure, they don’t modify an entity in a definite position in the sentence.
The noun + noun modifiers can modify the entire preceding clause, the preceding noun entity, or a noun in the middle of the sentence. The modification done by these modifiers is completely driven by the context of the sentence.

This versatility of noun + noun modifiers to modify any aspect in a sentence makes them very complex and dreaded. The GMAT takers do possess some knowledge of such modifiers and their functions. However, this complex nature of noun + noun modifiers to be able to modify just about any aspect in a sentence leaves them confused as to how to identify which particular entity a noun + noun modifier is referring to in a particular sentence. Hence, they pray not to encounter these scary modifiers.

Another thing to keep in mind is that a noun + noun modifier must refer to only one entity in the sentence. If the modification leads to slightest of ambiguity, then the usage of this modifier will stand incorrect. Let’s understand this point through an example:

In the above sentence, “a gift that was in her wish list from a very long time” is the noun + noun modifier.
that was in her wish list from a very long time = noun modifier

Now, in this sentence, there are two equally strong contenders for the modification of this noun + noun modifier – iPhone 4S and iPad 3.

Any one of them qualify to be in Kim’s wish list. The noun + noun modifier “a gift that…” will make sense with both the entities. Hence, in this sentence, there is ambiguity about the modification of noun + noun modifier. Hence use of this modifier here is incorrect.

We can rectify this error by saying:

In this sentence, noun + noun modifier has been replaced by relative pronoun clause. Relative pronoun “which” clearly refers to the preceding noun iPad 3, making it clear that this item was in Kim’s wish list for a very long time.
We can interchange the devices to denote which article was in Kim’s wish list for long.

Also, since the modification of noun + noun modifiers is completely context driven, a test taker may find it extremely difficult to identify the entity this modifier modifies in a sentence if he/she is unable to understand the intended logical meaning of the sentence.

This article is aimed at doing away with all the fears and confusions related to the usage of noun + noun modifiers. In this article, we will demonstrate how and in which scenarios, a Noun + Noun Modifier can be used to modify various entities in the preceding clause including the entire preceding clause itself. At the end of the article, we have also included a small quiz for you to check your understanding of this particular modifier.

NOUN + NOUN MODIFIERS: FUNCTION

As already mentioned above, noun + noun modifiers are very versatile modifiers and can modify an entity in the sentence. This entity can be the immediate preceding noun, a noun in the middle of the preceding clause, or the entire preceding clause. The modification of noun + noun modifiers completely depends on the context of the sentence.
Let’s discuss the “warm up” sentences to see how they are correct and the noun + noun modifier in each sentence is modifying which entity in the sentence and why.

1. NOUN + NOUN MODIFIER: MODIFYING PRECEDING NOUN

Noun + Noun modifier can modify the immediate preceding noun entity if the context of the sentence demands so. Sentence 3 of the “warm up” exercise falls into this category.

SIMPLE EXAMPLE:

Noun + Noun modifier can modify the immediate preceding noun entity if the context of the sentence demands so. Sentence 3 of the “warm up” exercise falls into this category.

This sentence means that James created an excellent design by using latest design tools. Then the modifier explains what kind of tool they are. They are expensive but helpful devices that are especially created for certain specific tasks.

In this sentence, “expensive but super helpful devices developed especially for minute detailing and elaboration” is the noun + noun modifier. Here,
expensive but super helpful devices = noun entity
developed especially for minute detailing and elaboration = noun modifier.

Notice that “developed” is the verb-ed modifier here that is modifying the preceding noun entity “expensive but super helpful devices”.

The noun “expensive but super helpful devices” can logically refer to the “latest graphic design tools”, because there is no other noun entity that it will make sense with. Now “design” is another noun in the sentence.
However, “design” cannot be classified as “tools”. Hence, logically this modification will not make sense.

Hence, per the context of the sentence, the noun + noun modifier (expensive but super helpful devices developed especially for minute detailing and elaboration) is modifying the preceding noun entity (latest graphic design tools) in this sentence because that is the only logical referent in the main clause.

OFFICIAL EXAMPLE: OG 12#118 (with correct answer choice C)

In order to understand the modification in this sentence, let us first understand the intended meaning of the sentence. The sentence says that The WWF has declared that global warming will create havoc among migratory birds. It will do so by changing the environment in such ways that will be harmful to their habitats. By the way, global warming is a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by burning of fossil fuels by humans.

In this sentence, “a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by human beings' burning of fossil fuels” is the noun + noun modifier.
a phenomenon = noun entity
that most scientists agree is caused by human beings' burning of fossil fuels = noun modifier

The noun modifier in this structure is a relative pronoun “that” clause. Here “that” refers to “a phenomenon”, the preceding noun.

So, logically what can be referred as “a phenomenon…” in this sentence? The WWF can certainly be not classified as “a phenomenon”. So this noun is ruled out.

Again, can “a phenomenon” be attributed to the action of declaring by the WWF? Certainly not because it does not make sense to say that the declaration is a phenomenon that most scientist agree is caused by a certain activity of humans. So this entity is also rejected.

Can “global warming” be called “a phenomenon” that most scientists agree is cause by humans? By all means, yes. It is the phenomenon that has cause by humans’ burning of fossil fuel.

Hence, per the context of the sentence, the noun + noun modifier is actually talking about the preceding noun entity “global warming” in that it is giving additional information about global warming which a phenomenon, an incident. The noun + noun modifier is referring to the immediate preceding noun in this official sentence.

2. NOUN + NOUN MODIFIER: MODIFYING NOUN IN MIDDLE

A noun + noun modifier can easily modify a noun entity in the middle of the preceding clause, provided the context of the sentence demands such modification. The versatility of this modifier allows it zoom into any entity of the preceding clause to modify it. Let’s understand this by examples.

SIMPLE EXAMPLE:
Sentence 2 of the “warm up” exercise falls into this category.

As usual, let’s first get the meaning of this sentence. The sentence says that James created an excellent design, using latest graphic design tools. It was a work that was acknowledged and appreciated by all investors.

In this sentence, “a work acknowledged and appreciated by all investors” is the noun + noun modifier.
a work = noun entity acknowledged and appreciated by all investors = noun modifier (verb-ed modifier) that modifies the preceding noun.

Per the context, the noun entity “a work” must refer to refer to a logical entity. Now, the only logical entity to which “a work acknowledged…” can be logically attributed to is “a magnificent design”. This is the work that James did.

Now let’s ask, is it possible for this noun + noun modifier to refer to the preceding noun “latest graphic design tools”? Logically, no it’s not. “Tools” cannot be called “a work”. Their creation can be classified as work but “tools” themselves are not work.

So, per the logical context of the sentence, “a work acknowledged…” modifies a noun that appears somewhere in the middle of the preceding clause.

OFFICIAL EXAMPLE: OG 12#48 (with correct answer choice B)

Let’s take the first step. Let’s first understand the meaning of this sentence. The sentence says that in 1713, Pope started translating the Iliad. This work of translation took him seven years. Johnson pronounced this work the greatest translation in any language.

So as identified already, “a work... any language” is the noun + noun modifier in this sentence.
a work = noun entity
that took… any language = noun modifier (relative pronoun “that” clause modifier)

There are two nouns before “a work” that this modifier can refer to – “translation” and “Iliad”. Let’s first analyze the modification with “translation”. It makes absolute sense for “a work” to refer to “translation” because translation is the work that Pope did and this is the work that took him seven years too. Also, it is the translation only that Johnson pronounced the greatest in any language.

Now let’s see if “a work” can refer to “Iliad”. Certainly not because Pope did not take seven years to finish Iliad. He took that long to translate Iliad. Also, Johnson did not call the Iliad the greatest translation. He called Iliad’s translation, done by Pope, the greatest in any language.

Hence, logically it makes sense for “a work,,, any language”, a noun + noun modifier to refer to “translation”, a noun entity somewhere in the middle of the preceding clause.

3. NOUN + NOUN MODIFIER: MODIFYING PRECEDING CLAUSE

Another entity that a noun + noun modifier can refer to is the entire preceding clause, if the context demands such modification. In this case, the noun + noun modifier will not refer to any particular entity but to the subject and the verb of the preceding clause. Let’s see how.

SIMPLE EXAMPLE:

Sentence 2 of the “warm up” exercise falls into this classification.

Let’s understand the meaning first. James created an excellent design, using latest graphic design tools. This creation of the design by using latest design tools was an experiment that many were scared to do because the results that were obtained by using these tools were not stable.

As already highlighted in green, “an experiment… these tools” is the noun + noun modifier.
an experiment = noun entity
that may… these tools = noun modifier (relative pronoun “that” clause modifier)

So let’s consider and analyze the possible entities this noun + noun modifier can refer to.

This noun + noun modifier cannot refer to the immediate preceding noun because “latest graphic design tools” are no experiment. They are tools, kind of devices used for certain activities. Hence, this modification is logically impossible.

What about a noun entity in the middle of the preceding clause – “design”? Well, same logic again. “Design” itself is not an experiment that many were afraid to do. Hence, this entity is rejected too.

However, it does make sense to for this modifier to modify the entire preceding clause because James’ creation of the design by using the graphic design tools was an experiment because of the reason stated in the sentence. Hence, per the context of the sentence, this noun + noun modifier refers to the entire preceding clause in this sentence.

OFFICIAL EXAMPLE: OG 12#83 (with correct answer choice B)

Performing the ritual, let’s first understand the meaning of this one. In 2000, just 24 products were responsible for increase in the money spent on prescriptions. There were two reasons for this incident:
a. drugs are becoming more expensive.
b. doctors are prescribing expensive drugs.

The green portion of the sentence is the noun + noun modifier.
a phenomenon = noun
“that is… high-cost drugs” = noun modifier (relative pronoun “that” clause modifier)

Is this modifier modifying the preceding noun? It cannot do so because logically “prescriptions drugs” is no phenomenon. They are products. Moreover, singular “a phenomenon” does not agree in number with plural “prescriptions drugs”.

Can it modify another noun entity “half the increase in spending”? Logically it cannot because this information fails to incorporate the fact that only 24 products are responsible for this increase. This increase is phenomenal because of the fact that it has been happened because of the sale of mere 24 drugs.

Hence, it makes sense for the noun + noun modifier in this sentence that to modify the entire preceding clause. This modification makes it clear why this increase is noteworthy. The noun modifiers present the reasons for this phenomenal increase in spending.

A QUICK LOOK

_________________

| '4 out of Top 5' Instructors on gmatclub | 70 point improvement guarantee | www.e-gmat.com

Last edited by egmat on 31 Jul 2013, 13:50, edited 5 times in total.
If you have any questions
New!
Intern
Joined: 13 Dec 2011
Posts: 14
Followers: 2

Kudos [?]: 60 [0], given: 8

Re: Noun + Noun Modifiers: The most "versatile" modifier [#permalink]

### Show Tags

14 Aug 2012, 18:44
Thanks for this awesomeness. This is probably the first of its kind and the best analysis I have seen on this topic. These modifiers always stumped me. But after going through this article, I no longer dread them. Keep up the good work
_________________
Intern
Joined: 24 Oct 2011
Posts: 3
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 4 [0], given: 30

Re: Noun + Noun Modifiers: The most "versatile" modifier [#permalink]

### Show Tags

14 Aug 2012, 21:46
This topic is really informative...thanks for this
Intern
Joined: 12 Feb 2012
Posts: 38
Location: United States
GMAT Date: 08-30-2012
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 49 [1] , given: 15

Re: Noun + Noun Modifiers: The most "versatile" modifier [#permalink]

### Show Tags

14 Aug 2012, 22:43
1
KUDOS
Awesome material ....It could really help to all non-native speaker ...
_________________

KUMAR GAURAB

VP
Joined: 09 Jun 2010
Posts: 1390
Followers: 5

Kudos [?]: 130 [2] , given: 854

Re: Noun + Noun Modifiers: The most "versatile" modifier [#permalink]

### Show Tags

15 Aug 2012, 02:54
2
KUDOS
Thank e gmat.
We wish to have more articles like this.
The article makes the matter simple and easy to understand and is close to Gmat SC.

one more I want to add.
we should say" noun+ noun modifier can modify the preceding noun or preceding noun phrase. If noun+noun modifier modifies the noun phrase, "noun+noun mdifier" is modifying the far noun. For more on this case, read the article " slightly far noun" writen also by e gmat.

Thank you e gmat .

We wish e gmat write more articles on CR section.
_________________

visit my facebook to help me.
on facebook, my name is: thang thang thang

Intern
Joined: 11 Apr 2012
Posts: 39
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 69 [0], given: 93

Re: Noun + Noun Modifiers: The most "versatile" modifier [#permalink]

### Show Tags

15 Aug 2012, 09:06
Thanks Shraddha and team! Very informative and useful indeed. Kudos to you guys!
Manager
Status: Appearing for GMAT
Joined: 23 May 2011
Posts: 133
Location: United States (NJ)
Concentration: Finance, General Management
GPA: 3.5
WE: Information Technology (Computer Software)
Followers: 2

Kudos [?]: 226 [1] , given: 34

Re: Noun + Noun Modifiers: The most "versatile" modifier [#permalink]

### Show Tags

16 Aug 2012, 20:55
1
KUDOS
Really helpful discussion and appreciate a lot for such a wonderful contribution....
_________________

"Giving kudos" is a decent way to say "Thanks" and motivate contributors. Please use them, it won't cost you anything.
Thanks Rphardu

Manager
Joined: 17 Apr 2012
Posts: 72
GMAT Date: 11-02-2012
Followers: 3

Kudos [?]: 12 [0], given: 17

Re: Noun + Noun Modifiers: The most "versatile" modifier [#permalink]

### Show Tags

18 Aug 2012, 04:42
Hi,

Thanks a lot for the topic. I solved these questions before but was not sure about the reasoning. After reading your articles, it is much more easier.

Regards,
Vivek Dixit
Intern
Joined: 12 Aug 2012
Posts: 7
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 1 [0], given: 95

Re: Noun + Noun Modifiers: The most "versatile" modifier [#permalink]

### Show Tags

20 Aug 2012, 06:14
Hi,
Thank you for this topic.

Regards,
e-GMAT Representative
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 2022
Followers: 2210

Kudos [?]: 7736 [4] , given: 291

Re: Noun + Noun Modifiers: The most "versatile" modifier [#permalink]

### Show Tags

20 Aug 2012, 08:58
4
KUDOS
Expert's post
We are overwhelmed with the praise for this article. As a thank you we will soon be adding a free quiz.

Regards,

_________________

| '4 out of Top 5' Instructors on gmatclub | 70 point improvement guarantee | www.e-gmat.com

e-GMAT Representative
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 2022
Followers: 2210

Kudos [?]: 7736 [3] , given: 291

Re: Noun + Noun Modifiers: The most "versatile" modifier [#permalink]

### Show Tags

20 Aug 2012, 09:54
3
KUDOS
Expert's post
Hi Folks,
Here is the PDF for the article. The quiz is soon to follow.
Attachments

The PDF for the article.pdf [1.11 MiB]

_________________

| '4 out of Top 5' Instructors on gmatclub | 70 point improvement guarantee | www.e-gmat.com

e-GMAT Representative
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 2022
Followers: 2210

Kudos [?]: 7736 [3] , given: 291

Re: NOUN + NOUN MODIFIERS Before we start discussing about the [#permalink]

### Show Tags

24 Aug 2012, 11:33
3
KUDOS
Expert's post
Hi Folks,

Try this official question (OG Verbal 2#100) to aee if you have understood the concept discussed in the article well.

Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, an asteroid bigger than Mount Everest slammed into North America, which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks the end of the geologic era known as the Cretaceous Period.

A. which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks
B. which caused the plant and animal extinctions marking
C. and causing plant and animal extinctions that mark
D. an event that caused plant and animal extinctions, and it marks
E. an event that caused the plant and animal extinctions that mark

Thanks.
_________________

| '4 out of Top 5' Instructors on gmatclub | 70 point improvement guarantee | www.e-gmat.com

Intern
Joined: 15 Jul 2012
Posts: 13
GMAT Date: 10-25-2012
GPA: 3
Followers: 1

Kudos [?]: 31 [0], given: 6

Re: NOUN + NOUN MODIFIERS Before we start discussing about the [#permalink]

### Show Tags

28 Aug 2012, 11:12
egmat wrote:
Hi Folks,

Try this official question (OG Verbal 2#100) to aee if you have understood the concept discussed in the article well.

Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, an asteroid bigger than Mount Everest slammed into North America, which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks the end of the geologic era known as the Cretaceous Period.

A. which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks
B. which caused the plant and animal extinctions marking
C. and causing plant and animal extinctions that mark
D. an event that caused plant and animal extinctions, and it marks
E. an event that caused the plant and animal extinctions that mark

Thanks.

IMO, it should be E.
noun = "an event"
noun-modifier="that caused the plant and animal extinctions"
Here, the noun+noun-modifier is modifying the entire clause - the event of asteroid slamming into north america. Please let me know if I am right here?

Also, A and B uses "which", which makes it modify north america.
C uses "and" but does not have parallelism. D uses wrong tense - "marks".
_________________

get what u like or like what u get

Senior Manager
Joined: 15 Jun 2010
Posts: 361
Schools: IE'14, ISB'14, Kellogg'15
WE 1: 7 Yrs in Automobile (Commercial Vehicle industry)
Followers: 11

Kudos [?]: 398 [1] , given: 50

Re: NOUN + NOUN MODIFIERS Before we start discussing about the [#permalink]

### Show Tags

28 Aug 2012, 12:18
1
KUDOS
egmat wrote:
Hi Folks,

Try this official question (OG Verbal 2#100) to aee if you have understood the concept discussed in the article well.

Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, an asteroid bigger than Mount Everest slammed into North America, which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks the end of the geologic era known as the Cretaceous Period.

A. which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks - Which has no clear sensical referent
B. which caused the plant and animal extinctions marking - Which has no clear sensical referent
C. and causing plant and animal extinctions that mark - Slammed ....and causing (Parallelism error)
D. an event that caused plant and animal extinctions, and it marks - It has no clear sensical referent.
E. an event that caused the plant and animal extinctions that mark - an event clearly modifies "an asteroid bigger than Mount Everest slammed into North America" + that clearly refers to plant & animal extinctions.

Thanks.

As per the meaning of the sentence - the event (asteroid slammed North America ) led to extinction of plant & animals and the extinction subsequently marked the end of era.
The correct answer in my opinion is E.
_________________

Regards
SD
-----------------------------
Press Kudos if you like my post.
Debrief 610-540-580-710(Long Journey): http://gmatclub.com/forum/from-600-540-580-710-finally-achieved-in-4th-attempt-142456.html

Intern
Joined: 22 May 2010
Posts: 34
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 8 [0], given: 105

Re: NOUN + NOUN MODIFIERS Before we start discussing about the [#permalink]

### Show Tags

30 Aug 2012, 13:01
Thanks for the great article e-Gmat!

I've a couple of questions:

1)Can a relative pronoun, such as 'which', reach inside a compound noun ?
On her birthday, Kim got from her parents an iPhone 4S and iPad 3, which was in her wish list from a very long time.

Here "iPhone 4S and iPad 3" is a compound noun. You mentioned that 'which' in this example correctly refers to iPad3. But don't we need a descriptive word such as 'latter' or 'former' in order to point to a noun inside a compound noun?
Something like -
On her birthday, Kim got from her parents an iPhone 4S and an iPad 3, latter of which was in her wish list for a very long time.

2) Just to clarify my understanding -
A) Noun+noun modifier that modifies preceding clause is an absolute phrase right?

B) And Noun+noun modifier that modifies either a preceding noun or a noun in the preceding clause is an appositive correct?
Manager
Joined: 20 Nov 2010
Posts: 221
Followers: 4

Kudos [?]: 32 [0], given: 38

Re: NOUN + NOUN MODIFIERS Before we start discussing about the [#permalink]

### Show Tags

31 Aug 2012, 06:49
Thanks Shraddha. Found a question on Noun + Noun Modifier

Astronomers have theorized that the Big Bang governs the behavior of interstellar dust, particles that comprise the atoms and molecules created in the progenitive explosion and persisting in even the emptiest regions of space.
persisting
persists
persisted
they persist
are persisting

OA - A
Can you please explain why C is wrong. The explanation talks about parallelism but how is it possible to have present participle parallel to past participle.
_________________

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
MGMAT 6 650 (51,31) on 31/8/11
MGMAT 1 670 (48,33) on 04/9/11
MGMAT 2 670 (47,34) on 07/9/11
MGMAT 3 680 (47,35) on 18/9/11
GMAT Prep1 680 ( 50, 31) on 10/11/11

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
CR notes
http://gmatclub.com/forum/massive-collection-of-verbal-questions-sc-rc-and-cr-106195.html#p832142
http://gmatclub.com/forum/1001-ds-questions-file-106193.html#p832133
http://gmatclub.com/forum/gmat-prep-critical-reasoning-collection-106783.html
http://gmatclub.com/forum/how-to-get-6-0-awa-my-guide-64327.html
http://gmatclub.com/forum/how-to-get-6-0-awa-my-guide-64327.html?hilit=chineseburned

Intern
Joined: 06 Nov 2010
Posts: 41
Location: United States
GPA: 3.7
WE: Engineering (Other)
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 26 [0], given: 219

Re: NOUN + NOUN MODIFIERS Before we start discussing about the [#permalink]

### Show Tags

18 Sep 2012, 19:00
Another great Article eGMAT. I am on my 3rd week with eGMAT live prep, and I can say, in the last 3 weeks, I have learnt a lot more than I did in last 3 months.

egmat wrote:
Hi Folks,

Try this official question (OG Verbal 2#100) to aee if you have understood the concept discussed in the article well.

Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, an asteroid bigger than Mount Everest slammed into North America, which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks the end of the geologic era known as the Cretaceous Period.

A. which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks
B. which caused the plant and animal extinctions marking
C. and causing plant and animal extinctions that mark
D. an event that caused plant and animal extinctions, and it marks
E. an event that caused the plant and animal extinctions that mark

Thanks.

A & B which is incorrectly referring to NA
C is incorrect because asteriod didn't cause extinctions,
D, it is ambiguous
_________________

Do not dwell in the past, do not dream of the future, concentrate the mind on the present moment.

Push +1 kudos button please, if you like my post.

e-GMAT Representative
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 2022
Followers: 2210

Kudos [?]: 7736 [0], given: 291

Re: NOUN + NOUN MODIFIERS Before we start discussing about the [#permalink]

### Show Tags

18 Sep 2012, 19:44
catfreak wrote:
Thanks Shraddha. Found a question on Noun + Noun Modifier

Astronomers have theorized that the Big Bang governs the behavior of interstellar dust, particles that comprise the atoms and molecules created in the progenitive explosion and persisting in even the emptiest regions of space.
persisting
persists
persisted
they persist
are persisting

OA - A
Can you please explain why C is wrong. The explanation talks about parallelism but how is it possible to have present participle parallel to past participle.

I am not sure if you still have this doubt. After all you posted this question almost half a month back. In any case, if you still have doubts about this question, then I would suggest you read thisarticle. Pay close attention to the explanation of OG question - extending and spawned. And then come back here and solve this question. I would look forward to your explanation. If you have any other doubts regarding this, feel free to let me know.

Thanks,

Payal
_________________

| '4 out of Top 5' Instructors on gmatclub | 70 point improvement guarantee | www.e-gmat.com

Manager
Joined: 26 Jul 2011
Posts: 118
Location: India
WE: Marketing (Manufacturing)
Followers: 1

Kudos [?]: 126 [0], given: 16

Re: NOUN + NOUN MODIFIERS Before we start discussing about the [#permalink]

### Show Tags

26 Oct 2012, 04:35
Thanks egmat for this wonderful article. This article indeed is the best that I have come across..
e-GMAT Representative
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 2022
Followers: 2210

Kudos [?]: 7736 [1] , given: 291

Re: NOUN + NOUN MODIFIERS Before we start discussing about the [#permalink]

### Show Tags

26 Oct 2012, 10:09
1
KUDOS
Expert's post
Thank you all for all your appreciation. Your praises encourage and motivate us to continue the job that we are doing.
Thanks again.
_________________

| '4 out of Top 5' Instructors on gmatclub | 70 point improvement guarantee | www.e-gmat.com

Re: NOUN + NOUN MODIFIERS Before we start discussing about the   [#permalink] 26 Oct 2012, 10:09

Go to page    1   2   3   4    Next  [ 62 posts ]

Similar topics Replies Last post
Similar
Topics:
113 NOUN + NOUN MODIFIER VS. VERB-ING MODIFIER 30 24 Apr 2017, 05:33
5 Noun+verb+noun-modifier 6 07 Mar 2017, 18:07
51 A Primer on Noun phrases and Noun modifiers 12 09 Jun 2016, 12:22
Noun modifiers vs Verb Modifier 5 10 Aug 2012, 23:02
Which noun does this modifier modify? 3 17 Jul 2012, 12:42
Display posts from previous: Sort by