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# Now generally regarded as a forgery, the Kensington Rune Stone, a 90-k

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Now generally regarded as a forgery, the Kensington Rune Stone, a 90-k [#permalink]

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21 Aug 2012, 20:26
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Now generally regarded as a forgery, the Kensington Rune Stone, a 90-kilogram slab of inscribed rock discovered in Minnesota in 1898, was said to have recorded an encounter between Native Americans and Norse explorers in 1362 and thus was cited as evidence that Europeans explored North America in pre-Columbian times.

(A) was said to have recorded an encounter between Native Americans and Norse explorers in 1362 and thus was cited as evidence that Europeans explored

(B) was said to record an encounter between Native Americans and Norse explorers in 1362, thus being cited as evidence for European exploration of

(C) said to have recorded an encounter between Native Americans and Norse explorers in 1362, and thus cited as evidence for European exploration of

(D) which was said to record an encounter between Native Americans and Norse explorers in 1362, and thus cited as evidence that Europeans explored

(E) which, said to have recorded an encounter between Native Americans and Norse explorers in 1362, was thus cited as evidence for Europeans exploring

[Reveal] Spoiler:
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[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Now generally regarded as a forgery, the Kensington Rune Stone, a 90-k [#permalink]

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21 Aug 2012, 22:39
A: correct choice; avoids unnecessary shift of tense
B: stone was said to record does not convey any worthwhile meaning. Thus being cited is also ironic, as if it is being cited these days, while it is already confirmed to as a forged one.
C: said to have recorded modifies the stone. Is it logical? In addition, the sentence is a fragment with no prime verb
D: A combi-error of B and C put together

E; said to have recorded is wrong; sentence is also a fragment with the unnecessary intrusion of the sub-ordinate conjunction, which

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Re: Now generally regarded as a forgery, the Kensington Rune Stone, a 90-k [#permalink]

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22 Aug 2012, 00:22
As daagh points out, C, D, and E are all sentence fragments so the question falls quite quickly into choosing between A and B. For B, "thus being cited" is awkward and wordy.
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Re: Now generally regarded as a forgery, the Kensington Rune Stone, a 90-k [#permalink]

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22 Aug 2012, 17:42
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Answering a PM on this one .

I think the best split on this one is between those answer choices that are sentences and those that are fragments. For instance, if we take a look at (C), (D), and (E), none of them are sentences. Notice the clause beginning 'which' makes it so there is no verb that describes the Stone. Hence, (C), (D) and (E) can be eliminated. (B) has the dreaded 'being'. And just like that, we arrive at the correct answer, (A).
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Re: Now generally regarded as a forgery, the Kensington Rune Stone, a 90-k [#permalink]

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23 Aug 2012, 10:31
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Hi @Sujit2k7,
Now generally regarded a forgery, the Kensingston Rune Stone, a 90-kilogram slab of inscribed stone discovered in Minnesota in 1898, was said to have recorded an encounter between Native Americans and Norse explorers in 1362 and thus was cited as evidence that Europeans explored North America in pre-Columbian times.

Since the meaning of this sentence is pretty easy to understand, let’s perform the error analysis here.

1. Singular verb “was said” makes sense and agrees in number with singular subject “the Kensington Stone”.
2. The usage of simple past tense throughout the sentence is correct because it is presenting general information of events that took place in the past.
3. The verbs “was said” and “was cited” are parallel.
4. All the phrases used are correct here. Hence this sentence is correct as is.

POE:

A. was said to have recorded an encounter between Native Americans and Norse explorers in 1362 and thus was cited as evidence that Europeans explored: Correct for the reasons cited above.

B. was said to record an encounter between Native Americans and Norse explorers in 1362, thus being cited as evidence for Europeans exploration: Incorrect.
1. Use of “was said to record” is incorrect. Now this verb phrase suggests that the stone was supposed to record something. Whether ot has done that or not is not confirmed.
2. Use of “being cited” is not correct.

C. said to have recorded an encounter between Native Americans and Norse explorers in 1362, and thus cited as evidence for European exploration of: Incorrect.
1. There is no verb for the subject “the Kensington Stone”. We have a fragment here.
2. I would prefer preposition “by” instead of preposition “of” after exploration.

D. which was said to record an encounter between Native Americans and Norse explorers in 1362, and thus cited as evidence that Europeans explored: Incorrect.
1. Repeats the same fragment error of choice C.
2. Relative pronoun “which” is modifying preceding noun “1898”. This modification is illogical.

E. which, said to have recorded an encounter between Native Americans and Norse explorers in 1362, was thus cited as evidence for Europeans exploring: Incorrect.
1. Repeats the same fragment error of choice C.
2. We do not know what “said to have… in 1362” is referring to.
3. The way this choice is worded, it seems to suggest that evidence was cited for Europeans. This is not the intended meaning.

Hope this helps.
Thanks
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Re: Now generally regarded as a forgery, the Kensington Rune Stone, a 90-k [#permalink]

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23 Aug 2012, 13:24
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Now generally regarded a forgery, the Kensingston Rune Stone, a 90-kilogram slab of inscribed stone discovered in Minnesota in 1898, was said to have recorded an encounter between Native Americans and Norse explorers in 1362 and thus was cited as evidence that Europeans explored North America in pre-Columbian times.

removing the modifiers, the stem reduces to :

The rune stone .... WAS SAID............... AND........... WAS CITED..................... ( we can safely drop the adverb THUS precceding was cited )

WAS SAID ........... AND................WAS CITED ( parallel )

Leading to A = my take

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Re: Now generally regarded as a forgery, the Kensington Rune Stone, a 90-k [#permalink]

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23 Nov 2012, 11:02
egmat wrote:
Hi @Sujit2k7,
Now generally regarded a forgery, the Kensingston Rune Stone, a 90-kilogram slab of inscribed stone discovered in Minnesota in 1898, was said to have recorded an encounter between Native Americans and Norse explorers in 1362 and thus was cited as evidence that Europeans explored North America in pre-Columbian times.

Since the meaning of this sentence is pretty easy to understand, let’s perform the error analysis here.

1. Singular verb “was said” makes sense and agrees in number with singular subject “the Kensington Stone”.
2. The usage of simple past tense throughout the sentence is correct because it is presenting general information of events that took place in the past.
3. The verbs “was said” and “was cited” are parallel.
4. All the phrases used are correct here. Hence this sentence is correct as is.

POE:

A. was said to have recorded an encounter between Native Americans and Norse explorers in 1362 and thus was cited as evidence that Europeans explored: Correct for the reasons cited above.

B. was said to record an encounter between Native Americans and Norse explorers in 1362, thus being cited as evidence for Europeans exploration: Incorrect.
1. Use of “was said to record” is incorrect. Now this verb phrase suggests that the stone was supposed to record something. Whether ot has done that or not is not confirmed.
2. Use of “being cited” is not correct.

C. said to have recorded an encounter between Native Americans and Norse explorers in 1362, and thus cited as evidence for European exploration of: Incorrect.
1. There is no verb for the subject “the Kensington Stone”. We have a fragment here.
2. I would prefer preposition “by” instead of preposition “of” after exploration.

D. which was said to record an encounter between Native Americans and Norse explorers in 1362, and thus cited as evidence that Europeans explored: Incorrect.
1. Repeats the same fragment error of choice C.
2. Relative pronoun “which” is modifying preceding noun “1898”. This modification is illogical.

E. which, said to have recorded an encounter between Native Americans and Norse explorers in 1362, was thus cited as evidence for Europeans exploring: Incorrect.
1. Repeats the same fragment error of choice C.
2. We do not know what “said to have… in 1362” is referring to.
3. The way this choice is worded, it seems to suggest that evidence was cited for Europeans. This is not the intended meaning.

Hope this helps.
Thanks

How do you identify that in option C said is past participle not past tense?

i chose "C" because i thought "said" and "cited" are past tense.

I am still not able to undertand why "A" is correct and why "C" is wrong?
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Re: Now generally regarded as a forgery, the Kensington Rune Stone, a 90-k [#permalink]

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23 Nov 2012, 11:26
greatps24 wrote:
How do you identify that in option C said is past participle not past tense?

i chose "C" because i thought "said" and "cited" are past tense.

I am still not able to undertand why "A" is correct and why "C" is wrong?

ed-forms-verbs-or-modifiers-134691.html

If you still have any question, let me know.
Thanks.
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Re: Now generally regarded as a forgery, the Kensington Rune Stone, a 90-k [#permalink]

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23 Nov 2012, 11:38
greatps24 wrote:
How do you identify that in option C said is past participle not past tense?

i chose "C" because i thought "said" and "cited" are past tense.

I am still not able to undertand why "A" is correct and why "C" is wrong?

Hi there,

Read the following article to understand the difference between verd-ed simple past tense and verb-ed modifier:
ed-forms-verbs-or-modifiers-134691.html

If you still have questions, do ask me.
Thanks.
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Re: Now generally regarded as a forgery, the Kensington Rune Stone, a 90-k [#permalink]

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24 Nov 2012, 10:48
Choice D is part of the relative clause introduced by the relative pronoun which and a subordinate clause and was is the verb for the same; said and cited are past participles; The verb explored in the last part is the verb for the sub-clause introduced by the conjunction—that-- The main clause with the main subject – the Kensington Rune Stone— is just dangling whiteout a verb; Hence D is a fragment
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Re: Now generally regarded as a forgery, the Kensington Rune Stone, a 90-k [#permalink]

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04 May 2013, 09:49
I can also go to A.
but I have a problem
normaly, past simle tense which means a past action in the past is accompanies by a adverb, a specific time in the past. In A, the oa, there is no such adverb.
this question is not good.

pls, correct me if I am wrong? Thank you.
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Re: Now generally regarded as a forgery, the Kensington Rune Stone, a 90-k [#permalink]

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19 May 2013, 05:51
I am afraid that there is no such stipulation that a verb, ( be it past tense, or present or future, generally or compulsorily) needs to be accompanied or preceded by an adverb. If it is there take it if it is not there, forget it . One cannot call it ungrammatical; For example:

I ate - a simple two - word sentence, but a complete one; no need to know what I ate.
I ate mangoes – a verb followed by an object
I ate the mangoes slowly - a verb followed by an object and an adverb.

We can see all the above sentences are perfectly grammatical sentences.

Now, for the difference between a verb such as present perfect and an infinitive; “have recorded” is no doubt a present perfect but “to have recorded” is not a present perfect verb; it is as infinitive ( because of the addition of the word “to”) and called a verbal
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Re: Now generally regarded as a forgery, the Kensington Rune Stone, a 90-k [#permalink]

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18 Jun 2013, 16:46
egmat wrote:
Hi @Sujit2k7,
Now generally regarded a forgery, the Kensingston Rune Stone, a 90-kilogram slab of inscribed stone discovered in Minnesota in 1898, was said to have recorded an encounter between Native Americans and Norse explorers in 1362 and thus was cited as evidence that Europeans explored North America in pre-Columbian times.

Since the meaning of this sentence is pretty easy to understand, let’s perform the error analysis here.

1. Singular verb “was said” makes sense and agrees in number with singular subject “the Kensington Stone”.
2. The usage of simple past tense throughout the sentence is correct because it is presenting general information of events that took place in the past.
3. The verbs “was said” and “was cited” are parallel.
4. All the phrases used are correct here. Hence this sentence is correct as is.

POE:

A. was said to have recorded an encounter between Native Americans and Norse explorers in 1362 and thus was cited as evidence that Europeans explored: Correct for the reasons cited above.

B. was said to record an encounter between Native Americans and Norse explorers in 1362, thus being cited as evidence for Europeans exploration: Incorrect.
1. Use of “was said to record” is incorrect. Now this verb phrase suggests that the stone was supposed to record something. Whether ot has done that or not is not confirmed.
2. Use of “being cited” is not correct.

C. said to have recorded an encounter between Native Americans and Norse explorers in 1362, and thus cited as evidence for European exploration of: Incorrect.
1. There is no verb for the subject “the Kensington Stone”. We have a fragment here.
2. I would prefer preposition “by” instead of preposition “of” after exploration.

D. which was said to record an encounter between Native Americans and Norse explorers in 1362, and thus cited as evidence that Europeans explored: Incorrect.
1. Repeats the same fragment error of choice C.
2. Relative pronoun “which” is modifying preceding noun “1898”. This modification is illogical.

E. which, said to have recorded an encounter between Native Americans and Norse explorers in 1362, was thus cited as evidence for Europeans exploring: Incorrect.
1. Repeats the same fragment error of choice C.
2. We do not know what “said to have… in 1362” is referring to.
3. The way this choice is worded, it seems to suggest that evidence was cited for Europeans. This is not the intended meaning.

Hope this helps.
Thanks

I understood how "B" is wrong by your explanation.

For C can you please explain what do you mean by " There is no verb for the subject “the Kensington Stone”. We have a fragment here."
can you explain in detail

For D
What is the fragment error. This looks like B to me

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Re: Now generally regarded as a forgery, the Kensington Rune Stone, a 90-k [#permalink]

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06 Jul 2016, 23:02
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Now generally regarded as a forgery, the Kensington Rune Stone, a 90-kilogram slab of inscribed rock discovered in Minnesota in 1898, was said to have recorded an encounter between Native Americans and Norse explorers in 1362 and thus was cited as evidence that Europeans explored North America in pre-Columbian times.

(A) was said to have recorded an encounter between Native Americans and Norse explorers in 1362 and thus was cited as evidence that Europeans explored

(B) was said to record an encounter between Native Americans and Norse explorers in 1362, thus being cited as evidence for European exploration of

(C) said to have recorded an encounter between Native Americans and Norse explorers in 1362, and thus cited as evidence for European exploration of

(D) which was said to record an encounter between Native Americans and Norse explorers in 1362, and thus cited as evidence that Europeans explored

(E) which, said to have recorded an encounter between Native Americans and Norse explorers in 1362, was thus cited as evidence for Europeans exploring

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Mike Mc Garry Sir,

This is one of a difficult question of its type and has so many thing participial vs verb form, in correct structure. Normally whenever I have posted a SC question i have had a doubt in a particular option , but this time I am requesting you sir to analyze all the options.

OA: A, But I have doubt in Option A also -
(A) was said to have recorded an encounter between Native Americans and Norse explorers in 1362 and thus was cited as evidence that Europeans explored
My Doubt: Here don't we have structure issue? and should be preceded by a comma and the subject should be introduced before the verb after that comma.
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Re: Now generally regarded as a forgery, the Kensington Rune Stone, a 90-k [#permalink]

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07 Jul 2016, 16:04
crunchboss wrote:
Now generally regarded as a forgery, the Kensington Rune Stone, a 90-kilogram slab of inscribed rock discovered in Minnesota in 1898, was said to have recorded an encounter between Native Americans and Norse explorers in 1362 and thus was cited as evidence that Europeans explored North America in pre-Columbian times.

(A) was said to have recorded an encounter between Native Americans and Norse explorers in 1362 and thus was cited as evidence that Europeans explored

(B) was said to record an encounter between Native Americans and Norse explorers in 1362, thus being cited as evidence for European exploration of

(C) said to have recorded an encounter between Native Americans and Norse explorers in 1362, and thus cited as evidence for European exploration of

(D) which was said to record an encounter between Native Americans and Norse explorers in 1362, and thus cited as evidence that Europeans explored

(E) which, said to have recorded an encounter between Native Americans and Norse explorers in 1362, was thus cited as evidence for Europeans exploring

Source: GMAT Prep Question Pack 1

Mike Mc Garry Sir,

This is one of a difficult question of its type and has so many thing participial vs verb form, in correct structure. Normally whenever I have posted a SC question i have had a doubt in a particular option , but this time I am requesting you sir to analyze all the options.

OA: A, But I have doubt in Option A also -
(A) was said to have recorded an encounter between Native Americans and Norse explorers in 1362 and thus was cited as evidence that Europeans explored
My Doubt: Here don't we have structure issue? and should be preceded by a comma and the subject should be introduced before the verb after that comma.

Dear crunchboss,
I'm happy to respond.

First of all, in the OA, (A), there is no punctuation problem. We have a single subject and two verbs + predicates in parallel. Here's a diagram of the sentence:

Now generally regarded as a forgery, = modifying phrase, modifying the subject
the Kensington Rune Stone, = the MAIN SUBJECT, subject of both verbs
a 90-kilogram slab of inscribed rock discovered in Minnesota in 1898, = appositive phrase, modifying the subject
// was said to have recorded an encounter between Native Americans and Norse explorers in 1362 = first branch of parallelism
and thus = conjunction joining two parallel branches
//was cited as evidence that Europeans explored [/u]North America in pre-Columbian times. = second branch of parallelism

Typically, when we have a single subject and two verbs with predicates in parallel, we don't separate the two verb phrases with a comma. That is typical, although if the predicates are both long, sometimes a comma is used to help organize the sentence flow. It wouldn't be "wrong" to include a comma before the "and," but it's not necessary. That's (A), the OA, and it's both correct and elegant.

(B) was said to record an encounter between Native Americans and Norse explorers in 1362, thus being cited as evidence for European exploration of
I think "to have recorded" sounds a little better than "to record," in this context, although technically, either is correct. Notice, rather than a parallel structure, this version chooses another structure. It's grammatically correct but awkward. The phrasing "thus being cited as evidence . . ." is particularly awkward and clumsy and not particularly direct. Passive participles of this form are always a bit awkward, the "being" + [past participle] form; it's hard to think of an example where this would be desirable, especially because it always would be correct to use the past participle without the word "being." Also, instead of the direct subject-verb construction of "that Europeans explored North America . . .", this congeals the action into a noun, "European exploration," which is less direct, less active, and less powerful. None of this is definitively wrong, but it all leaves a bad taste in the mouth. Choice (A) is clearly superior.

(C) said to have recorded an encounter between Native Americans and Norse explorers in 1362, and thus cited as evidence for European exploration of
This is wrong. This commits the famous missing-verb mistake. The structure of this answer is: [noun modifier][subject][appositive][participial phrase #1]"and thus"[participial phrase #2]. Lots of information, but no verb. Grammatically, this is 100% wrong.

(D) which was said to record an encounter between Native Americans and Norse explorers in 1362, and thus cited as evidence that Europeans explored
This is wrong. This also commits the famous missing-verb mistake. Here, we have nothing but a subject and bunch of noun modifiers. The last is a gigantic "which" clause, with two verbs in parallel inside, but there's no full verb for the subject. This is also 100% wrong.

(E) which, said to have recorded an encounter between Native Americans and Norse explorers in 1362, was thus cited as evidence for Europeans exploring
This is wrong. Yet again, this commits the famous missing-verb mistake. Now, inside the "which" clause, we have a participial phrase, then a verb, but all that is inside the which clause, and there's no verb in the independent clause. This is 100% wrong.

Choices (C), (D), and (E) are just plain wrong, dead-where-they-stand wrong. I could see that (B) could be a nasty tricky one for the non-native speaker, because it's hard to give a clear and well-defined rule about what makes something awkward. Choices (C) + (D) + (E) are like three cars with their engines removed: we can't drive those. Choice (B) is like a twelve-year old, beat-up smelly clunker of a car: we could drive this if we had to, if we had no other choice. Choice (A) like a brand new BMW. Which would you choose?

Does this make sense?
Mike
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Re: Now generally regarded as a forgery, the Kensington Rune Stone, a 90-k [#permalink]

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09 Jul 2016, 02:56
Quote:
Does this make sense?
Mike

Thank you so much sir. You have helped me so much I am really thankful from the bottom of my heart. Your answers are very explanatory and very detailed. I again thank you so much for all your help. As I am not a native speaker of English some time few questions trouble me so much, without your guidance I would have lost in this complicated world of GMAT.

I have one more question sir,

As far as I know the distinction between verb form and participial form is based on the fact whether the action is performed by the subject or action is performed over the subject.

Action Performed by the Subject: Verb Form
Action Performed over the Subject: Participial Form

Shall we Conclude here that -

was said: Verb Form - But again I could not see How action here "was said" is performed by the main subject.
said: Participial Form
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Re: Now generally regarded as a forgery, the Kensington Rune Stone, a 90-k [#permalink]

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09 Jul 2016, 14:58
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Expert's post
crunchboss wrote:
Thank you so much sir. You have helped me so much I am really thankful from the bottom of my heart. Your answers are very explanatory and very detailed. I again thank you so much for all your help. As I am not a native speaker of English some time few questions trouble me so much, without your guidance I would have lost in this complicated world of GMAT.

I have one more question sir,

As far as I know the distinction between verb form and participial form is based on the fact whether the action is performed by the subject or action is performed over the subject.

Action Performed by the Subject: Verb Form
Action Performed over the Subject: Participial Form

Shall we Conclude here that -

was said: Verb Form - But again I could not see How action here "was said" is performed by the main subject.
said: Participial Form

Dear crunchboss,

My friend, I am sad to say that this rule that you provided is a total disaster, not true in the least. A full verb can occupy the center of an independent clause: it can be the heart of a stand-alone sentence. For example, "buys," "is buying," and "has bought" are all full verbs, in different tenses. Any of those can be the center of a complete sentence, and the subject is performing the action.
The man is buying the book.
The man has bought this book already.
The man buys a new book each week.

For a full verb that is in the passive, the subject is the recipient of the action. This also can be the center of an independent clause, the heart of a stand-alone sentence:
The copies of this novel are bought frequently.

Those are full verbs. Every clause, whether an independent clause or a subordinate clause, needs a full verb.

Participles are noun modifiers, and they indicate something about the target noun. The present participle, [verb] + ing, is always active, and indicates that the target noun is doing the action. The target noun may or may not be the subject of the sentence.
The man buying this book is the author of another book.
The photographer took a photo of the man buying the book.

Past participles, the -ed form of regular verbs, are always passive. The target noun is the recipient of the action, and this target noun may or may not be the subject of the sentence.
The book bought by all the professors has been written by a teenager.
The angry columnist wrote a scathing review of the book bought for questionable reasons.

Do NOT use the word "subject" to refer to the target noun of a participle. The target noun of a participle or of any noun modifier may or may not be the subject of the sentence.

Does all this make sense?
Mike
Mahim wrote:
Hello Mike,

So, do we consider comma+thus being wrong always?

Dear Mahim,
My friend, there's no formal rule about that. The word "thus" always indicates a logical consequence, and this logical consequence often involves an important progression in the logic of the sentence, so I would guess that the word "thus" more often than not has a comma in front of it. The presence or absence of the comma does not depend on the word "thus"----it depends on logic and meaning.

Does this make sense?
Mike
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09 Jul 2016, 16:29
I'm sorry my question got misinterpreted. I meant to ask whether "comma+ thus being" is wrong.
Here's how I think about it-
If I think of "being" as present participle, a comma + present participle would always enforce simultaneity; whereas thus indicates a consequence. So, I was concerned whether this leads to a contradiction that "comma + thus being" gets awkward in the sense that a consequence is thought of as simultaneous.

P.S.- BIG FAN Sir!

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10 Jul 2016, 11:51
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Mahim wrote:
I'm sorry my question got misinterpreted. I meant to ask whether "comma+ thus being" is wrong.
Here's how I think about it-
If I think of "being" as present participle, a comma + present participle would always enforce simultaneity; whereas thus indicates a consequence. So, I was concerned whether this leads to a contradiction that "comma + thus being" gets awkward in the sense that a consequence is thought of as simultaneous.

P.S.- BIG FAN Sir!

Dear Mahim,

I'm happy to respond. My friend, you are asking the wrong question to ask. I would say: forget about the comma + "thus," which is usually correct. Be suspicious of "being" wherever this word appears. It's not always wrong, but it's wrong far more frequently when it is right. The "being" + [participle] is particularly disastrous.

Does this make sense?
Mike
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Re: Now generally regarded as a forgery, the Kensington Rune Stone, a 90-k [#permalink]

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04 Oct 2017, 20:35
mikemcgarry wrote:

(C) said to have recorded an encounter between Native Americans and Norse explorers in 1362, and thus cited as evidence for European exploration of
This is wrong. This commits the famous missing-verb mistake. The structure of this answer is: [noun modifier][subject][appositive][participial phrase #1]"and thus"[participial phrase #2]. Lots of information, but no verb. Grammatically, this is 100% wrong.

Mike

Mike, Thanks for aesthetically and grammatically pleasing answer
I have question regarding option C. Isn't have recorded a verb ? I am kinda lost figuring out why this is not the right answer.
Could you pinpoint another error that might help in eliminating this answer choice.

Thanks
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