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Of patients over 65 years old who survived coronary bypass

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Of patients over 65 years old who survived coronary bypass [#permalink]

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New post 07 Sep 2008, 05:30
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Of patients over 65 years old who survived coronary bypass surgery—a procedure widely prescribed for people with heart disease—only 75 percent benefited from the surgery. Thus it appears that for one in four such patients, the doctors who advised them to undergo this surgery, with its attendant risks and expense, were more interested in an opportunity to practice their skills and in their fee than in helping the patient.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the argument?

(A) Many of the patients who receive coronary bypass surgery are less than 55 years old.

(B) Possible benefits of coronary bypass surgery include both relief from troubling symptoms and prolongation of life.

(C) Most of the patients in the survey decided to undergo coronary bypass surgery because they were advised that the surgery would reduce their risk of future heart attacks.

(D) The patients over 65 years old who did not benefit from the coronary bypass surgery were as fully informed as those who did benefit from the surgery as to the risks of the surgery prior to undergoing it.

(E) The patients who underwent coronary bypass surgery but who did not benefit from it were medically indistinguishable, prior to their surgery, from the patients who did benefit.

Source : GMATPrep Default Exam Pack
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by hazelnut on 01 Oct 2017, 02:28, edited 3 times in total.
Edited the question.

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Re: Of patients over 65 years old who survived coronary bypass [#permalink]

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New post 07 Sep 2008, 06:10
I think that in this context this term means that physical condition of patients who underwent coronary bypass surgery but who did not benefit from it was the same as those of patients who did benefit from opertion.Or in more simple words they were equally healthy))
BTW D seems correct
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Re: Of patients over 65 years old who survived coronary bypass [#permalink]

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arjtryarjtry wrote:
Of patients over 65 years old who survived coronary bypass surgery—a procedure widely prescribed for people with heart disease—only 75 percent benefited from the surgery. Thus it appears that for one in four such patients, the doctors who advised them to undergo this surgery, with its attendant risks and expense, were more interested in an opportunity to practice their skills and in their fee than in helping the patient.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the argument?

Doctors were acting in their own interest and making these patients subjects of their surgery practice ( to get adept ). Now some thing that undermines the conclusion is one which says that these doctors were NOT acting in their own interest


A. Many of the patients who receive coronary bypass surgery are less than 55 years old
.
B. Possible benefits of coronary bypass surgery include both relief from troubling symptoms and prolongation of life.

C. Most of the patients in the survey decided to undergo coronary bypass surgery because they were advised that the surgery would reduce their risk of future heart attacks.

D. The patients over 65 years old who did not benefit from the coronary bypass surgery were as fully informed as those who did benefit from the surgery as to the risks of the surgery prior to undergoing it.

E. The patients who underwent coronary bypass surgery but who did not benefit from it were medically indistinguishable, prior to their surgery, from the patients who did benefit.


what is the meaning of this term?

Medically indistinguishable means if X has disease Y and Z does not have disease Y but have all/many of the symptoms of disease Y, a doctor diagnosis can possibly go wrong because of the overlapping or matching symptoms. So this is a judgment error and not an intentional one to get adept at surgery

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Re: Of patients over 65 years old who survived coronary bypass [#permalink]

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New post 07 Sep 2008, 11:03
IMO E. Since it is medically indistinguishable to know if the patient will benefit form the operation doctors cannot tell anything before the operation.....

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Re: Of patients over 65 years old who survived coronary bypass [#permalink]

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New post 18 Oct 2008, 12:45
i think "E" is not correct because eventhough doctors cannot tell who's ganna benefit from the surgery, but they still know only a quater chance of success. and they're are still performing the surgery because of profit, practice skill, ect. " E" does not undermine the argument at all.

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Re: Of patients over 65 years old who survived coronary bypass [#permalink]

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New post 18 Oct 2008, 18:52
of course it is E.
Break down the argument in the simplest possible words. the doctors are practicing on the patients b/c only 75% are successful. so one forth of these patients were just for practice. (sounds like a law suit for me:)

anyways, the last one states, medically indistinguishable. that simply means that doctors could not have known that the procedure will not be successful on this patients. Thus, they could not have chosen these patients to practice, but had the intention to really help them.
Hope this helps.

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Re: Of patients over 65 years old who survived coronary bypass [#permalink]

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arjtryarjtry wrote:
Of patients over 65 years old who survived coronary bypass surgery—a procedure widely prescribed for people with heart disease—only 75 percent benefited from the surgery. Thus it appears that for one in four such patients, the doctors who advised them to undergo this surgery, with its attendant risks and expense, were more interested in an opportunity to practice their skills and in their fee than in helping the patient.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the argument?

A. Many of the patients who receive coronary bypass surgery are less than 55 years old
.
B. Possible benefits of coronary bypass surgery include both relief from troubling symptoms and prolongation of life.

C. Most of the patients in the survey decided to undergo coronary bypass surgery because they were advised that the surgery would reduce their risk of future heart attacks.

D. The patients over 65 years old who did not benefit from the coronary bypass surgery were as fully informed as those who did benefit from the surgery as to the risks of the surgery prior to undergoing it.

E. The patients who underwent coronary bypass surgery but who did not benefit from it were medically indistinguishable, prior to their surgery, from the patients who did benefit.


what is the meaning of this term?

This is a good question
i was torn between D and E but one thing in GMAT is always try to eliminate,read the argument agfain ,in thew argument author clearly says :
Thus it appears that for one in four such patients, the doctors who advised them to undergo this surgery, with its attendant risks and expense, were more interested in an opportunity to practice their skills and in their fee than in helping the patient.

Thus it clearly says that docs did tell patients about the attended risks and expenses !!!

D. The patients over 65 years old who did not benefit from the coronary bypass surgery were as fully informed as those who did benefit from the surgery as to the risks of the surgery prior to undergoing it.

The option D just repeats whats there in argument

But look at E : this comments on the intention of the docs and clearly says that they were not aware of the differences between two patients!!

E. The patients who underwent coronary bypass surgery but who did not benefit from it were medically indistinguishable, prior to their surgery, from the patients who did benefit. [/b]

IMO E
Kindly post the OA!!!
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Re: Of patients over 65 years old who survived coronary bypass [#permalink]

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New post 07 Aug 2009, 10:41
I would Pick E over D.

E mentioned that the ones who did not benefit and the ones who did were medically indistinguishable before the surgery, therefore they could all benefit from the surgery...so the doctor was simply doing it for the best of the patient.

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Re: Of patients over 65 years old who survived coronary bypass [#permalink]

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E for me
D doesnt answer this-the doctor knew that a particular 4th patient was medically weak and will not recover even after the bypass surgery, but nevertheless advised him so, by not informing him about his medical weakness,but made sure he listed the medical risks involved.
E says all the patients were equal in terms of their medical profile and there was no way in which the doc could distinguish the weaker patient.

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Re: Of patients over 65 years old who survived coronary bypass [#permalink]

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New post 07 Aug 2009, 23:29
E for me.

D sounds like a legal fine print, whereas E addresses the concern that Doctors knew that a patient would not benefit and still went ahead and advised the patient to go for the procedure.

If I may, on a lighter note: D may be right on LSAT ;) but E should be the right one on GMAT! :lol:

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Re: Of patients over 65 years old who survived coronary bypass [#permalink]

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New post 09 Aug 2009, 00:03
sorry folks had difficultys understanding the question :

The argument states that "one out of four heart patients advised by the doctor had a failed heart surgery and this is because doctors, even though they knew that patient condition is bad might have proposed the surgery for his own personnel benefit."

to weaken this argument we need to find a choice that states that doctors were not doing something for their personnel benefits but do it some other reason the surgery was a failure.

E --> Even though the patients are indistinguishable from others it failed because doctors were doing it for their personnel benefit. strengthening the argument and similarly D.

If my understanding is right ....D and E strengthen the argument right?

maybe my interpretaiton is screwed (for sure :oops: )...can someone clarify

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Re: Of patients over 65 years old who survived coronary bypass [#permalink]

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New post 09 Aug 2009, 00:30
In E, it is clearly mentioned that patients are indistinguishable.
==> Doctors before surgery don't know whether it's a practice for their skills or not.

In D, people may be well informed but we are not sure whether doctors at that time did know about the success of the surgery or not.
In case of E, success is unknown.
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Re: Of patients over 65 years old who survived coronary bypass [#permalink]

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New post 09 Aug 2009, 06:33
OA is E...

But man, I still don't have a clue why D is wrong...

If we use the "If Yes/No" analysis on D...

If it is Yes, then the docs might actually be perceived as fair and not biased towards earning the extra $$ from the surgery.. So, the argument is weakened.

If it is No, then the docs might actually withhold some important medical info (such as chances of recovery) from the supposedly 25% who don't benefit... So, the argument is actually weakened here...

We would get the same outcome if we perform the "If Yes/No" on E too...

Damn, this is so hard...

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Re: Of patients over 65 years old who survived coronary bypass [#permalink]

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New post 09 Aug 2009, 08:15
cialit0506 wrote:
OA is E...

But man, I still don't have a clue why D is wrong...

If we use the "If Yes/No" analysis on D...

If it is Yes, then the docs might actually be perceived as fair and not biased towards earning the extra $$ from the surgery.. So, the argument is weakened.

If it is No, then the docs might actually withhold some important medical info (such as chances of recovery) from the supposedly 25% who don't benefit... So, the argument is actually weakened here...

We would get the same outcome if we perform the "If Yes/No" on E too...

Damn, this is so hard...


well think about it this way:

for D, it mentioned the risk of the surgery, i think it actually is referring to the survival rate of the surgery (who survived coronary bypass surgery), and it's unlikely that it is referring to whether they will benefit from it?

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Re: Of patients over 65 years old who survived coronary bypass [#permalink]

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New post 23 Aug 2009, 05:16
D is talking about surgery RISKS, which is outside of scope. Risk means, for example, when someone dies from the surgery.

I think sprtng is saying the same thing.

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Re: Of patients over 65 years old who survived coronary bypass [#permalink]

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New post 23 Aug 2009, 06:42
pls give explanations for my explanation on D

If doctors were tellin their patients about the risk . It is not doctors , who are forcing them to undergo surgery . So they are not showing self intrest. patiens could have said no.....

IMO D

in E Patients are indistinguishable , Doctors dont know if it will work or not ...so NO point going for the surgery,, and even if they are doing it its their self intrest...... Strengthens

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Re: Of patients over 65 years old who survived coronary bypass [#permalink]

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This is a difficult question, but the correct answer choice is clearly E.

Consider the following analogy, perhaps not the best one but I hope it will be good enough to make the point.

A dealer sells second-hand cars. Last year 75% of the cars didn't present any problems after the sale, whereas the other 25% presented several problems a few months after the sale. Clearly in that 25% percent of the cars sold, the dealer was more interested in making profit that in the security of the people who bought the cars.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the argument?

-- the dealer didn't know whether the cars had any problems prior to the sale.
-- the dealer equally informed all the customers about the risks of buying a second-hand car.

In this example, I know is not exactly the same, the correct answer choice is clearly the first one. The dealer here could know that the cars were in bad condition, and still convinced the people to buy the cars.

What makes option D incorrect?

If you read closely the stimulus is says

Thus it appears that for one in four such patients, the doctors who advised them to undergo this surgery, with its attendant risks and expense.

IMO the stimulus already acknowledges for the information given, so the doctors could haven given the same information but recommended patients undergo to the coronary bypass surgery even if the doctors knew that the patients would not benefit.

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Re: Of patients over 65 years old who survived coronary bypass [#permalink]

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New post 24 Aug 2009, 01:01
thanks mike..But my ques here to all the experience holders is .... When we slice through the options and and if we get this feeling that this one is perfect , we tend to take the other options lightly.. And in the quest of the right ans in a short time .. we miss the importance of anther option which also may b eimportant ......It happens wid me....The moment i perceive that , for ex, option B is correctly sounds good, though i do read the other options but i just skim thrgh it...........


Same happened with this ques also after coming to D when i felt i got the right ans i missed the importance of E...


Does it happen with anyone else......Any advice?????????

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Re: Of patients over 65 years old who survived coronary bypass [#permalink]

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New post 24 Aug 2009, 01:21
rohansherry wrote:
thanks mike..But my ques here to all the experience holders is .... When we slice through the options and and if we get this feeling that this one is perfect , we tend to take the other options lightly.. And in the quest of the right ans in a short time .. we miss the importance of anther option which also may b eimportant ......It happens wid me....The moment i perceive that , for ex, option B is correctly sounds good, though i do read the other options but i just skim thrgh it...........


Same happened with this ques also after coming to D when i felt i got the right ans i missed the importance of E...


Does it happen with anyone else......Any advice?????????


This happens to me to. That's why is important to go through all the answer choices. If you have two contenders, then try to look for that piece of information that makes one better. In difficult questions, like this one, that is difficult.
Under exam conditions perhaps I would have chosen D because sounds right at first.

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Re: Of patients over 65 years old who survived coronary bypass [#permalink]

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New post 18 Feb 2010, 19:21
This is a GMAT Prep question from mba.com. The OA is E. I was tempted by D myself, but E is saying that the 1/4 (non-benefiting person) and the 3/4 patients had exactly the same conditions going into the surgery so there's no way the doctor could know a patient would become a 1/4 rather than a 3/4.

While D states the patients were fully informed, this does not mean that the doctor was pushing a patient to do the surgery knowing that he was a 1/4 rather than a 3/4.

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Re: Of patients over 65 years old who survived coronary bypass   [#permalink] 18 Feb 2010, 19:21

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