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# Of patients over 65 years old who survived coronary bypass

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27 Mar 2011, 07:16
Excellent question.

I piced D at first, but then I realized that:

Even fully informed the RISKS of the surgery before, the 1/4 patients DIDN'T know that, to the surgeons who were aware of the situation, they are going to practice objects. So these patients would accept the risks, thinking that they have the opportunity to survive, only to be practiced on.

So D doesn't undermine the arguement.

Only when even the surgeons couldn't predict the result before the operation, they are out of hook.

Hope my explanation helps
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27 Mar 2011, 19:34
Answer choice E as it is the only option which gives the benefit of doubt to the doctors for going ahead with the surgery!

If we look at option D, it gives a justification from the patient's side to take the surgery knowing the risks associated with the surgery which henceforth fails to undermine the argument of doctor's performing the surgery for just monetary benefits...
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Re: Of patients over 65 years old who survived coronary bypass [#permalink]

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26 Jul 2013, 22:26
Can someone explain D and E. They are the real contenders.
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Re: Of patients over 65 years old who survived coronary bypass [#permalink]

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26 Jul 2013, 23:38
Of patients over 65 years old who survived coronary bypass surgery—a procedure widely prescribed for people with heart disease—only 75 percent benefited from the surgery. Thus it appears that for one in four such patients, the doctors who advised them to undergo this surgery, with its attendant risks and expense, were more interested in an opportunity to practice their skills and in their fee than in helping the patient.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the argument?

A. Many of the patients who receive coronary bypass surgery are less than 55 years old
.
B. Possible benefits of coronary bypass surgery include both relief from troubling symptoms and prolongation of life.

C. Most of the patients in the survey decided to undergo coronary bypass surgery because they were advised that the surgery would reduce their risk of future heart attacks.

D. The patients over 65 years old who did not benefit from the coronary bypass surgery were as fully informed as those who did benefit from the surgery as to the risks of the surgery prior to undergoing it.

E. The patients who underwent coronary bypass surgery but who did not benefit from it were medically indistinguishable, prior to their surgery, from the patients who did benefit.

Find the conclusion:
The doctors who advised them to undergo this surgery were more interested in an opportunity to practice their skills and in their fee than in helping the patient.

Choice E states that the medical patients were MEDICALLY INDISTINGUISHABLE from one another. Since this is the case, then no doctor could have placed a bet on a certain patient in order to enhance his/her surgery skills. E nails the conclusion.

On the other hand, D states that patients who got benefit from the surgery were as equally informed as the patients who didn't get benefit. Okay. Let us agree, but does it destroys the conclusion. No, not at all.

It is a straight E.
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Re: Of patients over 65 years old who survived coronary bypass [#permalink]

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01 Dec 2013, 12:59
Of patients over 65 years old who survived coronary bypass surgery—a procedure widely prescribed for people with heart disease—only 75 percent benefited from the surgery. Thus it appears that for one in four such patients, the doctors who advised them to undergo this surgery, with its attendant risks and expense, were more interested in an opportunity to practice their skills and in their fee than in helping the patient.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the argument?

My approach :
Clearly a "Weakener" question (undermines the argument). The Argument - states a fact (success rate of surgery) and a conclusion ("Thus") drawn that Doctors were more interested in X than Y (Please see the main subject and verb of conclusion are - 'Doctors' and 'were interetsed'. ~Patients and ~Advise are just setting the context of the situation that is in question)

To undermine - A new fact would undermine this argument if it can make the conclusion less beleivable. A fact like that "doctors did not sell the surgery to patients purposefully / Doctors meant well when they advised but surgery just did not go as planned"

It is like an analogy - When you dont know whats wrong with your car and take it to workshop for check up. And the mechanic (who knows that it is just a short fuse in a wire) sells / advises you to change the engine instead for vested interests. Here he did it purposefully to make profits even though he HAD DISTINGUISHED BEFOREHAND that the car just needs a wire replaced.

Therefore choosing between popular choces D and E
D- Disclosure of risks would not make a difference to either Group 1 (1/4) or Group 2 (3/4) when it comes to Doctor's advise to go for surgery. Therefore cant be a Weakener.

E- Whether the Group1 (1/4) was medically DISTINGUISHABLE from Group 2 (3/4) PRIOR TO SURGERY - will definitely make one question Doctor's motives and therefore is a weakener.

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Re: Of patients over 65 years old who survived coronary bypass [#permalink]

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30 Apr 2017, 09:07
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Re: Of patients over 65 years old who survived coronary bypass [#permalink]

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06 May 2017, 04:19
The conclusion: the doctors who recommended the surgery were doing so for selfish reasons (a chance to hone their skills/a chance to make \$)
The premise: 25% of the patients undergoing the operation did not benefit.

The argument is asserting that the doctors, in some cases, knew that a patient was a bad candidate for the surgery, but recommended the procedure anyway. (Imagine a doctor evaluating a patient, thinking to herself, "yikes, there's no way this procedure will work," and then doing it anyway for the money.)

If we want to undermine that claim, we want to show that the doctors were not consciously thinking that some of these patients would make poor candidates for the procedure.

D is irrelevant. We're assessing the knowledge/motivation of the doctors, not of the patients.

E: If it were impossible to tell the difference between the patients who would benefit and those who wouldn't, then doctors couldn't possibly have been thinking to themselves that some of the patients were poor candidates for the procedure, as they looked just like the ones that benefited. So the scenario above, where the doctor is thinking to herself "bad candidate, but let's make some money!" is no longer plausible. E is the answer.

Moreover, The conclusion here is the last sentence: the doctors were more interested in practicing their skills and making money than in helping the 1 in 4 patients who did not benefit from the surgery. This assumes without providing justification that there's no other reason that doctors would perform the surgery on people who did not benefit from it. However, E weakens the argument by explaining that there was no way to know who would or wouldn't benefit from the surgery; prior to the surgery, all of the patients seemed the same, so until they actually operated and saw the outcome, the doctors had no idea which patients would see good results and which ones wouldn't. Therefore, they weren't necessarily trying to practice their skills and make money on the 25% that didn't see good results. They might have really been trying to help everyone, and 25% of the time, they just failed for some reason.

Just wanted to note that the question says "undermines."

"undermines" = weakens argument

"underlies" = basis for argument, supports

Good to watch out for those two very close-looking words!

E is the best answer choice here.
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Re: Of patients over 65 years old who survived coronary bypass [#permalink]

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07 May 2017, 08:53
hi those words mean that.. doctors don't know that 25 percent can fail.

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Re: Of patients over 65 years old who survived coronary bypass   [#permalink] 07 May 2017, 08:53

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