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Offshore oil-drilling operations entail an unavoidable risk

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Re: Offshore oil-drilling [#permalink]

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New post 07 May 2012, 10:54
There are other posts like this. I just did one the other day.

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Re: Offshore oil-drilling [#permalink]

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New post 08 May 2012, 08:51
monikaleoster wrote:
Offshore oil-drilling operations entail an unavoidable risk of an oil spill, but importing oil on tankers presently entails an even greater such risk per barrel of oil. Therefore, if we are to reduce the risk of an oil spill without curtailing our use of oil, we must invest more in offshore operations and import less oil on tankers.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument above?

Please explain with why option D is wrong

To reduce risk of oil spil --------> We must invest in offshore operations Rather than Importing oil. We must weaken this conclusion.

A. Tankers can easily be redesigned so that their use entails less risk of an oil spill. Weakens
B. Oil spills caused by tankers have generally been more serious than those caused by offshore operations. Not Relevant
C. The impact of offshore operations on the environments can be controlled by careful management. Not relevant
D. Offshore operations usually damage the ocean floor, but tankers rarely cause such damage. Not relevant to conclusion. Conclusion speaks about reducing the risk of oil spill. It doesnt speak about the effect of offshore operations
E. Importing oil on tankers is currently less expensive than drilling for it offshore. Cost angle. one of the most frequently used incorrect option
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Re: Offshore oil-drilling operations entail an unavoidable risk [#permalink]

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New post 18 Aug 2013, 20:58
Hello,

Can anyone please explain to me how to rule out
[Reveal] Spoiler:
E


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Re: Offshore oil-drilling operations entail an unavoidable risk [#permalink]

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New post 22 Aug 2013, 03:03
veenu08 wrote:
Hello,

Can anyone please explain to me how to rule out
[Reveal] Spoiler:
E


Regards,
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Money is not a concern here.So we can eliminate option E as it is out of scope.

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Re: Offshore oil-drilling operations entail an unavoidable risk [#permalink]

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New post 23 Oct 2013, 23:03
veenu08 wrote:
Hello,

Can anyone please explain to me how to rule out
[Reveal] Spoiler:
E


Regards,
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Just read the powerscore bible and you will know. There is no other book that explains this procedure in a clearer way.

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Re: Offshore oil-drilling operations entail an unavoidable risk [#permalink]

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gmat blows wrote:
Offshore oil-drilling operations entail an unavoidable risk of an oil spill, but importing oil on tankers presently entails an even greater such risk per barrel of oil. Therefore, if we are to reduce the risk of an oil spill without curtailing our use of oil, we must invest more in offshore operations and import less oil on tankers.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument above.

A) Tankers can easily be redesigned so that their use entails less risk of an oil spill.
B) Oil spills caused by tankers have generally been more serious than those caused by offshore operations.
C) The impact of offshore operations on the environments can be controlled by careful management.
D) Offshore operations usually damage the ocean floor, but tankers rarely cause such damage.
E) Importing oil on tankers is currently less expensive than drilling for it offshores.


Key steps to come to the answer:

1. Clearly understand the Conclusion and the premise :
Conclusion - To reduce the risk of an oil spill without curtailing our use of oil, we must invest more in offshore operations and import less oil on tankers.
Premise - Offshore oil drill operations have an unavoidable risk of oil spill but importing on oil tankers carries an even greater risk.

Think of how the conclusion is reached on the basis of the premise and what assumptions can be made.
Assumption 1 : By investing more on offshore operations risk can be reduced.

If we somehow break this assumption then that will give us the correct answer.
If some answer choice gives us that investing in Oil tankers will be easy and will reduce risk then that will be the correct answer choice and A is exactly that.
Rest all answer choices are either irrelevant or strengthening the conclusion.

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Re: Offshore oil-drilling operations entail an unavoidable risk [#permalink]

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New post 11 Dec 2013, 00:49
Only choice A talks about reduced risk of spill by importing oil on tankers, thereby weakening the conclusion of the arguement. Hence it is my answer choice.
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Re: Offshore oil-drilling operations entail an unavoidable risk [#permalink]

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New post 11 Dec 2013, 01:49
IMO A.
A - Weakens.
B,C - Strengthen.
D,E - Unrelated to the conclusion.
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Re: Offshore oil-drilling operations entail an unavoidable risk [#permalink]

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New post 08 Sep 2014, 07:58
In the premise it is stated, Offshore oil-drilling operations entail "an unavoidable risk of an oil spill"
It means no matter how much you invest in off-shore drilling, you can only reduce the risk, not minimize it to zero.

Now if by some means we can prove that risk of oil spill in case of tankers is reduced and so that the risk in tankers is less than risk in off-shore drilling then we can make the conclusion less believable.

Choice A does that.

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Re: Offshore oil-drilling operations entail an unavoidable risk [#permalink]

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Re: Offshore oil-drilling operations entail an unavoidable risk [#permalink]

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hello everyone ,

can someone please advise on why option A is correct ?
A) Tankers can easily be redesigned so that their use entails less risk of an oil spill.
so lets say , originally, there were 50% chance of oil spill in offshore drilling and 80% chances of oil spill from tankers.
now after redesign tankers has lesser risk but lesser than what ?? if it is less than 50% i.e. lesser than oil spill during oil drilling ,
then yes , this option makes more sense. but, in original state we have to assume that tanker carries less risk than oil drilling .

let me know please..WaterFlowsUp , PiyushK , Narenn
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Re: Offshore oil-drilling operations entail an unavoidable risk [#permalink]

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Re: Offshore oil-drilling operations entail an unavoidable risk [#permalink]

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New post 17 Nov 2015, 04:52
Lucky2783 wrote:
hello everyone ,

can someone please advise on why option A is correct ?
A) Tankers can easily be redesigned so that their use entails less risk of an oil spill.
so lets say , originally, there were 50% chance of oil spill in offshore drilling and 80% chances of oil spill from tankers.
now after redesign tankers has lesser risk but lesser than what ?? if it is less than 50% i.e. lesser than oil spill during oil drilling ,
then yes , this option makes more sense. but, in original state we have to assume that tanker carries less risk than oil drilling .

let me know please..WaterFlowsUp , PiyushK , Narenn


I guess my answer is late but anyway,

This is a conditional reasoning question (LR Bible). Whenever there is a condition in the conclusion of a weaken question, you have to prove that the condition is not necessary.

Our conclusion here is : TO REDUCE RISK... WE MUST INVEST IN OFFSHORE
So before you look at answer choices you can weaken the conclusion by saying: investing in offshore is NOT NECESSARY to reduce risk.

Now you can look at answer choices
Answer A clearly tells you that you can reduce the risk of an oil spill without having to invest in offshore. That's your answer
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Re: Offshore oil-drilling operations entail an unavoidable risk [#permalink]

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New post 26 Dec 2015, 06:05
Hello

I have a small concern with A => The way the argument is structured, it says:
Premise: Offshore Drill Ops (ODO) are risky but importing oil tankers (IOT) entails an even greater risk per barrel
Conclusion: To be safe without limiting use, we should invest more in ODO vs. IOT

Now if we look at A i.e. "Tankers can easily be redesigned so that their use entails less risk of an oil spill" --> Here, for sure we see that the risk is diminished but since the premise and conclusion both are of the comparative nature, we must have a reason that forces us to believe that with the change in design, the risk will be lower in comparison to ODO. A simply states that the risk is lowered but we are still not sure if the redesign sufficiently helps us resolve the issue at hand (i.e. Risk for IOT<Risk for ODO)

With this, I was quite confused b/w A and D (D involves external context). Any help will be appreciated.

Thanks



asimov wrote:
A

The argument is for curtailing the risk of oil spills. Only A address the risk. E does not address the argument.

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Re: Offshore oil-drilling operations entail an unavoidable risk [#permalink]

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New post 26 Dec 2015, 07:49
rsaahil90 wrote:
Hello

I have a small concern with A => The way the argument is structured, it says:
Premise: Offshore Drill Ops (ODO) are risky but importing oil tankers (IOT) entails an even greater risk per barrel
Conclusion: To be safe without limiting use, we should invest more in ODO vs. IOT

Now if we look at A i.e. "Tankers can easily be redesigned so that their use entails less risk of an oil spill" --> Here, for sure we see that the risk is diminished but since the premise and conclusion both are of the comparative nature, we must have a reason that forces us to believe that with the change in design, the risk will be lower in comparison to ODO. A simply states that the risk is lowered but we are still not sure if the redesign sufficiently helps us resolve the issue at hand (i.e. Risk for IOT<Risk for ODO)

With this, I was quite confused b/w A and D (D involves external context). Any help will be appreciated.

Thanks


I agree that it would be nice to have some idea of the degree to which the tankers can be improved, but by process of elimination A is the only option that weakens the argument to any degree. It may not destroy the conclusion, but it does absolutely weaken it. D, on the other hand, gives us information that we can't evaluate because we don't know the impact of oil on the ocean floor - maybe the best kind of oil spill is one that only impacts the ocean floor and not the surface...

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Re: Offshore oil-drilling operations entail an unavoidable risk [#permalink]

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rsaahil90 wrote:
Hello

I have a small concern with A => The way the argument is structured, it says:
Premise: Offshore Drill Ops (ODO) are risky but importing oil tankers (IOT) entails an even greater risk per barrel
Conclusion: To be safe without limiting use, we should invest more in ODO vs. IOT

Now if we look at A i.e. "Tankers can easily be redesigned so that their use entails less risk of an oil spill" --> Here, for sure we see that the risk is diminished but since the premise and conclusion both are of the comparative nature, we must have a reason that forces us to believe that with the change in design, the risk will be lower in comparison to ODO. A simply states that the risk is lowered but we are still not sure if the redesign sufficiently helps us resolve the issue at hand (i.e. Risk for IOT<Risk for ODO)

With this, I was quite confused b/w A and D (D involves external context). Any help will be appreciated.

Thanks



asimov wrote:
A

The argument is for curtailing the risk of oil spills. Only A address the risk. E does not address the argument.


Responding to a pm:

Premises:
Offshore ODOs entail an unavoidable risk of an oil spill.
Importing oil on tankers presently entails an even greater such risk per barrel of oil.

Conclusion:
If we are to reduce the risk of an oil spill without curtailing our use of oil, we must invest more in ODO and import less oil on tankers.

Note that the premises tell us that oil spill risk is lower in ODOs and higher in tankers. The conclusion (which is a conditional) says that if we are to reduce the risk of oil spill, we should invest more in ODOs.
It seems perfectly reasonable conclusion, right? It says that taking only oil spill risk into account, we should use more ODOs. If I were to prethink on this, I wouldn't know how to weaken it.
But, we can weaken it because the conclusion says "we should invest more in ODOs" and not "use more ODOs". We don't know what effect "investing more" could have on the amount of risk involved in ODO and tankers.

Then we check the options.

(A) Tankers can easily be redesigned so that their use entails less risk of an oil spill.
Now, this does weaken our conclusion. If we invest in tankers, we could easily reduce the risk. Also, now the use of the word "presently" in our premises makes sense. The premises say clearly that presently the risk with tankers is higher. So it all fits in. Yes, we don't know whether with investment, the risk with tankers will go below the risk with ODOs but it clearly raises a question and hence weakens the conclusion.

(B) Oil spills caused by tankers have generally been more serious than those caused by offshore operations.
This, if anything, strengthens our conclusion.

(C) The impact of offshore operations on the environment can be controlled by careful management.
Irrelevant. We are only considering risk of oil spill.

(D) Offshore operations usually damage the ocean floor, but tankers rarely cause such damage.
Doesn't matter what they actually damage - the ocean floor or agricultural land or underground water etc. The risk of oil spill is less with ODOs and that is all we are concerned with.

(E) Importing oil on tankers is currently less expensive than drilling for it offshore.
Irrelevant. We are only considering risk of oil spill, not cost.

Answer (A)
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Re: Offshore oil-drilling operations entail an unavoidable risk [#permalink]

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New post 30 Dec 2015, 12:53
I fell for D but later realized its a shell game answer choice

we should be concerned only about risk of oil spillage whereas choice D talks about damage caused by Offshore drilling on ocean.

A is the correct choice as it weakens the conclusion

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Re: Offshore oil-drilling operations entail an unavoidable risk [#permalink]

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This question is asking us to weaken the argument above. The argument’s conclusion is that we must invest more in offshore operations and import less oil on tankers. Why? The premise of the argument is that oil tankers currently provide a bigger risk of spilling oil per barrel of oil. The question even has the diamond in the rough word “presently”, which hints that this situation could change. Without even looking at the answer choices, we can surmise that this situation isn’t set in stone and can therefore be changed.

In other words: how do we weaken the argument above? Well, what if it simply weren’t true anymore? The whole argument hinges on tankers being more risky. So if new information or new technology allowed the tankers to become safer than their offshore counterparts, the entire argument would fall apart. Let’s sift through the answers to see if any of these match our needs:

(A) Tankers can easily be redesigned so that their use entails less risk of an oil spill.

Well this is pretty much exactly what we’re shooting for. Let’s see if any of the other choices make us reconsider this choice. (a choice that’s equivalent to Arnold’s classic: “come with me if you want to live”)

(B) Oil spills caused by tankers have generally been more serious than those caused by offshore operations.

This option is actually a 180°, as it strengthens the argument. We shouldn’t use tankers because tankers are more dangerous. Perfect strengthener. These options can be very tempting, as they are excellent answers, except for the lack of the word “not”, which is somewhat crucial in this case.

(C) The impact of offshore operations on the environment can be controlled by careful management.

Much like answer choice B, this actually strengthens the argument. At this point you might start wondering if you’re misinterpreting the question, as the majority of the choices seem to contradict your interpretation. This is a classic GMAT ploy, so don’t fall for it. This underscores again why making a prediction is crucial in these situations.

(D) Offshore operations usually damage the ocean floor, but tankers rarely cause such damage.

This argument is discussing oil spills, so whether the environmental damage is limited to the seafloor or the seashells (and whether she sells seashells by the sea shore) is irrelevant to the issue.

(E) Importing oil on tankers is currently less expensive than drilling for it offshore.

The economic argument is frequently a compelling one, especially for aspiring business students, but the focus is on the environment impact of oil spills, not whether I can get premium gas for a few cents cheaper. This is out of scope of the issue.

The correct answer is (A).
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Offshore oil-drilling operations entail an unavoidable risk [#permalink]

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New post 14 Aug 2017, 13:16
I was initially confused between A and D. But after second round of examination i chose A as D actually strengthens the argument.
In A since we know that we can fix the design of the tankers so that there is reduction in Oil Spills, the argument is clearly weakened. No other option is close to A

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Offshore oil-drilling operations entail an unavoidable risk   [#permalink] 14 Aug 2017, 13:16

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