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# Offshore oil-drilling operations entail an unavoidable risk

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Offshore oil-drilling operations entail an unavoidable risk [#permalink]

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15 Jun 2008, 19:29
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Offshore oil-drilling operations entail an unavoidable risk of an oil spill, but importing oil on tankers presently entails an even greater such risk per barrel of oil. Therefore, if we are to reduce the risk of an oil spill without curtailing our use of oil, we must invest more in offshore operations and import less oil on tankers.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument above.

A) Tankers can easily be redesigned so that their use entails less risk of an oil spill.
B) Oil spills caused by tankers have generally been more serious than those caused by offshore operations.
C) The impact of offshore operations on the environments can be controlled by careful management.
D) Offshore operations usually damage the ocean floor, but tankers rarely cause such damage.
E) Importing oil on tankers is currently less expensive than drilling for it offshores.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by fameatop on 22 Aug 2013, 04:18, edited 1 time in total.
OA not provided
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Re: Offshore oil-drilling operations entail an unavoidable risk [#permalink]

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24 Oct 2013, 04:44
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gmat blows wrote:
Offshore oil-drilling operations entail an unavoidable risk of an oil spill, but importing oil on tankers presently entails an even greater such risk per barrel of oil. Therefore, if we are to reduce the risk of an oil spill without curtailing our use of oil, we must invest more in offshore operations and import less oil on tankers.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument above.

A) Tankers can easily be redesigned so that their use entails less risk of an oil spill.
B) Oil spills caused by tankers have generally been more serious than those caused by offshore operations.
C) The impact of offshore operations on the environments can be controlled by careful management.
D) Offshore operations usually damage the ocean floor, but tankers rarely cause such damage.
E) Importing oil on tankers is currently less expensive than drilling for it offshores.

Key steps to come to the answer:

1. Clearly understand the Conclusion and the premise :
Conclusion - To reduce the risk of an oil spill without curtailing our use of oil, we must invest more in offshore operations and import less oil on tankers.
Premise - Offshore oil drill operations have an unavoidable risk of oil spill but importing on oil tankers carries an even greater risk.

Think of how the conclusion is reached on the basis of the premise and what assumptions can be made.
Assumption 1 : By investing more on offshore operations risk can be reduced.

If we somehow break this assumption then that will give us the correct answer.
If some answer choice gives us that investing in Oil tankers will be easy and will reduce risk then that will be the correct answer choice and A is exactly that.
Rest all answer choices are either irrelevant or strengthening the conclusion.

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Re: Offshore oil drilling - CR [#permalink]

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15 Jun 2008, 19:51
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A

B and C strenthen, not weaken
D not related to spill
E not addressing the spill issue
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Re: Offshore oil drilling - CR [#permalink]

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16 Jun 2008, 13:04
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OA is A.

I chose D but realized that we are more concerned about reducing risk - not so much the one with less damange/effect.

thanks.

barfer wrote:
A. Only in A we have a consideration of risks. No others with that. The conclusion pointed to reducong risks, not to levels of possible damage, and not to impact of accidents.
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Re: Offshore oil-drilling operations entail an unavoidable risk [#permalink]

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06 Apr 2015, 22:39
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hello everyone ,

A) Tankers can easily be redesigned so that their use entails less risk of an oil spill.
so lets say , originally, there were 50% chance of oil spill in offshore drilling and 80% chances of oil spill from tankers.
now after redesign tankers has lesser risk but lesser than what ?? if it is less than 50% i.e. lesser than oil spill during oil drilling ,
then yes , this option makes more sense. but, in original state we have to assume that tanker carries less risk than oil drilling .

let me know please..WaterFlowsUp , PiyushK , Narenn
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Re: Offshore oil-drilling operations entail an unavoidable risk [#permalink]

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29 Apr 2017, 03:12
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This question is asking us to weaken the argument above. The argument’s conclusion is that we must invest more in offshore operations and import less oil on tankers. Why? The premise of the argument is that oil tankers currently provide a bigger risk of spilling oil per barrel of oil. The question even has the diamond in the rough word “presently”, which hints that this situation could change. Without even looking at the answer choices, we can surmise that this situation isn’t set in stone and can therefore be changed.

In other words: how do we weaken the argument above? Well, what if it simply weren’t true anymore? The whole argument hinges on tankers being more risky. So if new information or new technology allowed the tankers to become safer than their offshore counterparts, the entire argument would fall apart. Let’s sift through the answers to see if any of these match our needs:

(A) Tankers can easily be redesigned so that their use entails less risk of an oil spill.

Well this is pretty much exactly what we’re shooting for. Let’s see if any of the other choices make us reconsider this choice. (a choice that’s equivalent to Arnold’s classic: “come with me if you want to live”)

(B) Oil spills caused by tankers have generally been more serious than those caused by offshore operations.

This option is actually a 180°, as it strengthens the argument. We shouldn’t use tankers because tankers are more dangerous. Perfect strengthener. These options can be very tempting, as they are excellent answers, except for the lack of the word “not”, which is somewhat crucial in this case.

(C) The impact of offshore operations on the environment can be controlled by careful management.

Much like answer choice B, this actually strengthens the argument. At this point you might start wondering if you’re misinterpreting the question, as the majority of the choices seem to contradict your interpretation. This is a classic GMAT ploy, so don’t fall for it. This underscores again why making a prediction is crucial in these situations.

(D) Offshore operations usually damage the ocean floor, but tankers rarely cause such damage.

This argument is discussing oil spills, so whether the environmental damage is limited to the seafloor or the seashells (and whether she sells seashells by the sea shore) is irrelevant to the issue.

(E) Importing oil on tankers is currently less expensive than drilling for it offshore.

The economic argument is frequently a compelling one, especially for aspiring business students, but the focus is on the environment impact of oil spills, not whether I can get premium gas for a few cents cheaper. This is out of scope of the issue.

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Re: Offshore oil drilling - CR [#permalink]

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16 Jun 2008, 00:25
Straight A!
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Re: Offshore oil drilling - CR [#permalink]

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16 Jun 2008, 02:28
A. Only in A we have a consideration of risks. No others with that. The conclusion pointed to reducong risks, not to levels of possible damage, and not to impact of accidents.
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Re: Offshore oil drilling - CR [#permalink]

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16 Jun 2008, 03:11
IMO A for this one
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Re: Offshore oil drilling - CR [#permalink]

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19 Jun 2008, 13:43
A for me.
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Re: Offshore oil-drilling operations entail an unavoidable risk [#permalink]

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18 Aug 2013, 20:58
Hello,

Can anyone please explain to me how to rule out
[Reveal] Spoiler:
E

Regards,
Veenu
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Re: Offshore oil-drilling operations entail an unavoidable risk [#permalink]

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22 Aug 2013, 03:03
veenu08 wrote:
Hello,

Can anyone please explain to me how to rule out
[Reveal] Spoiler:
E

Regards,
Veenu

Money is not a concern here.So we can eliminate option E as it is out of scope.
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Re: Offshore oil-drilling operations entail an unavoidable risk [#permalink]

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23 Oct 2013, 23:03
veenu08 wrote:
Hello,

Can anyone please explain to me how to rule out
[Reveal] Spoiler:
E

Regards,
Veenu

Just read the powerscore bible and you will know. There is no other book that explains this procedure in a clearer way.
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Re: Offshore oil-drilling operations entail an unavoidable risk [#permalink]

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11 Dec 2013, 00:49
Only choice A talks about reduced risk of spill by importing oil on tankers, thereby weakening the conclusion of the arguement. Hence it is my answer choice.
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Re: Offshore oil-drilling operations entail an unavoidable risk [#permalink]

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11 Dec 2013, 01:49
IMO A.
A - Weakens.
B,C - Strengthen.
D,E - Unrelated to the conclusion.
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Re: Offshore oil-drilling operations entail an unavoidable risk [#permalink]

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02 Apr 2015, 06:39
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Re: Offshore oil-drilling operations entail an unavoidable risk [#permalink]

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17 Nov 2015, 04:52
Lucky2783 wrote:
hello everyone ,

A) Tankers can easily be redesigned so that their use entails less risk of an oil spill.
so lets say , originally, there were 50% chance of oil spill in offshore drilling and 80% chances of oil spill from tankers.
now after redesign tankers has lesser risk but lesser than what ?? if it is less than 50% i.e. lesser than oil spill during oil drilling ,
then yes , this option makes more sense. but, in original state we have to assume that tanker carries less risk than oil drilling .

let me know please..WaterFlowsUp , PiyushK , Narenn

I guess my answer is late but anyway,

This is a conditional reasoning question (LR Bible). Whenever there is a condition in the conclusion of a weaken question, you have to prove that the condition is not necessary.

Our conclusion here is : TO REDUCE RISK... WE MUST INVEST IN OFFSHORE
So before you look at answer choices you can weaken the conclusion by saying: investing in offshore is NOT NECESSARY to reduce risk.

Now you can look at answer choices
Answer A clearly tells you that you can reduce the risk of an oil spill without having to invest in offshore. That's your answer
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Re: Offshore oil-drilling operations entail an unavoidable risk   [#permalink] 17 Nov 2015, 04:52
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