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Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and thus do not

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Re: Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and thus do not  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Oct 2018, 03:04
Official Answer

Argument Evaluation

Situation Often patients with ankle fractures that their orthopedists have judged not to require surgery are given follow-up x-rays to check whether the fracture healed correctly. An examination of a sample of those x-rays found that the ankle had, in each case, healed properly.

Reasoning The question is which of the options, if true, would most strengthen the argument. The argument is based on data concerning follow-up x-rays, each of which revealed no problem with the orthopedist's initial judgment that the ankle fracture was stable (and would heal without surgery). This invites the question whether the follow-up x-rays are really needed. The argument concludes that they are a waste of money. But was the x-ray data truly representative of orthopedists generally? After all, some orthopedists—perhaps more experienced, better-trained, or employed at a facility with better staff or facilities—may be much better than others at judging ankle fractures. If we add the information that the data for the conclusion comes from many orthopedists working at many different hospitals, we have greater assurance that the x-ray data is representative, and the argument will be made much stronger.

Option C is Correct. This shows that the sample of x-ray data examined was probably sufficiently representative of cases of ankle fracture judged to be stable by orthopedists.

Why are answer options A, B, D & E wrong? :-

A - Neither the study nor the conclusion that is drawn from it concerns general practitioners, so this point is irrelevant.

B - Naturally many ankle injuries do not involve fractures—x-rays may sometimes be used to determine this—but the argument concerns only cases where there have been ankle fractures.

D - The argument does not concern cases of ankle fracture that have been surgically repaired.

E - The argument concerns only x-rays of ankles. From the information given here, we cannot infer that orthopedists are generally wasteful in routinely ordering follow-up x-rays.
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Re: Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and thus do not  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Oct 2018, 07:18
Vithal wrote:
Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review, 2nd Edition

Practice Question
Question No.: 45
Page: 134

Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and thus do not require surgery, are given follow-up x-ray because their orthopedists are concerned about possibly having misjudged the stability of the fracture. When a number of follow-up x-rays were reviewed, however, all the fractures that had initially been judged stable were found to have healed correctly. Therefore, it is a waste of money to order follow-up x-rays of ankle fracture initially judged stable.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

(A) Doctors who are general practitioners rather than orthopedists are less likely than orthopedists to judge the stability of an ankle fracture correctly.

(B) Many ankle injuries for which an initial x-ray is ordered are revealed by the x-ray not to involve any fracture of the ankle.

(C) X-rays of patients of many different orthopedists working in several hospitals were reviewed.

(D) The healing of ankle fractures that have been surgically repaired is always checked by means of a follow-up x-ray.

(E) Orthopedists routinely order follow-up x-rays for fractures of bone other than ankle bones.


I choose C because - the statement says " orthopedists are concerned about possibly having misjudged the stability of the fracture" and hence they are asking for more Xrays. to strengthen the statement we need to show that there is an error of judgement by the orthopedists to order for X-rays

In C we have that-- this common phenomenon -- the author has reach the conclusion after many Xrays were reviewed from various hospitals.
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Re: Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and thus do not  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Oct 2018, 23:06
Vithal wrote:
Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review, 2nd Edition

Practice Question
Question No.: 45
Page: 134

Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and thus do not require surgery, are given follow-up x-ray because their orthopedists are concerned about possibly having misjudged the stability of the fracture. When a number of follow-up x-rays were reviewed, however, all the fractures that had initially been judged stable were found to have healed correctly. Therefore, it is a waste of money to order follow-up x-rays of ankle fracture initially judged stable.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

(A) Doctors who are general practitioners rather than orthopedists are less likely than orthopedists to judge the stability of an ankle fracture correctly.

(B) Many ankle injuries for which an initial x-ray is ordered are revealed by the x-ray not to involve any fracture of the ankle.

(C) X-rays of patients of many different orthopedists working in several hospitals were reviewed.

(D) The healing of ankle fractures that have been surgically repaired is always checked by means of a follow-up x-ray.

(E) Orthopedists routinely order follow-up x-rays for fractures of bone other than ankle bones.




Conclusion:
- it is a waste of money to order follow-up x-rays of ankle fracture initially judged stable.
In other words, when a fracture is initially judged stable, it is stable. No need to get a follow up x ray. The orthos do a get enough job when they review the fracture as stable initially.

So we need to strengthen our conclusion.

(A) Doctors who are general practitioners rather than orthopedists are less likely than orthopedists to judge the stability of an ankle fracture correctly.
This does not strengthen our conclusion. We don't know whether sometimes general practitioners judge the initial stability of fractures but if they do, actually we do need to have a follow up x ray (since they may not do as good a job as orthos)

(B) Many ankle injuries for which an initial x-ray is ordered are revealed by the x-ray not to involve any fracture of the ankle.
Irrelevant. This talks about injuries which are not fractures. We are only concerned about ankle fractures which are initially judged stable. Rest of the injury universe is irrelevant to us.

(C) X-rays of patients of many different orthopedists working in several hospitals were reviewed.
This is interesting. We are concluding that we don't need follow up x rays, that orthos are capable of identifying stable fractures initially itself. If we had reviewed various diff orthos from various diff hospitals, it means that generally, orthos are capable. It strengthens our conclusion. Say if most of the x rays reviewed were of a single ortho, can we say that we don't need to get a second x ray done? What if that particular ortho is capable but others are not? Checking the skills of various orthos helps better establish that a second x ray if not needed. This is the answer

(D) The healing of ankle fractures that have been surgically repaired is always checked by means of a follow-up x-ray.
This is talking about ankle fractures which are not deemed stable initially (since they need surgery). Again, this is outside the scope of our argument. What happens with unstable ankle fractures we don't care. The only relevant topic is "ankle fractures which are initially judged stable".

(E) Orthopedists routinely order follow-up x-rays for fractures of bone other than ankle bones.
Again, as we said before, rest of the injury universe is irrelevant to us.

Answer (C)
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Re: Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and thus do not &nbs [#permalink] 21 Oct 2018, 23:06

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