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# Recently physicians have determined

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Director
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15 Nov 2011, 03:21
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Difficulty:

5% (low)

Question Stats:

80% (01:30) correct 20% (00:30) wrong based on 76 sessions

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Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but a bacterium that dwells in the mucous lining of the stomach.

(A) not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but
(B) not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but are by
(C) caused not by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but by
(D) caused not by stress, alcohol, and rich foods, but
(E) caused not by stress, alcohol, and rich foods, but are by

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Can someone please explain why you are not allowed to insert an 'are' in this idiom? (answer choice (B))

Why 'are' is not allowed here? I think that this structure maintains parallelism:

NOT verb by noun, noun, or noun, BUT verb by noun

Thanks a lot
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
If you have any questions
New!
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Re: Recently physicians have determined [#permalink]

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15 Nov 2011, 04:35
Hey

According to option C the sentence structure is that
Recent physicians have .... are caused NOT X BUT Y.
Here " are caused " is parallel to both X and Y. Hence we need not repeat it at Y.
This structure can also be rephrased as:
Recent physicians have... are NOT X BUT Y.
But in this case "cause" has to be included in both the parts X and Y.

Hope it clarifies.
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Re: Recently physicians have determined [#permalink]

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15 Nov 2011, 04:43
ksp, thanks for your reply. Just before you wrote, I thought about it and came to the same conclusion:

Quote:
Recent physicians have... are NOT X BUT Y.
But in this case "cause" has to be included in both the parts X and Y.

Thanks again.
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Re: Recently physicians have determined [#permalink]

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15 Nov 2011, 04:44
Ans C,

Adding 'are' before 'by' is redundant.
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Re: Recently physicians have determined [#permalink]

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15 Nov 2011, 04:46
Quote:
Adding 'are' before 'by' is redundant.

I don't think it's redundant. Rather it's incorrect because of parallelism mismatch between the left and right parts of the structure.
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Re: Recently physicians have determined [#permalink]

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15 Nov 2011, 04:49

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Re: Recently physicians have determined [#permalink]

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15 Nov 2011, 11:55
nonameee wrote:
ksp, thanks for your reply. Just before you wrote, I thought about it and came to the same conclusion:

Quote:
Recent physicians have... are NOT X BUT Y.
But in this case "cause" has to be included in both the parts X and Y.

Thanks again.

Minor clarification - actually the sentence structure is

"caused not by X...., but by Y.."

The word "by" should be on both sides of the comma.

So this is an X&Y Consistency Question (Framework #6).
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Re: Recently physicians have determined [#permalink]

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15 Nov 2011, 17:05
Quote:
NOT verb by noun, noun, or noun, BUT verb by noun

'are' and 'caused' are not the same type of verb. One is helping verb, another is past participle. So, why they are not parallel.
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Re: Recently physicians have determined [#permalink]

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15 Nov 2011, 17:46
not by...but by - go for the easy kill!
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Re: Recently physicians have determined [#permalink]

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26 May 2016, 14:07
Caused not by x, but by Y.
Option C is correct :D
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Re: Recently physicians have determined [#permalink]

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19 Jul 2016, 02:04
nonameee wrote:
OG 12th Edition:

Q81. Recently physicians have determined that stomach
ulcers are not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods,
but
a bacterium that dwells in the mucous lining of the
stomach.

(A) not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but
(B) not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but
are by
(C) caused not by stress, alcohol, or rich foods,
but by
(D) caused not by stress, alcohol, and rich foods, but
(E) caused not by stress, alcohol, and rich foods,
but are by

Can someone please explain why you are not allowed to insert an 'are' in this idiom? (answer choice (B))

Why 'are' is not allowed here? I think that this structure maintains parallelism:

NOT verb by noun, noun, or noun, BUT verb by noun

Thanks a lot

When in doubt, switch!!!!

ecently physicians have determined that stomach
ulcers are not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but
are by a bacterium that dwells in the mucous lining of the
stomach.

stomach ulcers are by a bacterium...

Adding are makes it parallel to the first statement where caused is already inside the 1st. We need the caused. The are makes the parallel structure grammatically correct, but by meaning wrong.
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Re: Recently physicians have determined   [#permalink] 19 Jul 2016, 02:04
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