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# OG'16 Verbal Review - As a result of record ...

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OG'16 Verbal Review - As a result of record ... [#permalink]

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29 Oct 2015, 08:50
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As a result of record low temperatures, the water pipes on the third floor froze, which caused the heads of the sprinkler system to burst, which released torrents of water into offices on the second floor.

A) which caused the heads of the sprinkler system to burst, which released torrents of water
B) which caused the heads of the sprinkler system to burst and which released torrents of water
C) which caused the heads of the sprinkler system to burst, torrents of water were then released
D) causing heads of sprinkler system to burst, then releasing torrents of water
E) causing heads of the sprinkler system to burst and release torrents of water
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: OG'16 Verbal Review - As a result of record ... [#permalink]

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29 Oct 2015, 09:35
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As a result of record low temperatures, the water pipes on the third floor froze, which caused the heads of the sprinkler system to burst, which released torrents of water into offices on the second floor.

A) which caused the heads of the sprinkler system to burst, which released torrents of water

'WHICH '.....is a relative pronoun refers to preceding noun but in the above sentence 'which ' refers to Froze ( Verb ) and to burst ( infinity verb )

B) which caused the heads of the sprinkler system to burst and which released torrents of water

same as A

C) which caused the heads of the sprinkler system to burst, torrents of water were then released

WHICH '.....is a relative pronoun refers to preceding noun but in the above sentence 'which ' refers to Froze ( Verb )

D) causing heads of sprinkler system to burst, then releasing torrents of water

causing heads of sprinkler system to burst........is a modifier....... that gives the result of the action , which is correct but .....then releasing torrents of water .......is wrong because here meaning of the sentence changes .........it says that water pipes themselves releasing water

E) causing heads of the sprinkler system to burst and release torrents of water

causing heads of sprinkler system to burst........is a modifier....... that gives the result of the action , which is correct .

'and '.........shows 2 independent action and parallel marker.

Burst || release

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Re: OG'16 Verbal Review - As a result of record ... [#permalink]

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29 Oct 2015, 13:12
I saw the official explanation for this question. And it looks like, they are not stressing on the error "which". Here which is not used properly and this will help to eliminate 3 choices.
Any idea why?
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Re: OG'16 Verbal Review - As a result of record ... [#permalink]

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30 Oct 2015, 00:19
rakeshpai1 wrote:
I saw the official explanation for this question. And it looks like, they are not stressing on the error "which". Here which is not used properly and this will help to eliminate 3 choices.
Any idea why?

I also am quite certain that we can indeed easily eliminate the first three options due to incorrect usage of "which".

If possible and if it is allowed, can you post the exact official explanation? It will help us understand the official line of thinking.
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Re: OG'16 Verbal Review - As a result of record ... [#permalink]

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01 Nov 2015, 06:11
I am agree to gmatgrl .

If possible and if it is allowed, can you post the exact official explanation? It will help us understand the official line of thinking.
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Re: OG'16 Verbal Review - As a result of record ... [#permalink]

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02 Nov 2015, 02:04
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alphaseeker wrote:
As a result of record low temperatures, the water pipes on the third floor froze, which caused the heads of the sprinkler system to burst, which released torrents of water into offices on the second floor.

A) which caused the heads of the sprinkler system to burst, which released torrents of water
B) which caused the heads of the sprinkler system to burst and which released torrents of water
C) which caused the heads of the sprinkler system to burst, torrents of water were then released
D) causing heads of sprinkler system to burst, then releasing torrents of water
E) causing heads of the sprinkler system to burst and release torrents of water

This sentence describes a causal sequence of events leading to flooded second-floor offices. One of the steps, sprinkler heads bursting, was presumably simultaneous with the release of torrents of water, so it is best to present these events as actions attached to the same subject (heads of the sprinkler system). The sentence as given attempts to explain the sequence in a chain of relative clauses, using the pronoun which to introduce successive steps. The precise reference of his relative pronoun is somewhat obscure-it appears to refer to the entire preceding clause- and the sequence separates the simultaneous bursting of heads and releasing of water into two temporally separate events.

A) The reference of the second which is obscure, and the sentence implausibly separates bursting heads and releasing of torrents into two temporally separate events.

B) Joining the relative pronouns with the conjunction and makes the freezing of the water pipes the subject of both caused .... and released ... Thus, it seems to indicate, somewhat implausibly, that the freezing of the pipes directly released torrents of water independently of its causing the sprinkler heads to burst.

C) The passive verb were... released obscures the causal sequence behind the releasing of torrents of water. The introduction of a new independent clause without a conjunction is ungrammatical and makes this version a run-on sentence.

D) As in (B), the structure of this version makes the freezing of the pipes the subject of both causing... and releasing... The introduction of the sequential marker then divides the bursting of heads and releasing of torrents of water into two separate events in the sequence. It indicates, implausibly, that the pipes' freezing directly released torrents of water after it had also caused the sprinkler heads to burst.

E) Correct. The elimination of the relative pronoun clarifies the causal sequence of events, and the double infinitives to burst and (to) release underscores the simultaneity of these events.
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Re: OG'16 Verbal Review - As a result of record ... [#permalink]

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20 Oct 2016, 03:57
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alphaseeker wrote:
As a result of record low temperatures, the water pipes on the third floor froze, which caused the heads of the sprinkler system to burst, which released torrents of water into offices on the second floor.

A) which caused the heads of the sprinkler system to burst, which released torrents of water
B) which caused the heads of the sprinkler system to burst and which released torrents of water
C) which caused the heads of the sprinkler system to burst, torrents of water were then released
D) causing heads of sprinkler system to burst, then releasing torrents of water
E) causing heads of the sprinkler system to burst and release torrents of water

- Which is a noun modifier. from the intended meaning of the sentence it is clear that we need to show the result of the event "the water froze" -> hence we should use V-ing modifier (which modifies the preceding clause - and specifically can modify the result of the action in the preceding clause).
A/B/C - are out.

D/E - from the context it is clear that "burst" & "release" happens at the same time. E conveys that perfectly. In addition "then..." is not properly connected to the sentence and it is not clear what it modifies.
=> D is out.

E is correct.
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Re: OG'16 Verbal Review - As a result of record ... [#permalink]

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18 Feb 2017, 17:49
As a result of record low temperatures, the water pipes on the third floor froze, which caused the heads of the sprinkler system to burst, which released torrents of water into offices on the second floor.

Issues: Modifier | Parallelism

Analysis:
1. ", which" is a non-essential modifier and "which" is used to modify the noun right before comma. In the sentence, the usage of "which" refers to the whole clause and that is incorrect.

A) which caused the heads of the sprinkler system to burst, which released torrents of water
- Incorrect usage of "which"

B) which caused the heads of the sprinkler system to burst and which released torrents of water
- Incorrect usage of "which"

C) which caused the heads of the sprinkler system to burst, torrents of water were then released
- Incorrect usage of "which"

D) causing heads of sprinkler system to burst, then releasing torrents of water
- "then releasing.." is a run on as a conjunction is missing

E) causing heads of the sprinkler system to burst and release torrents of water

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Re: OG'16 Verbal Review - As a result of record ... [#permalink]

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19 Feb 2017, 01:56
As a result of record low temperatures, the water pipes on the third floor froze, which caused the heads of the sprinkler system to burst, which released torrents of water into offices on the second floor.

What caused the heads of the sprinkler system to burst? The event of water pipes getting frozen. "which" is incapable of referring to this. Thus, option A, B, and C are gone.
A) which caused the heads of the sprinkler system to burst, which released torrents of water

B) which caused the heads of the sprinkler system to burst and which released torrents of water

C) which caused the heads of the sprinkler system to burst, torrents of water were then released

D) causing heads of sprinkler system to burst, then releasing torrents of water
"causing heads of sprinkler system to burst" shows the result of the event. "then" brings in the sense of sequence and so we must need an "and". Moreover, if we go by the meaning, as the "causing" and "releasing" are parallel, the sentence conveys the meaning that the event of water pipes getting frozen causes the heads of sprinkler system to burst and then the same event releases the torrents of water whereas the logical meaning should be the sprinkler system bursts and it releases the torrents of water.

E) causing heads of the sprinkler system to burst and release torrents of water

Thus, option E.
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Re: OG'16 Verbal Review - As a result of record ... [#permalink]

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23 Apr 2017, 06:06
Hi Expert,

I agree that choice E is the best choice among all and it correctly shows the result of previous clause.

However, I have a difficulty in understanding how "cause" is making sense with the subject of the previous clause.

Mohan was hit by the bus, dying instantly.

Here "dying" make sense with the subject-- Mohan died

In the given sentence-- the water pipes caused heads of sprinkler system to burst--

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OG'16 Verbal Review - As a result of record ... [#permalink]

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23 Apr 2017, 07:20
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AR15J wrote:
Hi Expert,

I agree that choice E is the best choice among all and it correctly shows the result of previous clause.

However, I have a difficulty in understanding how "cause" is making sense with the subject of the previous clause.

Mohan was hit by the bus, dying instantly.

Here "dying" make sense with the subject-- Mohan died

In the given sentence-- the water pipes caused heads of sprinkler system to burst--

A present participle modifier may be used as a noun modifier or a verb modifier. It is alright to use comma + present participle modifier as a verb modifier referring to the action of the previous clause - it is not mandatory that the modifier refer to the subject of the previous clause.

In this case it is not required that the present participle modifier "causing ...." refer to "water pipes". Here the present participle modifier correctly refers to the action ("froze") of the previous clause.

In your example as well, it is alright to consider that the modifier "dying instantly" refers to "hit", not "Mohan".
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Re: OG'16 Verbal Review - As a result of record ... [#permalink]

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22 Sep 2017, 14:18
A) which caused the heads of the sprinkler system to burst, which released torrents of water --> which cannot be used as it is modifying a verb where as it should modify a noun or a pronoun.
B) which caused the heads of the sprinkler system to burst and which released torrents of water --> first which has same error as in A, second which is redundant.
C) which caused the heads of the sprinkler system to burst, torrents of water were then released --> first which has same error as in A and the 2nd part of the sentence is wordy.
D) causing heads of sprinkler system to burst, then releasing torrents of water --> burst and releasing not parallel.
E) causing heads of the sprinkler system to burst and release torrents of water --> this is correct.
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Re: OG'16 Verbal Review - As a result of record ... [#permalink]

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22 Sep 2017, 20:13
alphaseeker wrote:
As a result of record low temperatures, the water pipes on the third floor froze, which caused the heads of the sprinkler system to burst, which released torrents of water into offices on the second floor.

A) which caused the heads of the sprinkler system to burst, which released torrents of water
B) which caused the heads of the sprinkler system to burst and which released torrents of water
C) which caused the heads of the sprinkler system to burst, torrents of water were then released
D) causing heads of sprinkler system to burst, then releasing torrents of water
E) causing heads of the sprinkler system to burst and release torrents of water

the serious problem in d is that " releasing" is done by subject/agent of "causing'. this subject/agent is pipe, not sprinkler system. this is not logic.
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OG'16 Verbal Review - As a result of record ... [#permalink]

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25 Mar 2018, 06:52
As a result of record low temperatures, the water pipes on the third floor froze, which caused the heads of the sprinkler system to burst, which released torrents of water into offices on the second floor.

A) which caused the heads of the sprinkler system to burst, which released torrents of water - COMMA + which must be immediately preceded by a NOUN.
B) which caused the heads of the sprinkler system to burst and which released torrents of water - same as A
C) which caused the heads of the sprinkler system to burst, torrents of water were then released - same as A
D) causing heads of sprinkler system to burst, then releasing torrents of water - The agent of a COMMA + VERBing modifier must be the PRECEDING SUBJECT.
Here, the agent of releasing seems to be water pipes, implying that the FROZEN PIPES were RELEASING torrents of water.
The intended meaning is that the SPRINKLER SYSTEM THAT BURST released torrents of water.
E) causing heads of the sprinkler system to burst and release torrents of water - Correct
Here, the main verb is froze.
Conveyed meaning:
When the pipes FROZE, they were responsible for CAUSING the heads of the sprinkler system to burst and release torrents of water.

-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --

1.In option D, we have 2 Verb-ing modifiers(causing and then releasing) in a sequence. Shouldn't these modifiers be connected by AND? I read that two modifiers in a sequence without proper connectors (AND) is incorrect?

2. In the above question, option D will be incorrect even if we add AND because neither the pipes themselves nor the action of freezing of pipes caused the release of water?
causing heads of sprinkler system to burst, AND then releasing torrents of water -- adding AND makes the sentence better grammatically (though still incorrect logically)

3.In option E,
causing heads of the sprinkler system to burst and release torrents of water
The pipes froze CAUSING 2 things -->
* heads of the sprinkler system to burst
* release torrents of water

But isn't the release of water a consequence of bursting of the heads of the sprinkler system? But here we have put these two in parallel ?

AjiteshArun , GMATNinja , mikemcgarry , egmat , sayantanc2k, DmitryFarber , MagooshExpert , daagh , other experts- please help
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Re: OG'16 Verbal Review - As a result of record ... [#permalink]

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29 Mar 2018, 11:47
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Skywalker18 wrote:
As a result of record low temperatures, the water pipes on the third floor froze, which caused the heads of the sprinkler system to burst, which released torrents of water into offices on the second floor.

A) which caused the heads of the sprinkler system to burst, which released torrents of water - COMMA + which must be immediately preceded by a NOUN.
B) which caused the heads of the sprinkler system to burst and which released torrents of water - same as A
C) which caused the heads of the sprinkler system to burst, torrents of water were then released - same as A
D) causing heads of sprinkler system to burst, then releasing torrents of water - The agent of a COMMA + VERBing modifier must be the PRECEDING SUBJECT.
Here, the agent of releasing seems to be water pipes, implying that the FROZEN PIPES were RELEASING torrents of water.
The intended meaning is that the SPRINKLER SYSTEM THAT BURST released torrents of water.
E) causing heads of the sprinkler system to burst and release torrents of water - Correct
Here, the main verb is froze.
Conveyed meaning:
When the pipes FROZE, they were responsible for CAUSING the heads of the sprinkler system to burst and release torrents of water.

-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --

1.In option D, we have 2 Verb-ing modifiers(causing and then releasing) in a sequence. Shouldn't these modifiers be connected by AND? I read that two modifiers in a sequence without proper connectors (AND) is incorrect?

2. In the above question, option D will be incorrect even if we add AND because neither the pipes themselves nor the action of freezing of pipes caused the release of water?
causing heads of sprinkler system to burst, AND then releasing torrents of water -- adding AND makes the sentence better grammatically (though still incorrect logically)

3.In option E,
causing heads of the sprinkler system to burst and release torrents of water
The pipes froze CAUSING 2 things -->
* heads of the sprinkler system to burst
* release torrents of water

But isn't the release of water a consequence of bursting of the heads of the sprinkler system? But here we have put these two in parallel ?

AjiteshArun , GMATNinja , mikemcgarry , egmat , sayantanc2k, DmitryFarber , MagooshExpert , daagh , other experts- please help

Hi Skywalker18!

Happy to help

1. That is correct. However, we only want to connect the two "-ing" verbs with "and" when they both have the same subject. Here, it is not the pipes that are both "causing" and "releasing", so it wouldn't make sense to connect them with "and". The way that this is written, we just shouldn't have "releasing" be an "-ing" verb at all, since that indicates that it's referring to "pipes".

2. Exactly The problem is the subject -- the two verbs need to have different subjects.

3. Here, the two things that are in parallel are "burst" and "release", which both describe the actions of the sprinkler system. The full sentence would read:

causing heads of the sprinkler system to burst and to release torrents of water

Since "to" would be repeated in this case, we can eliminate it the second time. But that still leaves "burst" and "release" in parallel, indicating that those are both actions that are referring to the "heads of the sprinkler system". If the sentence instead intended "causing" and "release" to be in parallel, then they would have to follow correct parallel structure, i.e. be in the same form. So we would need instead "causing" and "releasing". But since we see "release", not "releasing", we know that it's in parallel with "burst", not "causing".

The causal relationship between the pipes bursting and then releasing water is not really important here -- it's very common to see "do X and Y" when Y happened partially as a result of X. It would be excessively wordy here to say that that pipes bursting caused them to release water. The meaning is clear from the context.

Does that make sense?
-Carolyn
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