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# Oil companies need offshore platforms primarily because the oil or nat

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Oil companies need offshore platforms primarily because the oil or nat  [#permalink]

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16 Apr 2019, 07:24
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 147, Date : 15-APR-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details

Oil companies need offshore platforms primarily
because the oil or natural gas the companies extract
from the ocean floor has to be processed before
pumps can be used to move the substances ashore.
(5) But because processing crude (unprocessed oil or
gas on a platform rather than at facilities onshore
exposes workers to the risks of explosion and to an
unpredictable environment, researchers are
attempting to diminish the need for human labor
(10) on platforms and even to eliminate platforms
altogether by redesigning two kinds of pumps to
handle crude. These pumps could then be used to
boost the natural pressure driving the flow of
crude, which, by itself, is sufficient only to bring
(15) the crude to the platform, located just above the
wellhead. Currently, pumps that could boost this
natural pressure sufficiently to drive the crude
through a pipeline to the shore do not work
consistently because of the crude’s content. Crude
(20) may consist of oil or natural gas in multiphase
states—combinations of liquids, gases, and solids
under pressure—that do not reach the wellhead in
constant proportions. The flow of crude oil, for
example, can change quickly from 60 percent liquid
(25) to 70 percent gas. This surge in gas content causes
loss of “head,” or pressure inside a pump, with the
result that a pump can no longer impart enough
energy to transport the crude mixture through the
pipeline and to the shore.

(30) Of the two pumps being redesigned, the
positive-displacement pump is promising because it
is immune to sudden shifts in the proportion of
liquid to gas in the crude mixture. But the pump’s
design, which consists of a single or twin screw
(35) pushing the fluid from one end of the pump to the
other, brings crude into close contact with most
parts of the pump, and thus requires that it be
The alternative is the centrifugal pump, which has a
(40) rotating impeller that sucks fluid in at one end and
forces fluid out at the other. Although this pump
has a proven design and has worked for years with
little maintenance in waste-disposal plants,
researchers have discovered that because the swirl
(45) of its impeller separates gas out from the oil that
normally accompanies it, significant reductions in
head can occur as it operates.

Research in the development of these pumps is
focused mainly on trying to reduce the cost of the
(50) positive-displacement pump and attempting to
make the centrifugal pump more tolerant of gas.
Other researchers are looking at ways of adapting
either kind of pump for use underwater, so that
crude could be moved directly from the sea bottom
(55) to processing facilities onshore, eliminating
platforms.
1. Which one of the following best expresses the main ideas of the passage?

(A) Oil companies are experimenting with technologies that may help diminish the danger to workers from offshore crude processing.
(B) Oil companies are seeking methods of installing processing facilities underwater.
(C) Researchers are developing several new pumps designed to enhance human labor efficiency in processing facilities.
(D) Researchers are seeking to develop equipment that would preempt the need for processing facilities onshore.
(E) Researchers are seeking ways to separate liquids from gases in crude in order to enable safer processing.

2. The passage supports which one of the following statements about the natural pressure driving the flow of crude?

(A) It is higher than that created by the centrifugal pump.
(B) It is constant, regardless of relative proportions of gas and liquid.
(C) It is able to carry the crude only as far as the wellhead.
(D) It is able to carry the crude to the platform.
(E) It is able to carry the crude to the shore.

3. Which one of the following best describes the relationship of the second paragraph to the passage as a whole?

(A) It offers concrete detail designed to show that the argument made in the first paragraph is flawed.
(B) It provides detail that expands upon the information presented in the first paragraph.
(C) It enhances the author’s discussion by objectively presenting in detail the pros and cons of a claim made in the first paragraph.
(D) It detracts from the author’s discussion by presenting various problems that qualify the goals presented.
(E) It modifies an observation made in the first paragraph by detailing viewpoints against it.

4. Which one of the following phrases, if substituted for the word “head” in line 47, would LEAST change the meaning of the sentence?

(A) the flow of the crude inside the pump
(B) the volume of oil inside the pump
(C) the volume of gas inside the pump
(D) the speed of the impeller moving the crude
(E) the pressure inside of the pump

5. With which one of the following statements regarding offshore platforms would the author most likely agree?

(A) If a reduction of human labor on offshore platforms is achieved, there is no real need to eliminate platforms altogether.
(B) Reducing human labor on offshore platforms is desirable because researchers’ knowledge about the transportation of crude is danerously incomplete.
(C) The dangers involved in working on offshore platforms make their elimination a desirable goal.
(D) The positive-displacement pump is the better alternative for researchers, because it would allow them to eliminate platforms altogether.
(E) Though researchers have succeeded in reducing human labor on offshore platforms, they think that it would be inadvisable to eliminate platforms altogether, because these platforms have other uses.

6. Which one of the following can be inferred from the passage about pumps that are currently available to boost the natural pressure of crude?

(A) The efficiency of these pumps depends on there being no gas in the flow of crude.
(B) These pumps are more efficient when the crude is less subject to sudden increases in the proportion of gas to liquid.
(C) A sudden change from solid to liquid in the flow of crude increases the efficiency of these pumps.
(D) The proportion of liquid to gas in the flow of crude does not affect the efficiency of these pumps.
(E) A sudden change from liquid to gas in the flow of crude increases the risk of explosion due to rising pressure inside these pumps.

7. The passage implies that the positive-displacement pump differs from the centrifugal pump in that the positive-displacement pump

(A) is more promising, but it also is more expensive and demands more maintenance
(B) is especially well researched, since it has been used in other settings
(C) involves the use of a single or twin screw that sucks fluid in at one end of the pump
(D) is problematic because it causes rapid shifts from liquid to gas content in crude
(E) involves exposure of many parts of the pump to crude

8. The passage implies that the current state of technology necessitates that crude be moved to shore

(A) in a multiphase state
(B) in equal proportions of gas to liquid
(C) with small proportions of corrosive material
(D) after having been processed
(E) largely in the form of a liquid

• Source: LSAT Official PrepTest 10 (February 1994)
• Difficulty Level: 650

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Re: Oil companies need offshore platforms primarily because the oil or nat  [#permalink]

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24 Apr 2019, 00:10
2
1. Which one of the following best expresses the main ideas of the passage?

(A) Oil companies are experimenting with technologies that may help diminish the danger to workers from offshore crude processing. -
processing crude (unprocessed oil or
gas on a platform rather than at facilities onshore
exposes workers to the risks of explosion and to an
unpredictable environment, researchers are
attempting to diminish the need for human labor
(10) on platforms and even to eliminate platforms
altogether by redesigning two kinds of pumps to
handle crude.
Hold
(B) Oil companies are seeking methods of installing processing facilities underwater.
Other researchers are looking at ways of adapting
either kind of pump for use underwater, so that
crude could be moved directly from the sea bottom
(55) to processing facilities onshore, eliminating
platforms.
But this conclusion and not main idea.Eliminate
(C) Researchers are developing several new pumps designed to enhance human labor efficiency in processing facilities. - As A, trying to diminish need of human labor.Eliminate
(D) Researchers are seeking to develop equipment that would preempt the need for processing facilities onshore. - would preempt the need for processing facilities of platforms and not onshore.Eliminate
(E) Researchers are seeking ways to separate liquids from gases in crude in order to enable safer processing.- they are trying ways to have constant proportion of liquid and gases.Eliminate

Hence A

2. The passage supports which one of the following statements about the natural pressure driving the flow of crude?

(A) It is higher than that created by the centrifugal pump.
(B) It is constant, regardless of relative proportions of gas and liquid.
(C) It is able to carry the crude only as far as the wellhead.
(D) It is able to carry the crude to the platform.
(E) It is able to carry the crude to the shore.

"pumps could then be used to boost the natural pressure driving the flow of crude,is sufficient only to bring (15) the crude to the platform"

Hence D

3. Which one of the following best describes the relationship of the second paragraph to the passage as a whole?

(A) It offers concrete detail designed to show that the argument made in the first paragraph is flawed.
(B) It provides detail that expands upon the information presented in the first paragraph.
(C) It enhances the author’s discussion by objectively presenting in detail the pros and cons of a claim made in the first paragraph.
(D) It detracts from the author’s discussion by presenting various problems that qualify the goals presented.
(E) It modifies an observation made in the first paragraph by detailing viewpoints against it.

Fight is between B and C
(B) It provides detail that expands upon the information presented in the first paragraph.
(C) It enhances the author’s discussion by objectively presenting in detail the pros and cons of a claim made in the first paragraph.

2nd para mentions the pros and cons of new designed pumps. But question is asking us to relate 1st and 2nd, and role of 2nd is expansion of the idea presented in 1st.
Hence B

4. Which one of the following phrases, if substituted for the word “head” in line 47, would LEAST change the meaning of the sentence?

(A) the flow of the crude inside the pump
(B) the volume of oil inside the pump
(C) the volume of gas inside the pump
(D) the speed of the impeller moving the crude
(E) the pressure inside of the pump

This surge in gas content causes
loss of “head,” or pressure inside a pump

Hence E

5. With which one of the following statements regarding offshore platforms would the author most likely agree?

(A) If a reduction of human labor on offshore platforms is achieved, there is no real need to eliminate platforms altogether. - mentioned in para 1 - So there is need to eliminate platforms. This option says opposite. Eliminate
" researchers are attempting to diminish the need for human labor (10) on platforms and even to eliminate platforms altogether by redesigning two kinds of pumps to handle crude."
(B) Reducing human labor on offshore platforms is desirable because researchers’ knowledge about the transportation of crude is danerously incomplete. - Author no where mentions about his distrust to researchers knowledge. Eliminate
(C) The dangers involved in working on offshore platforms make their elimination a desirable goal. - mentioned in para 1 -
" researchers are attempting to diminish the need for human labor (10) on platforms and even to eliminate platforms altogether by redesigning two kinds of pumps to handle crude."
(D) The positive-displacement pump is the better alternative for researchers, because it would allow them to eliminate platforms altogether. - Last para "Other researchers are looking at ways of adapting either kind of pump for use underwater, .., eliminating platforms." Now this is applicable for both pumps and not just positive-displacement pump. Eliminate.
(E) Though researchers have succeeded in reducing human labor on offshore platforms, they think that it would be inadvisable to eliminate platforms altogether, because these platforms have other uses. As mentioned in C, " researchers are attempting to diminish the need for human labor". And not yet succeeded. Eliminate
Hence C

6. Which one of the following can be inferred from the passage about pumps that are currently available to boost the natural pressure of crude?

(A) The efficiency of these pumps depends on there being no gas in the flow of crude. - As above, pressure does require gases. Eliminate
(B) These pumps are more efficient when the crude is less subject to sudden increases in the proportion of gas to liquid.- Hold for 2
(C) A sudden change from solid to liquid in the flow of crude increases the efficiency of these pumps.Eliminate for 1
(D) The proportion of liquid to gas in the flow of crude does not affect the efficiency of these pumps. - It does affect as in 1. Eliminate
(E) A sudden change from liquid to gas in the flow of crude increases the risk of explosion due to rising pressure inside these pumps.- "But because processing crude (unprocessed oil or gas) on a platform
exposes workers to the risks of explosion "
. This is true but not for natural pressure, it is for crude. And we are inferring about crude. So eliminate

Explanation:
1."Currently, pumps that could boost this natural pressure sufficiently to drive the crude through a pipeline to the shore do not work consistently because of the crude’s content. Crude (20) may consist of oil or natural gas that do not reach the wellhead in constant proportions. The flow of crude oil, for example, can change quickly from 60 percent liquid (25) to 70 percent gas."
Now we are talking about liquid and gases proportion.

2.Also "Of the two pumps being redesigned, the positive-displacement pump is promising because it
is immune to sudden shifts in the proportion of liquid to gas in the crude mixture. "
Also, what is improving as part of new design of pump is " sudden shifts in the proportion of liquid to gas in the crude mixture"

Hence B

7. The passage implies that the positive-displacement pump differs from the centrifugal pump in that the positive-displacement pump

POE
(A) is more promising, but it also is more expensive and demands more maintenance - Alluring but not true because of "demands more maintenance". Eliminate
(B) is especially well researched, since it has been used in other settings - Pros and Cons of positive dis. pump is due its new design and not settings. Eliminate.
(C) involves the use of a single or twin screw that sucks fluid in at one end of the pump - "single or twin screw (35) pushing the fluid from one end of the pump to the other". NO mention about sucking fluid. Eliminate
(D) is problematic because it causes rapid shifts from liquid to gas content in crude - "promising because it is immune to sudden shifts in the proportion of liquid to gas in the crude mixture" Eliminate
(E) involves exposure of many parts of the pump to crude - "brings crude into close contact with most parts of the pump". Hold

Explanation:
"positive-displacement pump is promising because it is immune to sudden shifts in the proportion of liquid to gas in the crude mixture. But the pump’s design, which consists of a single or twin screw (35) pushing the fluid from one end of the pump to the other, brings crude into close contact with most parts of the pump, and thus requires that it be made of expensive corrosion-resistant material.
The alternative is the centrifugal pump, ... Although this pump has a proven design and has worked for years with little maintenance in waste-disposal plants,"

Now above says positive-displacement pump is promising and expensive and involves crude into close contact with most parts of the pump.
And centrifugal pump needs little maintenance in waste-disposal plants.
Nowhere it mentions how much maintenance positive-displacement pump requires and how it works in waste-disposal plants.

Hence E

8. The passage implies that the current state of technology necessitates that crude be moved to shore

(A) in a multiphase state
(B) in equal proportions of gas to liquid
(C) with small proportions of corrosive material
(D) after having been processed
(E) largely in the form of a liquid

" Oil companies need offshore platforms primarily because the oil or natural gas the companies extract
from the ocean floor has to be processed before pumps can be used to move the substances ashore "

Hence D
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Re: Oil companies need offshore platforms primarily because the oil or nat  [#permalink]

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23 Apr 2019, 06:20
1
All correct except question 1 in 14 mins, including 4 mins 30 seconds to read

1. Which one of the following best expresses the main ideas of the passage?
(A) Oil companies are experimenting with technologies that may help diminish the danger to workers from offshore crude processing.
(D) Researchers are seeking to develop equipment that would preempt the need for processing facilities onshore.

I was in a fix between option A and D and ended up choosing option D. In case of option A, I wasn't very sure whether these researchers work for the Oil companies and thus I rejected option A.
Is option D incorrect because of 'would' as we are not sure about the success of the research?

But because processing crude (unprocessed oil or gas on a platform rather than at facilities onshore exposes workers to the risks of explosion and to an unpredictable environment, researchers are attempting to diminish the need for human labor on platforms and even to eliminate platforms altogether by redesigning two kinds of pumps to handle crude

AjiteshArun , GMATNinja , MagooshExpert , GMATGuruNY , VeritasPrepBrian , MartyTargetTestPrep , DmitryFarber , VeritasKarishma , generis , jennpt , other experts
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Oil companies need offshore platforms primarily because the oil or nat  [#permalink]

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23 Apr 2019, 18:32
1
1
Skywalker18 wrote:
All correct except question 1 in 14 mins, including 4 mins 30 seconds to read

1. Which one of the following best expresses the main ideas of the passage?
(A) Oil companies are experimenting with technologies that may help diminish the danger to workers from offshore crude processing.
(D) Researchers are seeking to develop equipment that would preempt the need for processing facilities onshore.

I was in a fix between option A and D and ended up choosing option D. In case of option A, I wasn't very sure whether these researchers work for the Oil companies and thus I rejected option A.
Is option D incorrect because of 'would' as we are not sure about the success of the research?

But because processing crude (unprocessed oil or gas on a platform rather than at facilities onshore exposes workers to the risks of explosion and to an unpredictable environment, researchers are attempting to diminish the need for human labor on platforms and even to eliminate platforms altogether by redesigning two kinds of pumps to handle crude

generis ,

Skywalker18 , your time and accuracy are outstanding; this passage is technical and dry.

LSAC and GMAC test writers are good at catching people with a combination of phrases that negate
("preempt the need for") and words that we have just seen in the passage. We let down our guard.

Option D is incorrect because it is exactly the opposite of what the passage says.

Researchers are trying to preempt (to prevent) the need for platforms,
not the need for onshore facilities.

Oil companies and researchers want to preempt the need for platforms, in fact,
so that crude can get directly to onshore facilities, because onshore facilities are safer for workers than platforms are.

From Paragraph 1, second sentence):

"But because processing crude (unprocessed oil or
gas) on a platform rather than at facilities onshore
exposes workers to the risks of explosion and to an unpredictable environment . . ."
[Implied: onshore facilities are safer]

The passage also indicates that researchers are trying to get human beings off of platforms:
". . . researchers are attempting to diminish the need for human labor on platforms and even to eliminate platforms
altogether
. . ."

The passage then mentions that researchers are looking for ways to get crude oil directly to shore—meaning, from sea bottom to shore without a platform in the middle. See the examples immediately below.

• one pump needs redesign because it "[cannot] . . . transport the crude mixture through the pipeline and [directly] to the shore" [to an onshore processing facility] (Paragraph 1, last sentence)

• "other researchers are looking at ways of adapting
either kind of pump for use underwater, so that crude could be moved directly from the sea bottom
to processing facilities onshore, eliminating
platforms
."
(Paragraph 3, last sentence)

Platforms need to go away, not onshore facilities.

Whoops. It happens.
At the moment, half of people have chosen A, but D is the next favorite; one-fourth
of people have chosen D.

I hope that helps.
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Re: Oil companies need offshore platforms primarily because the oil or nat  [#permalink]

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30 Apr 2019, 00:45
1
Skywalker18 wrote:
All correct except question 1 in 14 mins, including 4 mins 30 seconds to read

1. Which one of the following best expresses the main ideas of the passage?
(A) Oil companies are experimenting with technologies that may help diminish the danger to workers from offshore crude processing.
(D) Researchers are seeking to develop equipment that would preempt the need for processing facilities onshore.

I was in a fix between option A and D and ended up choosing option D. In case of option A, I wasn't very sure whether these researchers work for the Oil companies and thus I rejected option A.
Is option D incorrect because of 'would' as we are not sure about the success of the research?

But because processing crude (unprocessed oil or gas on a platform rather than at facilities onshore exposes workers to the risks of explosion and to an unpredictable environment, researchers are attempting to diminish the need for human labor on platforms and even to eliminate platforms altogether by redesigning two kinds of pumps to handle crude

AjiteshArun , GMATNinja , MagooshExpert , GMATGuruNY , VeritasPrepBrian , MartyTargetTestPrep , DmitryFarber , VeritasKarishma , generis , jennpt , other experts

Quote:
(D) Researchers are seeking to develop equipment that would preempt the need for processing facilities onshore.

There is one little word in (D) that makes it absolutely incorrect: onshore.

Currently, the crude "has to be processed before pumps can be used to move the substances ashore." So, currently, the crude has to be processed OFFSHORE (on a platform) before it can be moved onshore. The goal of the current research is to eliminate the need for this OFFSHORE processing. The researchers are NOT trying to develop equipment that would preempt the need for ONSHORE processing facilities. In fact, they WANT the crude to be processed onshore, where the process is safer.

So (D) has to go!
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Oil companies need offshore platforms primarily because the oil or nat  [#permalink]

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29 Jul 2019, 01:41
1
Hi,
Took 18 minutes and got 6/8 correct. It took 6 minutes for reading, writing down paragraphs summaries and main point formulation.
here is my detailed analysis:

P1: A problem related to Oil companies is described and two solutions to it are presented
P2: The two solutions mentioned are further described and a problem related to each is presented
P3: Which aspects researchers are trying to improve

MP: to present a problem related to oil companies and to discuss solutions and improvements to it

1. Which one of the following best expresses the main ideas of the passage?

Prethinking: refer to the main point formulation

(A) Oil companies are experimenting with technologies that may help diminish the danger to workers from offshore crude processing. my MP is worded differently but: Problem=danger, solutions and improvements=experimenting with technologies
(B) Oil companies are seeking methods of installing processing facilities underwater. the underwater side is mentioned in the last paragraph and hence this AC is partial scope
(C) Researchers are developing several new pumps designed to enhance human labor efficiency in processing facilities. note that the goal is to reduce the danger associated and not the labor efficiency; inconsistent
(D) Researchers are seeking to develop equipment that would preempt the need for processing facilities onshore. onshore here makes this AC inconsistent; the goal in fact is to process OFFSHORE
(E) Researchers are seeking ways to separate liquids from gases in crude in order to enable safer processing. not mentioned hence out of scope

2. The passage supports which one of the following statements about the natural pressure driving the flow of crude?

prethinking: refer to P1 and specifically to this portion:These pumps could then be used to
boost the natural pressure driving the flow of
crude, which, by itself, is sufficient only to bring
(15) the crude to the platform, located just above the

(A) It is higher than that created by the centrifugal pump. not mentioned, hence out of scope
(B) It is constant, regardless of relative proportions of gas and liquid. no mention so out of scope
(C) It is able to carry the crude only as far as the wellhead. if you refer to the portion reported in the rethinking you can see that by itself the natural pressure arrives a little above the wellhead. so this option choice is incorrect
(D) It is able to carry the crude to the platform. in line with our prethinking
(E) It is able to carry the crude to the shore. no mention so out of scope

3. Which one of the following best describes the relationship of the second paragraph to the passage as a whole?

Prethinking: the second paragraphs describes in detail the solutions presented before in the first paragraph so it gives details presented in the preceding paragraph

(A) It offers concrete detail designed to show that the argument made in the first paragraph is flawed. to show that the first paragraph is flawed is not the purpose of P2. Flaws are mentioned in the form of describing some limits that the two solutions have
(B) It provides detail that expands upon the information presented in the first paragraph. in line with our rethinking, correct
(C) It enhances the author’s discussion by objectively presenting in detail the pros and cons of a claim made in the first paragraph. P2 doesn't describe in detail a claim but two solutions and their mechanisms along with 2 drawbacks. incorrect
(D) It detracts from the author’s discussion by presenting various problems that qualify the goals presented. here detracts just doesn't work and solutions are presented rather than problems
(E) It modifies an observation made in the first paragraph by detailing viewpoints against it. no modification is made and no viewpoints against the observation are made

4. Which one of the following phrases, if substituted for the word “head” in line 47, would LEAST change the meaning of the sentence?

Prethinking: I found this question statement quite deceiving because it leads you to work on your answer choice around the line 47 BUT you should focus on the meaning of head and you should not limit your analysis around those lines. I fact the word head is mentioned in P1 where: This surge in gas content causes
loss of “head,” or pressure inside a pump,
. this makes our work of selection really easy

(A) the flow of the crude inside the pump -not in line with our prethinking
(B) the volume of oil inside the pump not in line with our prethinking
(C) the volume of gas inside the pump not in line with our prethinking
(D) the speed of the impeller moving the crude not in line with our prethinking
(E) the pressure inside of the pump correct

5. With which one of the following statements regarding offshore platforms would the author most likely agree?

Prethinking: this question statement is too general for a specific prethinking but probably our focus will be on P1

(A) If a reduction of human labor on offshore platforms is achieved, there is no real need to eliminate platforms altogether. this relation cause-effect is never mentioned in the passage, hence out of scope
(B) Reducing human labor on offshore platforms is desirable because researchers’ knowledge about the transportation of crude is danerously incomplete. what is dangerous is the environment of offshore platform and not the incomplete knowledge, hence inconsistent
(C) The dangers involved in working on offshore platforms make their elimination a desirable goal. correct as mentioned in the first part of P1
(D) The positive-displacement pump is the better alternative for researchers, because it would allow them to eliminate platforms altogether. nowhere the PDP is awarded as better that all other pumps and moreover it doesn't eliminate the need of platform all together, hence out of scope
(E) Though researchers have succeeded in reducing human labor on offshore platforms, they think that it would be inadvisable to eliminate platforms altogether, because these platforms have other uses. other uses are not mentioned. plus in the last paragraph it is mentioned that researchers are working on a way to eliminate definitely platforms. So why to work on this angle if researchers want to keep platforms?!. Incorrect

6. Which one of the following can be inferred from the passage about pumps that are currently available to boost the natural pressure of crude?

prethinking: here we can make several inferences. For example we can infer that currently available pumps can not work efficiently when oil is in a multiphase state OR current pumps can not deal with fast shifts in the concentration of oil

(A) The efficiency of these pumps depends on there being no gas in the flow of crude. too extreme. nowhere it is said that current pumps need no gas present to function
(B) These pumps are more efficient when the crude is less subject to sudden increases in the proportion of gas to liquid. correct and in line with our prethinking
(C) A sudden change from solid to liquid in the flow of crude increases the efficiency of these pumps. opposite! pumps don't work well in this case
(D) The proportion of liquid to gas in the flow of crude does not affect the efficiency of these pumps. nowhere this can be inferred. note that the example made in paragraph one has the purpose to show what happens after a sudden chance in proportion
(E) A sudden change from liquid to gas in the flow of crude increases the risk of explosion due to rising pressure inside these pumps. inconsistent. the sudden chance makes the pump not working efficiently. risk of explosion is not mentioned

7. The passage implies that the positive-displacement pump differs from the centrifugal pump in that the positive-displacement pump

prethinking: refer to the second paragraph here.one main difference is that the PDP is promising and probably new while the CP was used in other fields. other features such as the" twin screw" or "swirl of its impeller" should not be considered as differences since we do not have enough information to consider them as such

(A) is more promising, but it also is more expensive and demands more maintenance the word more here is wrong and never mentioned. also it is never stated that it demands less mantainance or that is more expensive
(B) is especially well researched, since it has been used in other settings I would say opposite here since it is the CP that was used in other fields
(C) involves the use of a single or twin screw that sucks fluid in at one end of the pump we do not know for sure that this is a difference hence incorrect
(D) is problematic because it causes rapid shifts from liquid to gas content in crude opposite here. this pump is immune to these shifts
(E) involves exposure of many parts of the pump to crude although not in line with the prethinking this is a drawback of the PDP and it is likely that it does not regard as well the CP since it was already studied and used in other fields

8. The passage implies that the current state of technology necessitates that crude be moved to shore

Prethinking: refer to the first lines of P1. It says that the crude must be processed before being moved ashore

(A) in a multiphase state nowhere mentioned
(B) in equal proportions of gas to liquid not mentioned as a requirement
(C) with small proportions of corrosive material corrosive material is a drawback of the PDP and for sure not a requirement
(D) after having been processed correct since in line with our prethinking
(E) largely in the form of a liquid not mentioned hence incorrect
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Re: Oil companies need offshore platforms primarily because the oil or nat  [#permalink]

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04 May 2019, 05:43

Nothing intuitive in this passage here.For all questions go back to the passage and read.

P.S. I am from the oil and gas industry.
Re: Oil companies need offshore platforms primarily because the oil or nat   [#permalink] 04 May 2019, 05:43
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