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# On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed

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Re: On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed [#permalink]

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28 Aug 2014, 06:30
boeinz wrote:
On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed to be the rate that trees grow, as seen in the rings visible in the cross sections of their trunks.

A. On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed to be the rate that trees grow

B. On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are, it is believed, the rate of tree growth

C. On Earth, the rate at which trees grow is believed to be among the surest indications of sunspot cycles

D. Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles, believed to be the tree growth rate

E. Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles is believed to be the rate at which trees grow

Could you please assist in option D, "believed" modifies cycles or earth or indications or the noun phrase "indications on Earth of sunspot cycles" ? I believe it should modify cycles. Is there a flaw in my understanding ? Verb-ed modifier has a touch rule and hence a modifier is modifying another modifier. Experts please confirm
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Re: On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed [#permalink]

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22 Apr 2015, 09:06
guys, you have to look for 4 wrong answers-> so you will find the right one

cheers -E
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Re: On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed [#permalink]

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24 Jul 2015, 02:10
My 2 cents:

Inverted sentence
1:X is believed to be among the surest indication of something.
X=> The rate .. [Singular]
2:The rate of ... can be seen in the rings visible in the cross section.
3: their trunk in non underline part means we need plural trees.

On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed to be the rate that trees grow, as seen in the rings visible in the cross sections of their trunks.

A. On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed to be the rate that trees grow
B. On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are, it is believed, the rate of tree growth
C. On Earth, the rate at which trees grow is believed to be among the surest indications of sunspot cycles
D. Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles, believed to be the tree growth rate
E. Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles is believed to be the rate at which trees grow

C Vs E:
E is better than C because of close proximity of the modifier "as..." to "the rate...".

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Re: On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed [#permalink]

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24 Jul 2015, 03:00
is this an official GMATPrep problem ?
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Re: On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed [#permalink]

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24 Jul 2015, 07:59
A participial phrase appearing at the end of the passage, if not set off by comma, modifies the noun just in front; However, if the participial phrase is set off by a comma from the previous noun, then it need not modify that noun and will usually modify a distant noun, mostly the subject. See the following examples.

1. The rape-accused nervously watched the eyewitness, alarmed by her revelations -- here ‘alarmed by’ modifies the rape accused and not the eyewitness
2. We often hear about politicians corrupted either by money power or muscle power. --- Here ‘corrupted by ‘modifies politicians

C. on Earth, the rate at which trees grow is believed to be among the surest indications of sunspot cycles, as seen in the rings visible in the cross sections of their trunks. --- Here, because of the comma before 'as seen', the modifier need not necessarily modify the sunspot cycles. It can very well modify the rate

E. Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles is believed to be the rate at which trees grow
But in ‘E” the problem seems to be that of ‘Earth of sunspot cycles’, which means to imply we have some kind of an earth that is specifically called the ‘earth of sunspot cycles’. This is illogical in the least if not ungrammatical altogether.
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Re: On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2016, 01:11
boeinz wrote:
On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed to be the rate that trees grow, as seen in the rings visible in the cross sections of their trunks.

A. On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed to be the rate that trees grow

B. On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are, it is believed, the rate of tree growth

C. On Earth, the rate at which trees grow is believed to be among the surest indications of sunspot cycles

D. Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles, believed to be the tree growth rate

E. Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles is believed to be the rate at which trees grow

Can someone explain why C is wrong
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Re: On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2016, 09:49
1
KUDOS
smartguy595 wrote:
boeinz wrote:
On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed to be the rate that trees grow, as seen in the rings visible in the cross sections of their trunks.

A. On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed to be the rate that trees grow

B. On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are, it is believed, the rate of tree growth

C. On Earth, the rate at which trees grow is believed to be among the surest indications of sunspot cycles

D. Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles, believed to be the tree growth rate

E. Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles is believed to be the rate at which trees grow

Can someone explain why C is wrong

Lemme give my 2 cents.

non underlined part 'as seen in the rings visible in the cross sections of their trunks' is modifying 'tree growth'. It is preferred if it is as close to tree growth as possible.

In option C it is actually modifying sunspots and hence is the wrong option.
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Re: On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2016, 10:02
smartguy595 wrote:
boeinz wrote:
On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed to be the rate that trees grow, as seen in the rings visible in the cross sections of their trunks.

A. On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed to be the rate that trees grow

B. On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are, it is believed, the rate of tree growth

C. On Earth, the rate at which trees grow is believed to be among the surest indications of sunspot cycles

D. Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles, believed to be the tree growth rate

E. Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles is believed to be the rate at which trees grow

Can someone explain why C is wrong

Lemme give my 2 cents.

non underlined part 'as seen in the rings visible in the cross sections of their trunks' is modifying 'tree growth'. It is preferred if it is as close to tree growth as possible.

In option C it is actually modifying sunspots and hence is the wrong option.

thanks! +1 for you
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Re: On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2016, 21:11
boeinz wrote:
On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed to be the rate that trees grow, as seen in the rings visible in the cross sections of their trunks.

A. On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed to be the rate that trees grow

B. On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are, it is believed, the rate of tree growth

C. On Earth, the rate at which trees grow is believed to be among the surest indications of sunspot cycles

D. Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles, believed to be the tree growth rate

E. Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles is believed to be the rate at which trees grow

I prefer E over C.. reason

E says--Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles is believed to be the rate at which trees grow, as seen in the rings visible in the cross sections of their trunks.
when in doubt flip it
on flip--the rate at which trees grow is among the surest indications...also we need trees near to rings visible to call out the intent

C says On Earth, the rate at which trees grow is believed to be among the surest indications of sunspot cycles, as seen in the rings visible in the cross sections of their trunks.
well sunspot cycle as seen in rings???absurd
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Re: On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed [#permalink]

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28 Jul 2016, 00:46
On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed to be the rate that trees grow, as seen in the rings visible in the cross sections of their trunks.

First thing to know is that no conjunction has the power of making a list plural except "AND". "Amongst the many X's" is always singular
since "AMONG THE MANY INDICATIONS" is the subject of the sentence, the SUBJECT-VERB agreement dictates that we use a singular verb. So we have to use "is" and not "are"
Secondly the meaning of the sentence imply that sunspots are seen "indirectly" on earth for example :-as the growth rings of trees.
A SUNSPOT CANNOT EXIST ON EARTH ON ITS OWN. BUT THE EVIDENCE OF SUNSPOTS CAN EXIST AS SEEN IN THE TREE RINGS.

A. On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed to be the rate that trees grow
WRONG:- incorrect SV agreement

B. On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are, it is believed, the rate of tree growth
WRONG:- incorrect SV agreement

C. On Earth, the rate at which trees grow is believed to be among the surest indications of sunspot cycles
WRONG:- add this one to the original sentence and you will see that it implies "sunspots can be in seen tree growth rings."

On Earth, the rate at which trees grow is believed to be among the surest indications of sunspot cycles as seen in the rings visible in the cross sections of their trunks
ABSURD MEANING:- Trees captured sunspots and now those sunspot are seen in the trees ring.

D. Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles, believed to be the tree growth rate
WRONG:- This one has no auxiliary verb at all . It directly jumps to the main verb "believed"
To make a correct verb phrase we need auxliary verb + main verb = correct verb phrase. We need "is" to make this sentence grammatically correct.

E. Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles is believed to be the rate at which trees grow (as seen in the rings)
CORRECT:- Perfect !! correct SV agreement. Correct meaning "Rate" can be "seen" in the relatively thickness of the tree rings. THIS ONE IS BETTER THAN OPTION C BECAUSE SUNPOT CANNOT BE SEEN IN A TREE RING BUT RATE CAN BE SEEN IN A TREE RING (AS IN THICKER RING MEANS MORE GROWTH , THIN RING MEANS LESS GROWTH.

boeinz wrote:
On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed to be the rate that trees grow, as seen in the rings visible in the cross sections of their trunks.

A. On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed to be the rate that trees grow

B. On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are, it is believed, the rate of tree growth

C. On Earth, the rate at which trees grow is believed to be among the surest indications of sunspot cycles

D. Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles, believed to be the tree growth rate

E. Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles is believed to be the rate at which trees grow

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Re: On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed [#permalink]

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28 Jul 2016, 00:47
On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed to be the rate that trees grow, as seen in the rings visible in the cross sections of their trunks.

First thing to know is that no conjunction has the power of making a list plural except "AND". "Amongst the many X's" is always singular
since "AMONG THE MANY INDICATIONS" is the subject of the sentence, the SUBJECT-VERB agreement dictates that we use a singular verb. So we have to use "is" and not "are"
Secondly the meaning of the sentence imply that sunspots are seen "indirectly" on earth for example :-as the growth rings of trees.
A SUNSPOT CANNOT EXIST ON EARTH ON ITS OWN. BUT THE EVIDENCE OF SUNSPOTS CAN EXIST AS SEEN IN THE TREE RINGS.

A. On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed to be the rate that trees grow
WRONG:- incorrect SV agreement

B. On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are, it is believed, the rate of tree growth
WRONG:- incorrect SV agreement

C. On Earth, the rate at which trees grow is believed to be among the surest indications of sunspot cycles
WRONG:- add this one to the original sentence and you will see that it implies "sunspots can be in seen tree growth rings."

On Earth, the rate at which trees grow is believed to be among the surest indications of sunspot cycles as seen in the rings visible in the cross sections of their trunks
ABSURD MEANING:- Trees captured sunspots and now those sunspot are seen in the trees ring.

D. Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles, believed to be the tree growth rate
WRONG:- This one has no auxiliary verb at all . It directly jumps to the main verb "believed"
To make a correct verb phrase we need auxliary verb + main verb = correct verb phrase. We need "is" to make this sentence grammatically correct.

E. Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles is believed to be the rate at which trees grow (as seen in the rings)
CORRECT:- Perfect !! correct SV agreement. Correct meaning "Rate" can be "seen" in the relatively thickness of the tree rings.

THIS ONE IS BETTER THAN OPTION C BECAUSE SUNPOT CANNOT BE SEEN IN A TREE RING BUT RATE CAN BE SEEN IN A TREE RING (AS IN THICKER RING MEANS MORE GROWTH , THIN RING MEANS LESS GROWTH.

anmolbhatti wrote:
On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed to be the rate that trees grow, as seen in the rings visible in the cross sections of their trunks.

A. On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed to be the rate that trees grow
B. On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are, it is believed, the rate of tree growth
C. On Earth, the rate at which trees grow is believed to be among the surest indications of sunspot cycles
D. Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles, believed to be the tree growth rate
E. Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles is believed to be the rate at which trees grow

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Re: On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed [#permalink]

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28 Jul 2016, 00:48
On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed to be the rate that trees grow, as seen in the rings visible in the cross sections of their trunks.

First thing to know is that no conjunction has the power of making a list plural except "AND". "Amongst the many X's" is always singular
since "AMONG THE MANY INDICATIONS" is the subject of the sentence, the SUBJECT-VERB agreement dictates that we use a singular verb. So we have to use "is" and not "are"
Secondly the meaning of the sentence imply that sunspots are seen "indirectly" on earth for example :-as the growth rings of trees.
A SUNSPOT CANNOT EXIST ON EARTH ON ITS OWN. BUT THE EVIDENCE OF SUNSPOTS CAN EXIST AS SEEN IN THE TREE RINGS.

A. On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed to be the rate that trees grow
WRONG:- incorrect SV agreement

B. On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are, it is believed, the rate of tree growth
WRONG:- incorrect SV agreement

C. On Earth, the rate at which trees grow is believed to be among the surest indications of sunspot cycles
WRONG:- add this one to the original sentence and you will see that it implies "sunspots can be in seen tree growth rings."

On Earth, the rate at which trees grow is believed to be among the surest indications of sunspot cycles as seen in the rings visible in the cross sections of their trunks
ABSURD MEANING:- Trees captured sunspots and now those sunspot are seen in the trees ring.

D. Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles, believed to be the tree growth rate
WRONG:- This one has no auxiliary verb at all . It directly jumps to the main verb "believed"
To make a correct verb phrase we need auxliary verb + main verb = correct verb phrase. We need "is" to make this sentence grammatically correct.

E. Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles is believed to be the rate at which trees grow (as seen in the rings)
CORRECT:- Perfect !! correct SV agreement. Correct meaning "Rate" can be "seen" in the relatively thickness of the tree rings. THIS ONE IS BETTER THAN OPTION C BECAUSE SUNPOT CANNOT BE SEEN IN A TREE RING BUT RATE CAN BE SEEN IN A TREE RING (AS IN THICKER RING MEANS MORE GROWTH , THIN RING MEANS LESS GROWTH.

sanjay_gmat wrote:
On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed to be the rate that trees grow, as seen in the rings visible in the cross sections of their trunks.

A. On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed to be the rate that trees grow
B. On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are, it is believed, the rate of tree growth
C. On Earth, the rate at which trees grow is believed to be among the surest indications of sunspot cycles
D. Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles, believed to be the tree growth rate
E. Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles is believed to be the rate at which trees grow

Guys, besides answering this question, could you also comment on what is "as seen in the rings visible in the cross sections of their trunks" referring to? seen what?

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Re: On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed [#permalink]

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28 Jul 2016, 00:48
1
This post was
BOOKMARKED
On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed to be the rate that trees grow, as seen in the rings visible in the cross sections of their trunks.

First thing to know is that no conjunction has the power of making a list plural except "AND". "Amongst the many X's" is always singular
since "AMONG THE MANY INDICATIONS" is the subject of the sentence, the SUBJECT-VERB agreement dictates that we use a singular verb. So we have to use "is" and not "are"
Secondly the meaning of the sentence imply that sunspots are seen "indirectly" on earth for example :-as the growth rings of trees.
A SUNSPOT CANNOT EXIST ON EARTH ON ITS OWN. BUT THE EVIDENCE OF SUNSPOTS CAN EXIST AS SEEN IN THE TREE RINGS.

A. On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed to be the rate that trees grow
WRONG:- incorrect SV agreement

B. On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are, it is believed, the rate of tree growth
WRONG:- incorrect SV agreement

C. On Earth, the rate at which trees grow is believed to be among the surest indications of sunspot cycles
WRONG:- add this one to the original sentence and you will see that it implies "sunspots can be in seen tree growth rings."

On Earth, the rate at which trees grow is believed to be among the surest indications of sunspot cycles as seen in the rings visible in the cross sections of their trunks
ABSURD MEANING:- Trees captured sunspots and now those sunspot are seen in the trees ring.

D. Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles, believed to be the tree growth rate
WRONG:- This one has no auxiliary verb at all . It directly jumps to the main verb "believed"
To make a correct verb phrase we need auxliary verb + main verb = correct verb phrase. We need "is" to make this sentence grammatically correct.

E. Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles is believed to be the rate at which trees grow (as seen in the rings)
CORRECT:- Perfect !! correct SV agreement. Correct meaning "Rate" can be "seen" in the relatively thickness of the tree rings. THIS ONE IS BETTER THAN OPTION C BECAUSE SUNPOT CANNOT BE SEEN IN A TREE RING BUT RATE CAN BE SEEN IN A TREE RING (AS IN THICKER RING MEANS MORE GROWTH , THIN RING MEANS LESS GROWTH.

Nihit wrote:
. On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed to be the rate that trees grow, as seen in the rings visible in the cross sections of their trunks.

A. On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed to be the rate that trees grow
B. On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are, it is believed, the rate of tree growth
C. On Earth, the rate at which trees grow is believed to be among the surest indications of sunspot cycles
D. Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles, believed to be the tree growth rate
E. Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles is believed to be the rate at which trees grow

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Re: On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed [#permalink]

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28 Jul 2016, 00:48
On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed to be the rate that trees grow, as seen in the rings visible in the cross sections of their trunks.

First thing to know is that no conjunction has the power of making a list plural except "AND". "Amongst the many X's" is always singular
since "AMONG THE MANY INDICATIONS" is the subject of the sentence, the SUBJECT-VERB agreement dictates that we use a singular verb. So we have to use "is" and not "are"
Secondly the meaning of the sentence imply that sunspots are seen "indirectly" on earth for example :-as the growth rings of trees.
A SUNSPOT CANNOT EXIST ON EARTH ON ITS OWN. BUT THE EVIDENCE OF SUNSPOTS CAN EXIST AS SEEN IN THE TREE RINGS.

A. On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed to be the rate that trees grow
WRONG:- incorrect SV agreement

B. On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are, it is believed, the rate of tree growth
WRONG:- incorrect SV agreement

C. On Earth, the rate at which trees grow is believed to be among the surest indications of sunspot cycles
WRONG:- add this one to the original sentence and you will see that it implies "sunspots can be in seen tree growth rings."

On Earth, the rate at which trees grow is believed to be among the surest indications of sunspot cycles as seen in the rings visible in the cross sections of their trunks
ABSURD MEANING:- Trees captured sunspots and now those sunspot are seen in the trees ring.

D. Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles, believed to be the tree growth rate
WRONG:- This one has no auxiliary verb at all . It directly jumps to the main verb "believed"
To make a correct verb phrase we need auxliary verb + main verb = correct verb phrase. We need "is" to make this sentence grammatically correct.

E. Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles is believed to be the rate at which trees grow (as seen in the rings)
CORRECT:- Perfect !! correct SV agreement. Correct meaning "Rate" can be "seen" in the relatively thickness of the tree rings. THIS ONE IS BETTER THAN OPTION C BECAUSE SUNPOT CANNOT BE SEEN IN A TREE RING BUT RATE CAN BE SEEN IN A TREE RING (AS IN THICKER RING MEANS MORE GROWTH , THIN RING MEANS LESS GROWTH.

johnycute wrote:
On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed to be the rate that trees grow, as seen in the rings visible in the cross sections of their trunks.
A. On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed to be the rate that trees grow
B. On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are, it is believed, the rate of tree growth
C. On Earth, the rate at which trees grow is believed to be among the surest indications of sunspot cycles
D. Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles, believed to be the tree growth rate
E. Among the surest indications on Earth of sunspot cycles is believed to be the rate at which trees grow

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Re: On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed [#permalink]

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19 Aug 2016, 18:35
Very good question.

Another reason to eliminate C - If you plug that option in the original sentence

On Earth, the rate at which trees grow is believed to be among the surest indications of sunspot cycles, as seen in the rings visible in the cross sections of their trunks.

...,the rate...cycles,... will be a non essential modifier and if this is ignored sentence doesn't make sense. Hence C is not the answer
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Re: On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed [#permalink]

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08 Sep 2016, 12:10
Acc3ss wrote:
I would say C.

I guess this sentence represents a case of misplaced modifiers.

While C is short and concise; but, I don't think you see sunspot cycles in the rings of trees. It should be indirectly deferred based on how fast trees grow, which are marked by rings in the tree trunks. Therefore E.
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Re: On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed [#permalink]

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28 Nov 2016, 08:48
Sources r GMAT Prep & Brutal SC
OA is E

E sounds more logical and correct than C.
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Re: On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed [#permalink]

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12 Feb 2017, 23:13
hello expert ,
please explain the reasoning behind the correct as well as the wrong answers,

thanks
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Posts: 3275
Location: Germany
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GMAT 1: 780 Q50 V47
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Re: On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed [#permalink]

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13 Feb 2017, 09:57
nks2611 wrote:
hello expert ,
please explain the reasoning behind the correct as well as the wrong answers,

thanks

A,B: Eliminate because plural verb "are" does not match with singular subject "rate".

D: No verb in the main clause

C and E are grammatically alright. But C expresses a wrong meaning: On earth, it is believed. "On earth" wrongly refers to "is believed". In E "on earth" correctly refers to "indications".
Verbal Expert
Joined: 14 Dec 2013
Posts: 3275
Location: Germany
Schools: HHL Leipzig
GMAT 1: 780 Q50 V47
WE: Corporate Finance (Pharmaceuticals and Biotech)
Re: On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed [#permalink]

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15 Feb 2017, 05:14
T700ISB wrote:
Please shed some light on this problem. Unable to understand.

https://gmatclub.com/forum/on-earth-amo ... l#p1804631

You need to elaborate your query specifically, so that we may address it properly.
Re: On Earth, among the surest indications of sunspot cycles are believed   [#permalink] 15 Feb 2017, 05:14

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