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# One of the earliest known birds with a beak and contour feathers, Conf

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Re: One of the earliest known birds with a beak and contour feathers, Conf [#permalink]

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03 Mar 2015, 12:28
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jgnorero wrote:
Hello everyone,

This is my first post in gmat club. So I understand why by POE we can take down A-B-C (because ",which" is referring to wings and it's meant to refer to the clawlike "thumbs") but I still can't understand the difference between D and E.

For me its and their are the same.
Can anyone help me out

what does its refer to? what does their refer to?

In this case, its refers to the bird.

Their has no proper antecedent (bird is singular).

Also, it is worth noting that the "which" is not the best way to eliminate answers from a modifier perspective. It is more valuable to see that the "which" makes it such that the sentence is a fragment for A and B. C has a pronoun error.

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Re: One of the earliest known birds with a beak and contour feathers, Conf [#permalink]

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24 Nov 2016, 03:29
sondenso

sondenso wrote:
raconteur wrote:
One of the earliest known birds with a beak and contour feathers, Confuciusornis sanctus, had large clawlike “thumbs” on its wings, probably to help it climb up to a launching position for

But why it is not "probably helps it..." or not "prbably helping..."? Thanks!

108. One of the earliest known birds with a beak and contour feathers, Confuciusornis sanctus, with large clawlike “thumbs” on its wings, which probably helped them to climb up to a launching position for flight.

A. with large clawlike “thumbs” on its wings, which probably helped them to
B. with large clawlike “thumbs” on their wings, which probably helped it to
C. had large clawlike “thumbs” on its wings, which probably helped them
D. had large clawlike “thumbs” on its wings, probably to help it
E. had large clawlike “thumbs” on their wings, probably to help it

I don't know if your confusion is already cleared if not you can look at my take on this one, might be useful to you.

Now, what helped birds: its Large clawlike thumbs. Now, probably refers to this and tells us that is helped them in some way.

why not probably helps it... Here problem would be that singular verb "helps" will have no subject as C.S. already has a verb "had".

Why not probably helping it... here problem is now it will be verb-ing modifier, modifying complete clause along with the subject which could mean birds helped themselves to get to launch position...that is seriously not correct.

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Re: One of the earliest known birds with a beak and contour feathers, Conf [#permalink]

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29 Nov 2016, 03:16
IMO D
had large clawlike “thumbs” on its wings, probably to help it

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Re: One of the earliest known birds with a beak and contour feathers, Conf [#permalink]

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28 Feb 2017, 12:10
One of the earliest known birds with a beak and contour feathers, Confuciusornis sanctus, with large clawlike "thumbs" on its wings, which probably helped them to climb up to a launching position for flight.

A. with large clawlike "thumbs" on its wings, which probably helped them to
B. with large clawlike "thumbs" on their wings, which probably helped it to
C. had large clawlike "thumbs" on its wings, which probably helped them
D. had large clawlike "thumbs" on its wings, probably to help it
E. had large clawlike "thumbs" on their wings, probably to help it

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Re: One of the earliest known birds with a beak and contour feathers, Conf [#permalink]

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28 Feb 2017, 12:33
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Both A and B are fragments. In C, 'its and them' is pronoun mismatch. As also in E, 'their and it' is a mismatch. D is the winner.
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Re: One of the earliest known birds with a beak and contour feathers, Conf [#permalink]

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28 Feb 2017, 12:36
daagh wrote:
Both A and B are fragments. In C, 'its and them' is pronoun mismatch. As also in E, 'their and it' is a mismatch. D is the winner.
Thank you very much. are there any other issues to discuss.

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Re: One of the earliest known birds with a beak and contour feathers, Conf [#permalink]

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28 Feb 2017, 14:51
One of the earliest known birds with a beak and contour feathers, Confuciusornis sanctus, with large clawlike "thumbs" on its wings, which probably helped them to climb up to a launching position for flight.

A. with large clawlike "thumbs" on its wings, which probably helped them to
B. with large clawlike "thumbs" on their wings, which probably helped it to
C. had large clawlike "thumbs" on its wings, which probably helped them
D. had large clawlike "thumbs" on its wings, probably to help it
E. had large clawlike "thumbs" on their wings, probably to help it

Confuciusornis sanctus is a singular noun which must be referd to by 'it'.Their and them is wrong and so are A,B,C and E

Option D is the correct answer

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Re: One of the earliest known birds with a beak and contour feathers, Conf [#permalink]

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28 Feb 2017, 19:02
@daagh sir,

Shouldn't comma after Confuciusornins sanctus be also underlined ?

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Re: One of the earliest known birds with a beak and contour feathers, Conf [#permalink]

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01 Mar 2017, 01:05
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ankujgupta wrote:
daagh sir,

Shouldn't comma after Confuciusornins sanctus be also underlined ?

I can understand why you say so. But you may as well consider that "One of the earliest known birds with a beak and contour feathers" is the subject and "Confuciusornis sanctus" is the modifier (appositive) for the subject. If the comma were not there, then the roles would be reversed.

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Re: One of the earliest known birds with a beak and contour feathers, Conf [#permalink]

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26 Jun 2017, 02:03
Hi Gmatninjatwo,
Is which correctly used on Option C, but issue with plural them?
We need singular pronoun IT to refer to the bird.
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Re: One of the earliest known birds with a beak and contour feathers, Conf [#permalink]

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26 Jun 2017, 08:05
Imo D
The original is a fragment without the main verb.
So we need a verb A and B are out.
Which is also ambiguous. so C is out
E does not have correct subject and its antecedent arrangement .
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One of the earliest known birds with a beak and contour feathers, Conf [#permalink]

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26 Jun 2017, 11:46
Hi Gmatninjatwo,
Is which correctly used on Option C, but issue with plural them?
We need singular pronoun IT to refer to the bird.

IMHO, use of which is not an issue in Choice C because it is an established fact that birds use wings for flight. Hence, logically, which refers to a slightly far-away noun large clawlike "thumbs".

This sentence purely tests pronoun. Only the correct answer Choice D uses the correct pronoun pair - its and it. Rest all the four options have singular-plural pronoun pair used for the same noun entity.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: One of the earliest known birds with a beak and contour feathers, Conf [#permalink]

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10 Aug 2017, 03:16
I chose option E here because i thought theirs refers to the birds which is plural. Why do we need a singular word its here?

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Re: One of the earliest known birds with a beak and contour feathers, Conf [#permalink]

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02 Sep 2017, 05:36
Pay attention to the different pronouns in the answer choices. We can choose "on its wings" or "on their wings." The pronoun's antecedent is 'Confuciusornis sanctus,' which is singular, so we want "on its wings." Eliminate B and E. Next, we have another pronoun split "helped them" or "helped it." The pronoun is still referring to Confuciusornis sanctus, so again, we want "it." Eliminate A and C. All that's left is D, which is the answer.
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Re: One of the earliest known birds with a beak and contour feathers, Conf [#permalink]

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02 Sep 2017, 09:49
A. with large clawlike “thumbs” on its wings, which probably helped them to
B. with large clawlike “thumbs” on their wings, which probably helped it to
C. had large clawlike “thumbs” on its wings, which probably helped them
D. had large clawlike “thumbs” on its wings, probably to help it
E. had large clawlike “thumbs” on their wings, probably to help it
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Re: One of the earliest known birds with a beak and contour feathers, Conf [#permalink]

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09 Sep 2017, 11:53
One of the earliest known birds with a beak and contour feathers, Confuciusornis sanctus, with large clawlike “thumbs” on its wings, which probably helped them to climb up to a launching position for flight.

A. with large clawlike “thumbs” on its wings, which probably helped them to
- "its" wings does not correlate to "them" -- singular w/ plural here.

B. with large clawlike “thumbs” on their wings, which probably helped it to
- same here as "A"

C. had large clawlike “thumbs” on its wings, which probably helped them
- same as "A"

D. had large clawlike “thumbs” on its wings, probably to help it
- correct as is

E. had large clawlike “thumbs” on their wings, probably to help it
- same as "A"

i think what makes this question easy (among other things) is the same error presents itself in every A/C other than the 1 correct A/C

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Re: One of the earliest known birds with a beak and contour feathers, Conf   [#permalink] 09 Sep 2017, 11:53

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