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Originally developed for American college students, Mark Zuckerberg fo

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Originally developed for American college students, Mark Zuckerberg fo  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Feb 2020, 03:15
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Originally developed for American college students, Mark Zuckerberg founded Facebook while still a student at Harvard University.


A. Mark Zuckerberg founded Facebook while still a student at Harvard University

B. Mark Zuckerberg found Facebook while he was still a student at Harvard University

C. Facebook were founded by Mark Zuckerberg while he was still a student at Harvard University

D. Facebook was found by Mark Zuckerberg while he was still a student at Harvard University

E. Facebook was founded by Mark Zuckerberg while he was still a student at Harvard University



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Re: Originally developed for American college students, Mark Zuckerberg fo  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Feb 2020, 06:40
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My answer is (E). It took me 28 seconds.

The main problem in version (A) is misplaced modifier. The subject of the main sentence, Mark Z, cannot serve as logical subject of "developed for American college students". We can rule out A and B right away.

Now, Find and Found are two different verbs. Find is an irregular verb: Find Found Found. Found is a regular verb: Found Founded Founded. Here, the company was founded (not found) by Mark Z. D is out.

Between C and E, we have to ask whether Facebook is a singular or plural. Well, it is a company, albeit a hugely profitable one, so there is no reason it should be treated as plural.

So, I chose (E).
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Re: Originally developed for American college students, Mark Zuckerberg fo  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Feb 2020, 15:03
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subject of the main clause should be facebook, because initial phrase "Originally developed for American college students" modifies facebook. so A, B are out. facebook is singular so were is wrong, so C is out. D is out, because it failed passive verb form. E corrects all mistakes mentioned above.
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Re: Originally developed for American college students, Mark Zuckerberg fo  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Feb 2020, 21:40
Easy Money.

D. Facebook was found by Mark Zuckerberg while he was still a student at Harvard University

E. Facebook was founded by Mark Zuckerberg while he was still a student at Harvard University


Difference between D and E is of Found and Founded;

Found signifies that, Facebook was discovered, however it was created.
Whereas, Founded "ed" seems to show the intention that it was consciously created by Mark.

Here is an official question from GMATPREP
https://gmatclub.com/forum/advanced-sc- ... 97101.html

The Correct answer choice is explained below:

The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language variations originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

Imagine the sentence: He saw a man injured (somebody else was responsible) by a bullet and limping in pain.
Let‘s apply the simple WAS / WERE test: The man was injured by the bullet is correct … The man was injuring by the bullet is nonsensical. So injured is the right adjective.

The man was limping in pain is correct … The man was limped in pain is nonsensical. So limping is the correct adjective.
So injured (past participle, –ed adjective) is parallel to limping (present participle, ING adjective).

Consider the sentence: Because of strained budgets and fading public support, Indian Hockey is dying a slow death.
In this case, strained is the adjective (past participle – intended action) for the word budgets; fading is the adjective (present participle – unintended action) for the word support.

In the given question, we need to know 2 things:
Something originates on its own (unintended action). So the correct adjective is originating.

Perpetuate (make an unfounded belief continue indefinitely) is an intended action. So the correct adjective is perpetuated.
For example:

Originating in Europe and perpetuated by immigrant Europeans to spread their dominance, Spanish had become a major language in the Americas by 1900s.
Languages originate on their own (by the way people speak different dialects in various parts of the world). The origin of a language at a particular place is not an intended activity.

Perpetuation of the Spanish language was an intended activity by the Europeans. It could not have happened on its own.
If there is a confusion regarding which form to use (-ING or –ED), do the following test:

Use WAS / WERE along with the given verb.

Variations WERE ORIGINATING. – This is surely correct as ―origination‖ is not intentional. ―WERE ORIGINATING‖ definitely implies something unintentional.

Variations WERE ORIGINATED. This is definitely wrong as ―origination‖ is not intentional. ―WERE originated‖ definitely implies something INTENDED.

This will clearly depend on the meaning of the word ―Originate.‖ This word has a meaning that definitely signifies ―NO SPECIFIC INTENTION‖ on part of any person. Something originates on its own, without an intended effort by an external agency.

Variations WERE PERPETUATED. This is surely CORRECT as ―perpetuation‖ is intentional. ―WERE PERPETUATED‖ definitely implies something intentional.

Variations WERE PERPETUATING. This is surely WRONG as ―perpetuation‖ is intentional. ―WERE PERPETUATING‖ definitely implies something unintentional.

This will clearly depend on the meaning of the word ―Perpetuate.‖ This word has a meaning that definitely signifies ―SPECIFIC INTENTION‖ on part of any person. Something does not perpetuate on its own; an intended effort by an external agency is a MUST.

Imagine 2 more sentences:

Erupting at an absolutely wrong time, the volcano posed a major problem for the local residents.

Here, „eruption‟ is unintentional – so we use Present Participle (Adjective) ERUPTING.

Designed to perfection, the new car was the cynosure of all eyes.

Here, „design‟ is intentional – so we use Past Participle (Adjective) Designed.
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Re: Originally developed for American college students, Mark Zuckerberg fo  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Feb 2020, 23:26
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Originally developed for American college students, Mark Zuckerberg founded Facebook while still a student at Harvard University.

The big question here is whether Facebook was "found" or "founded". While knowing about Facebook and Mark Zuckerberg allows us to identify that the correct usage should be "founded", it is advisable (in general) to avoid using any outside information in such tests. Therefore, if the sentence were structured thus:

Originally developed for American college students, ABC founded XYZ while still a student at Harvard University.

Even here, we can identify that the correct word would be "founded", since whatever was being "found" or "founded" was "Originally developed for American college students...". Therefore, it is something human made and hence cannot be "found" or "discovered". With this insight, let us approach the options.


A. Mark Zuckerberg founded Facebook while still a student at Harvard University Modifier error - the modifier "Originally developed for American college students..." should modify Facebook (or XYZ), since Mark Zuckerberg (or ABC), clearly a person, cannot be "developed". Eliminate.

B. Mark Zuckerberg found Facebook while he was still a student at Harvard University As discussed above, the sentence should use "founded" and not "found". Eliminate.

C. Facebook were founded by Mark Zuckerberg while he was still a student at Harvard University Subject-Verb mismatch: Facebook (or XYZ) is a singular noun and hence the verb should be "was founded". Eliminate.

D. Facebook was found by Mark Zuckerberg while he was still a student at Harvard University As discussed above, the sentence should use "founded" and not "found". Eliminate.

E. Facebook was founded by Mark Zuckerberg while he was still a student at Harvard University Correct. The sentence uses "founded" and there is no SV mismatch or any other error.

Hope this helps.
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Re: Originally developed for American college students, Mark Zuckerberg fo  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Feb 2020, 01:41

OFFICIAL EXPLANATION



Originally developed for American college students, Mark Zuckerberg founded Facebook while still a student at Harvard University.


A. Mark Zuckerberg founded Facebook while still a student at Harvard University

This sentence begins with a modifier: Originally developed for American college students. We can tell it's a modifier as it appears at the beginning of the sentence, is separated from the rest of the sentence with a comma, and there is a verb in the 3rd form in it (developed).

A modifier is a Stop Sign. If we encounter a modifier in a Sentence Correction question, this is what we should focus on. We have to make sure that the modifier is placed right next to the noun it describes.

The only thing that this modifier can logically modify is Facebook, as it's hard to imagine that Mark Zuckerberg was developed for American college students...

Since a modifier should be right next to the noun it describes, and in this answer choice Facebook is quite far from the modifier that describes it, this answer choice is incorrect.



B. Mark Zuckerberg found Facebook while he was still a student at Harvard University

This answer choice repeats the original Dangling Modifier mistake.

The sentence begins with a modifier: Originally developed for American college students. We can tell it's a modifier as it appears at the beginning of the sentence, is separated from the rest of the sentence with a comma, and there is a verb in the 3rd form in it (developed).

A modifier is a Stop Sign. If we encounter a modifier in a Sentence Correction question, this is what we should focus on. We have to make sure that the modifier is placed right next to the noun it describes.

The only thing that this modifier can logically modify is Facebook, as it's hard to imagine that Mark Zuckerberg was developed for American college students...

Since a modifier should be right next to the noun it describes, and in this answer choice Facebook is quite far from the modifier that describes it, this answer choice is incorrect.

In addition, this answer choice also changes the meaning of the original sentence by replacing the verb founded with the verb found. Founded is the past form of the verb found, which means to establish, to take the first steps in building. Found is both the base form of the verb found and the past form of the verb find.



C. Facebook were founded by Mark Zuckerberg while he was still a student at Harvard University

While this answer choice corrects the original Dangling Modifier mistake, it is grammatically incorrect because the singular subject Facebook does not agree with the plural verb were.


D. Facebook was found by Mark Zuckerberg while he was still a student at Harvard University

While this answer choice corrects the original Dangling Modifier mistake, it changes the meaning of the original sentence by replacing the verb founded with the verb found. Founded is the past form of the verb found, which means to establish, to take the first steps in building. Found is both the base form of the verb found and the past form of the verb find.


E. Facebook was founded by Mark Zuckerberg while he was still a student at Harvard University

CORRECT
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Re: Originally developed for American college students, Mark Zuckerberg fo  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Feb 2020, 00:35
A fairly easy question to get done in 30 seconds. It may be wise to double-check before moving on during the actual exam.

Originally developed for American college students, Mark Zuckerberg founded Facebook while still a student at Harvard University.

First off, even before we look at the answer choices, we know that what follows the comma should be Facebook; that what was originally developed was Facebook, not Mark Zuckerberg. (Unless there is an incredible backstory about him we don't know!)

(A) and (B) therefore immediately get freebie eliminated.

When it comes to (C), it's a simple verb error. Facebook is singular. The word were is plural. Another quick elimination.

Between (D) and (E), the trip up is simply to do with not knowing the difference between found and founded. The GMAT tends to do this sometimes, throwing in words like economic in some answer choices and then economical in others. I imagine some people may have swung to the right answer by thinking of founded as a past-tense form of found - but that's an incorrect reason to eliminate (D).

Founded is, I daresay, the only way to refer to creating a company. It may not even be possible to use the word found to convey the same meaning.
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Re: Originally developed for American college students, Mark Zuckerberg fo   [#permalink] 26 Feb 2020, 00:35
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