It is currently 28 Jun 2017, 22:44

### GMAT Club Daily Prep

#### Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

# Events & Promotions

###### Events & Promotions in June
Open Detailed Calendar

# Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a

Author Message
TAGS:

### Hide Tags

Intern
Joined: 17 Nov 2012
Posts: 22
Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

### Show Tags

08 Jul 2013, 02:44
Zarrolou wrote:
akhandamandala wrote:
Hi there,
I'm grateful if anyone help to explain the problem of which-clause in A C and D. If we consider which-clause will modify the noun right before it, the which-clause in A is right after "emission" and accepted, while in D & C is not accepted. Why???
Is is true that noun in an adjective /participle and preposition phrase cannot be an antecedent ???

Thanks

(A) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

(C) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

The intended subject of "which" is the "technique". In option A "which" correctly modifies it, but in option C (and D) the noun "technique" is too far away: "which" cannot jump to it.
Even though in A the preceding noun is "emission" the modifier which refers to the "technique", and this is an exception of the touching rule of this modifier.

So if you have something like : noun + modifier/perp phrase, which <== the which jumps to the noun, ignoring the modifier/perp phrase.

Another Official question that tests the same: emily-dickinsons-letters-to-susan-huntington-dickinson-were-10142.html

Hope everything is clear

Thank you, I got it. So this is an exception.
One more small question. Most of the case which-clause should be converted to present participle phrase to modify the whole preceding clause or subject of the preceding clause???
Senior Manager
Joined: 08 Apr 2013
Posts: 272
Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

### Show Tags

08 Jul 2013, 08:57
in one not all of grammar books, a rule is mentioned. The rule is

NOUN+PREPOSTIONAL PHRASE+PARTICIPLE PHRASE+ RELATIVE CLAUSE

when there are many post modifier of a noun, the order must be above.

choice A

a technic, call.........., which......

is an example of the rule.

because not all of grammar book dictate this rule, We find hard to accept choice A.

but it is still basic grammar. READING SOME OF GRAMMAR BOOK WILL HELP.
VP
Status: Far, far away!
Joined: 02 Sep 2012
Posts: 1122
Location: Italy
Concentration: Finance, Entrepreneurship
GPA: 3.8
Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

### Show Tags

08 Jul 2013, 09:03
akhandamandala wrote:
Thank you, I got it. So this is an exception.
One more small question. Most of the case which-clause should be converted to present participle phrase to modify the whole preceding clause or subject of the preceding clause???

I do not get what you mean by "Most of the case which-clause should be converted", in the GMAT you cannot convert clauses, you choose the best one...

I can give you this response, tell me if it's enough:

"which" cannot modify a clause. (this is a rule)

So "which" will refer to a single noun, that can be or not the subject of the preceding clause; but the "which" can be correctly used in both cases (referring to the subject or to another noun).

Hope this helps!
_________________

It is beyond a doubt that all our knowledge that begins with experience.

Kant , Critique of Pure Reason

Tips and tricks: Inequalities , Mixture | Review: MGMAT workshop
Strategy: SmartGMAT v1.0 | Questions: Verbal challenge SC I-II- CR New SC set out !! , My Quant

Rules for Posting in the Verbal Forum - Rules for Posting in the Quant Forum[/size][/color][/b]

Director
Joined: 03 Aug 2012
Posts: 894
Concentration: General Management, General Management
GMAT 1: 630 Q47 V29
GMAT 2: 680 Q50 V32
GPA: 3.7
WE: Information Technology (Investment Banking)
Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

### Show Tags

01 Sep 2013, 12:19
Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.

(A) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,
Correct ! As 'Originally developed' modifies 'a technique' and 'which' modifies 'x-ray emission' and the sentence has a verb 'is finding'
(B) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, having the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, a technique called proton induced x-ray emission
Two Long modifiers in a sequence => awkwardness
(C) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants,called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,
Cutting of non-essential modifier , sentence doesn't make sense.
(D) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying it,
Same as (C).
(E) A technique that was originally developed for detecting air pollutants and has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying the substance, called proton-induced x-ray emission,
Quickly should modify CAN and has been placed incorrectly.
_________________

Rgds,
TGC!
_____________________________________________________________________
I Assisted You => KUDOS Please
_____________________________________________________________________________

Intern
Joined: 17 Nov 2012
Posts: 22
Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

### Show Tags

01 Sep 2013, 14:29
as my understanding now, the original sentence is correct because it is the exception to touch rule.
MGMAT calls this case "mission critical" modifier that defines the noun. The less important modifier refers to the noun plus the first modifier.
Intern
Joined: 17 Sep 2013
Posts: 16
Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

### Show Tags

06 Nov 2013, 13:48
I am kind of confuse on OG's reasoning that explains usage of Which and how it explains in choice C.

I thought ",which" can only refer to the preceded noun only....
Manager
Joined: 12 Jan 2013
Posts: 219
Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

### Show Tags

07 Jan 2014, 02:53
gmatpunjabi wrote:
Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.

(A) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

(B) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, having the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, a technique called proton induced x-ray emission

(C) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

(D) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying it,

(E) A technique that was originally developed for detecting air pollutants and has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying the substance, called proton-induced x-ray emission,

Why and how is the OA correct. Why is the use of "which" correct in Answer A, but not C/

The construction is as follows:

[Prepositional phrase], [subject], [inessential clause], "...is finding bla bla bla" and this is actually - although ugly - a correct structure. D could be considered a contender but has the form of [subject] [subject modifier] [inessential clause] and this distorts the intended meaning. The two clauses must "touch" the subject..

If anyone is having problem with concepts like these, I recommend MGMAT's SC book, read the chapter on modifiers.
Verbal Forum Moderator
Joined: 05 Nov 2012
Posts: 539
Concentration: Technology, Other
Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

### Show Tags

02 Aug 2014, 10:54
Can someone help me in understanding what Gmat means by following for option B?
Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, having the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, a technique called proton induced x-ray emission
second modifier {having..) actually modifies the first modifier.
Regards.
_________________

--------------------------------------------------------
Regards

Manager
Joined: 22 Feb 2009
Posts: 217
Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

### Show Tags

02 Aug 2014, 16:54
egmat wrote:
thangvietnam wrote:
In C and D, "developed" is parallel to " called" , so we need "and" to connect them.

There is no "and" so, C and D are wrong.

Hi there,

Yes, you are correct in saying that “developed” and “called” are parallel in the sense that both are verb-ed modifiers that modifies “a technique”.

Now, the usage of “called” or “named” is little different from other verb-ed modifiers. “Called” and “named” must be placed immediately after the entities they modify. They cannot be placed far away as seen in Choices C and D.
So yes, in a way we can say that placing only “and” without preceded by comma before “called” can solve this modification error. But, this will make the choices wordy. In choice A, both these modifiers are placed perfectly.
Also, there are “which” modification error in choice C and D. These also make choices C and D incorrect.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

Thank you for the explanation. You made it clear that C is incorrect.
_________________

.........................................................................
+1 Kudos please, if you like my post

Senior Manager
Joined: 08 Apr 2013
Posts: 272
Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

### Show Tags

21 Aug 2014, 01:57
I find no proper explanation for this question.

a hard one.

we have 3 modifier and 1 noun.

The best way to express this is the order in choice A : the noun is in between the two do-ed phrases. in C, D and E, the 3 modifiers are at one side of the noun, creating unclearness.

in choice B, we have 3 do-ed modifiers. I think it is better to use two do-ed phrase and one "which clause" because this is more clear.
normally, do-ed phrase should modifiy the noun following, so putting two do-ed phrase together, though this putting is grammatical because the two do-ed phrases belong to different kinds, can make unclearness. putting two do-ed phrases together without "and" feels that the first do-ed phrase modifies the second do-ed phrase. this is not good.

in this problem, I thing gmat test us another preference, not an absolute rule, " avoid putting two do-ed modifiers together".
_________________

If anyone in this gmat forum is in England,Britain, pls, email to me, (thanghnvn@gmail.com) . I have some questions and need your advise. Thank a lot.

Manager
Joined: 17 Mar 2014
Posts: 167
Location: United States
GPA: 3.97
Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

### Show Tags

09 Oct 2014, 04:31
egmat wrote:
kuttingchai wrote:
agreed that it refers to substance, but then what is wrong with C or D, is it because it has 2 verbs ???

Hi there,

Let us split choice C into clauses:

A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.
• A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission,
o which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,
• (Cont. of Cl. 1) is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.

“developed” is not a verb here. It’s a verb-ed modifier. The only verb that clause 1 has is “is finding”. (Click on the following link to learn how to distinguish between a past tense verb and verb-ed modifier: ed-forms-verbs-or-modifiers-134691.html#p1100855)

In choice C, “called proton-induced x-ray emission” has been separated from the entity it should modify – “a technique”. As a result, relative pronoun “which” is now only modifying the preceding noun “proton-induced x-ray emission”. It is not modifying “a technique” anymore. This leads to the modification error in Choice C.

Same is the case with Choice D as well.

Now let’s take a look at the correct Choice A:
Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced X-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.

In this sentence, the opening modifier “developed” is correctly modifying the subject of the preceding clause “a technique”. Now another modifier “called…” is placed just after “a technique”. So here the sentence is really saying:
a technique = proton-induced X-ray emission
“a technique called proton-induced X-ray emission” makes one big noun phrase here and hence, “which” correctly modifies this entire noun phrase, including “a technique”.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

Shraddha has explained it very well. But, I still have doubt on "which" modifier usage in option C and D. According to OG - "which" modifier is modifying the word emission. But, why can't which modifier modify the whole "proton induced X-ray emission". Per Shraddha's note - which in C and D is modifying the whole "proton induced X-ray emission". But if it is indeed modifying the whole, then why are these choices incorrect because "proton induced X-ray emission" is indeed the TECHNIQUE which we want to modify. Does it make a difference if we modify "TECHNIQUE" or ""proton induced X-ray emission".

Thanks!
_________________

KUDOS!!!, I need them too

VP
Joined: 09 Jun 2010
Posts: 1418
Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

### Show Tags

26 Mar 2015, 02:43
very hard question for who targeting 40 verbal, targeting 750.

one of the important point is to realize the lession/rule GMAT want to teach us from the OA.

in choice B, "developed" and "having" are not neccessary to be parallel. So, the use of "and" is not compulsory. in other words, the no "and" use is correct.

the main point here is that when there is many, 3 modifers of a noun, what do we do.

the rule is
we can put "which clause" far from the noun modified, with the condition that between the noun and "which clause is a noun modifier, and we put other modifiers such as do-ed phrase, doing phrase or prepositional phrase touching the noun modified.

this rule would be considered simple if it is declared by GMAT, but if we have to infer the rule, the rule become difficult.

this problem is at the end of og 11,so, it is condidered very hard. I will not study this problem

if you like my explanation, give me a kudos.
_________________

visit my facebook to help me.
on facebook, my name is: thang thang thang

Intern
Joined: 26 Dec 2015
Posts: 6
Location: India
Concentration: Finance, General Management
GMAT 1: 720 Q49 V40
Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

### Show Tags

04 Feb 2016, 05:15
I might be wrong here, but shouldn't the sentence have "to detect" instead of "for detecting".

"to detect" will clearly highlight the purpose.
Manager
Joined: 01 Sep 2016
Posts: 121
Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

### Show Tags

09 Sep 2016, 12:47
Thanks.This explanation was crisp

ankurgupta03 wrote:
akhandamandala wrote:
Hi there,
I'm grateful if anyone help to explain the problem of which-clause in A C and D. If we consider which-clause will modify the noun right before it, the which-clause in A is right after "emission" and accepted, while in D & C is not accepted. Why???
Is is true that noun in an adjective /participle and preposition phrase cannot be an antecedent ???

Thanks

Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.

(A) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,
here the which clause is modifying the entire noun phrase "proton-induced x-ray emission" and hence is correct. If a noun phrase is present, whole of it is modified by which and not just the last word.
(C) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,
This sentence says "air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission" hence wrong
(D) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying it,
This sentence says "air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission" hence wrong.

hope it helps!!
Senior Manager
Joined: 23 Feb 2015
Posts: 476
Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

### Show Tags

15 Sep 2016, 10:47
gmatpunjabi wrote:
OG16 SC122

Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.

(A) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

(B) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, having the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, a technique called proton induced x-ray emission

(C) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

(D) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying it,

(E) A technique that was originally developed for detecting air pollutants and has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying the substance, called proton-induced x-ray emission,

In C, 'which' modify 'x-ray emission'. 'x-ray emission' can't quickly analyze the chemical elements, 'A technique' does, right? So, for that reason, C is wrong. C is also wrong because it used comma before 'called'.
But, in A, 'which' also modify 'x-ray emission'. How ' x-ray emission' quickly analyze the chemical elements?
Thanks...
_________________

“The heights by great men reached and kept were not attained in sudden flight but, they while their companions slept, they were toiling upwards in the night.”

Chat Moderator
Joined: 04 Aug 2016
Posts: 484
Location: India
GPA: 4
WE: Engineering (Telecommunications)
Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

### Show Tags

28 Oct 2016, 03:53
Is it me or does it seem awkward that the modifier in A modifies a technique?
BSchool Forum Moderator
Status: Aiming 800 Q51 V51
Joined: 18 Jul 2015
Posts: 1895
Location: India
GMAT 1: 670 Q50 V32
GMAT 2: 700 Q50 V34
GPA: 3.65
WE: Brand Management (Health Care)
Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

### Show Tags

28 Oct 2016, 04:02
warriorguy wrote:
Is it me or does it seem awkward that the modifier in A modifies a technique?

In A, both the modifiers are clearly modifying the technique without any ambiguity.

(A) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,
_________________

Good Luck

Chat Moderator
Joined: 04 Aug 2016
Posts: 484
Location: India
GPA: 4
WE: Engineering (Telecommunications)
Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

### Show Tags

28 Oct 2016, 05:56
abhimahna wrote:
warriorguy wrote:
Is it me or does it seem awkward that the modifier in A modifies a technique?

In A, both the modifiers are clearly modifying the technique without any ambiguity.

(A) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

I don't think the second modifier is modifying the technique. Or is it? Lol. I was under the impression that which will modify the noun it touches.

So the first part modifies technique and second part modifies emission or x-ray emission.
Manhattan GMAT Instructor
Joined: 22 Mar 2011
Posts: 1037
Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

### Show Tags

29 Oct 2016, 02:36
Well, in this case "proton-induced x-ray emission" is the name of the technique, so it's all the same. Similarly, if a sentence began "A man named Larry, who . . . ," we wouldn't have to worry about whether "who" modified "man" or "Larry."
_________________

Dmitry Farber | Manhattan GMAT Instructor | New York

Manhattan GMAT Discount | Manhattan GMAT Course Reviews | View Instructor Profile |
Manhattan GMAT Reviews

Manager
Joined: 17 Sep 2016
Posts: 185
Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

### Show Tags

09 Nov 2016, 06:38
Hi experts,
sometimes, I am still confused that what does "comma which" modify, for this case, I wanna deep discuss the "comma which" modifier, purely discuss it , based on grammar rather than other errors.

A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced X-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

here, called proton-induced X-ray emission is a modifier and set off by a pair of comma, this structure means that called proton-induced X-ray emission is a non vital modifier, so I can split it , then the simple version is :

A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

we can figure out which modifier follows air pollutants and is without comma, generally, which modifier follows a comma,-- this is error 1
when I split it, which modifies preceding noun "air pollutants", -- this is error 2 -- nonsense.

my question is :
1/
cross off it because error 1 -- without comma before which,
does this reasoning apply to GMAT SC as a reason to cross off ?

2/
non vital modifier set off by a pair of commas, then the simple version will be which modifier follows a noun/noun phrase, in this case, which modifier modifies air pollutants,
Does this condition imply which modifier can jump over the non vital modifier and then modify the preceding noun if the meaning is logical ? what's the role of which modifier? is it still a non vital modifier? (because i know, comma which modifier is general non vital modifier.

genuinely wanna your help, especial @Mike's

have a nice day.
>_~
Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a   [#permalink] 09 Nov 2016, 06:38

Go to page   Previous    1   2   3    Next  [ 51 posts ]

Similar topics Replies Last post
Similar
Topics:
2 However a minimal role in causing air pollution, trash pollutes both 2 02 Feb 2017, 20:56
Originally developed by ancient Hawaiians 0 29 Jun 2014, 23:29
4 Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a 17 23 Mar 2017, 12:24
Originally developed by ancient Hawaiians, surfing appeals 0 06 Nov 2016, 04:12
13 Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a 21 12 Sep 2016, 05:16
Display posts from previous: Sort by

# Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a

 Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group and phpBB SEO Kindly note that the GMAT® test is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council®, and this site has neither been reviewed nor endorsed by GMAC®.