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# Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a

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Manager
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Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

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08 Feb 2012, 14:23
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The Official Guide for GMAT Review 2016

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 122
Page: 696

Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.

(A) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

(B) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, having the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, a technique called proton induced x-ray emission

(C) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

(D) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying it,

(E) A technique that was originally developed for detecting air pollutants and has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying the substance, called proton-induced x-ray emission,

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Why and how is the OA correct. Why is the use of "which" correct in Answer A, but not C/
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by hazelnut on 19 May 2017, 06:08, edited 4 times in total.
Hided spoiler
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

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09 Feb 2012, 00:06
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(A) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

(C) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

Let us analyse these two sentences closely.Which is used to give in some additional information and non restrictive in nature .Remove the underlined portion and insert the remaining sentence into the original sentence .

When you do this only sentence a makes sense .Hope i make sense let me know if you are still not clear .
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+1 if you like my explanation .Thanks

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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

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09 Feb 2012, 00:12
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(A) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

CORRECT

(B) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, having the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, a technique called proton induced x-ray emission

The modifier starting with originally is too far from technique. so wrong

(C) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

Why do you need a comma after pollutants? The initial modifer starting with A technique seems to modify called. wrong

(D) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying it,

which has the ability is wordy

(E) A technique that was originally developed for detecting air pollutants and has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying the substance, called proton-induced x-ray emission,

has the ability ?? parallelism problem as well after AND. So, wrong
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

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03 Jul 2012, 04:18
I could get onto the correct choice based on various other routes but I still dont know how can we ascertain antecedent of "it".

Can some explain, based on the concepts of subject/object?
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

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03 Jul 2012, 08:23
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pavanpuneet wrote:
I could get onto the correct choice based on various other routes but I still dont know how can we ascertain antecedent of "it".

Can some explain, based on the concepts of subject/object?

Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.

It is sort of confusing, but to me it looks like the "it" refers to "substance." It can't refer to the other nouns "air pollutants" or "chemical elements" because they are plural. That leaves the last noun "technique," but I don't think you can logically destroy a technique.
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

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03 Jul 2012, 09:19
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pavanpuneet wrote:
I could get onto the correct choice based on various other routes but I still dont know how can we ascertain antecedent of "it".

Can some explain, based on the concepts of subject/object?

Hi there,

Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.

A pronoun must not only have an antecedent but also have a logical antecedent.

According to this sentence, the proton-induced x-ray emission technique can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it.

From meaning standpoint, this particular technique can analyze chemical elements in almost any substance and does not even destroy it. So where does it do the function of analyzing? In any almost any substance. So it does that function without destroying the substance.

Now, it is true that “chemical elements” does not agree in number with “it” and hence that cannot be the antecedent for “it”. Another singular entity is “technique” but it will make no sense to say that technique is used to so something without destroying the technique.

Hence, there is no problem with the reference of “it” in this sentence.

At e-gmat we cover in detail about grammatical antecedent and logical antecedent of pronouns in our concept called Pronouns.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

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04 Jul 2012, 20:19
In C and D, "developed" is parallel to " called" , so we need "and" to connect them.

There is no "and" so, C and D are wrong.
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

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05 Jul 2012, 06:48
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thangvietnam wrote:
In C and D, "developed" is parallel to " called" , so we need "and" to connect them.

There is no "and" so, C and D are wrong.

Hi there,

Yes, you are correct in saying that “developed” and “called” are parallel in the sense that both are verb-ed modifiers that modifies “a technique”.

Now, the usage of “called” or “named” is little different from other verb-ed modifiers. “Called” and “named” must be placed immediately after the entities they modify. They cannot be placed far away as seen in Choices C and D.
So yes, in a way we can say that placing only “and” without preceded by comma before “called” can solve this modification error. But, this will make the choices wordy. In choice A, both these modifiers are placed perfectly.
Also, there are “which” modification error in choice C and D. These also make choices C and D incorrect.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

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05 Jul 2012, 14:31
egmat wrote:
pavanpuneet wrote:
I could get onto the correct choice based on various other routes but I still dont know how can we ascertain antecedent of "it".

Can some explain, based on the concepts of subject/object?

Hi there,

Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.

A pronoun must not only have an antecedent but also have a logical antecedent.

According to this sentence, the proton-induced x-ray emission technique can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it.

From meaning standpoint, this particular technique can analyze chemical elements in almost any substance and does not even destroy it. So where does it do the function of analyzing? In any almost any substance. So it does that function without destroying the substance.

Now, it is true that “chemical elements” does not agree in number with “it” and hence that cannot be the antecedent for “it”. Another singular entity is “technique” but it will make no sense to say that technique is used to so something without destroying the technique.

Hence, there is no problem with the reference of “it” in this sentence.

At e-gmat we cover in detail about grammatical antecedent and logical antecedent of pronouns in our concept called Pronouns.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

agreed that it refers to substance, but then what is wrong with C or D, is it because it has 2 verbs ???

(C) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.

Main clause
A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission,
is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.
Subject: A technique

verb1: originally developed
verb2: is finding
2verbs ????

subordinate clause
which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,
subject: which
verb: can quickly analyze

(D) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying it, is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.

Main clause
A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission,
is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.
Subject: A technique

verb1: originally developed
verb2: is finding
2verbs ????

subordinate clause
which has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying it,
subject: which
verb: has
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

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05 Jul 2012, 19:46
saikarthikreddy wrote:
(A) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

(C) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

Let us analyse these two sentences closely.Which is used to give in some additional information and non restrictive in nature .Remove the underlined portion and insert the remaining sentence into the original sentence .

When you do this only sentence a makes sense .Hope i make sense let me know if you are still not clear .

I'm not sure if I understand still...I don't really see anything wrong with removing the underlined part of C and inserting the rest into the original sentence. Can you explain please?
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

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06 Jul 2012, 07:08
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kuttingchai wrote:
agreed that it refers to substance, but then what is wrong with C or D, is it because it has 2 verbs ???

Hi there,

Let us split choice C into clauses:

A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.
• A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission,
o which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,
• (Cont. of Cl. 1) is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.

“developed” is not a verb here. It’s a verb-ed modifier. The only verb that clause 1 has is “is finding”. (Click on the following link to learn how to distinguish between a past tense verb and verb-ed modifier: ed-forms-verbs-or-modifiers-134691.html#p1100855)

In choice C, “called proton-induced x-ray emission” has been separated from the entity it should modify – “a technique”. As a result, relative pronoun “which” is now only modifying the preceding noun “proton-induced x-ray emission”. It is not modifying “a technique” anymore. This leads to the modification error in Choice C.

Same is the case with Choice D as well.

Now let’s take a look at the correct Choice A:
Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced X-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.

In this sentence, the opening modifier “developed” is correctly modifying the subject of the preceding clause “a technique”. Now another modifier “called…” is placed just after “a technique”. So here the sentence is really saying:
a technique = proton-induced X-ray emission
“a technique called proton-induced X-ray emission” makes one big noun phrase here and hence, “which” correctly modifies this entire noun phrase, including “a technique”.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

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25 Jul 2012, 11:08
egmat wrote:
kuttingchai wrote:
agreed that it refers to substance, but then what is wrong with C or D, is it because it has 2 verbs ???

Hi there,

Let us split choice C into clauses:

A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.
• A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission,
o which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,
• (Cont. of Cl. 1) is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.

“developed” is not a verb here. It’s a verb-ed modifier. The only verb that clause 1 has is “is finding”. (Click on the following link to learn how to distinguish between a past tense verb and verb-ed modifier: ed-forms-verbs-or-modifiers-134691.html#p1100855)

In choice C, “called proton-induced x-ray emission” has been separated from the entity it should modify – “a technique”. As a result, relative pronoun “which” is now only modifying the preceding noun “proton-induced x-ray emission”. It is not modifying “a technique” anymore. This leads to the modification error in Choice C.

Same is the case with Choice D as well.

Now let’s take a look at the correct Choice A:
Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced X-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.

In this sentence, the opening modifier “developed” is correctly modifying the subject of the preceding clause “a technique”. Now another modifier “called…” is placed just after “a technique”. So here the sentence is really saying:
a technique = proton-induced X-ray emission
“a technique called proton-induced X-ray emission” makes one big noun phrase here and hence, “which” correctly modifies this entire noun phrase, including “a technique”.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

I have read somewhere that "which" can not modify entire clause. It modifies the noun preceding it.

How will you explain it?

Thanks
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

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23 Nov 2012, 08:39
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In Shraddha's example, which modifies a noun phrase. A noun phrase is not the same as a clause because a noun phrase acts as the subject of a sentence and thus requires a verb following it.

“a technique called proton-induced X-ray emission” - Not a sentence

“a technique called proton-induced X-ray emission is very useful” - A sentence
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

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24 Nov 2012, 06:06
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gmatpunjabi wrote:
Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.

(A) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

(B) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, having the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, a technique called proton induced x-ray emission

(C) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

(D) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying it,

(E) A technique that was originally developed for detecting air pollutants and has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying the substance, called proton-induced x-ray emission,

Why and how is the OA correct. Why is the use of "which" correct in Answer A, but not C/

To come out of the confusion of placing 'a technique' lets analyze the two options :

The first clause is modifier of the second clause and modifies correctly.
(A) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique

When we change the position of 'a technique' we need to remove the ',' before called, else the sentence has a modifier error, relative pronoun which here will refer to emission.
(C) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission,

So the correct option is A (this question is there in OG as well)
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

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06 Jan 2013, 07:45
"which can modify the slightly far noun if the prepositional phrase folloing the noun modifies that noun. However, this construction is consider inferior and so, an error if there is better choice . consider the following, the question 48 og 13

It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is
actually the largest lake on Earthf whichcovers more
than four times the surface area of its closest rival in
size, North America's Lake Superior.
(A) It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is
actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers
(B) Although it is called a sea, actually the
landlocked Caspian is the largest lake on Earth,
which covers
(C) Though called a sea, the landlocked Caspian is
actually the largest lake on Earth, covering
(D) Though called a sea but it actually is the largest
lake on Earth, the landlocked Caspian covers
(E) Despite being called a sea, the largest lake on
Earth is actually the landlocked Caspian, covering

is my thinking correct ?
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

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07 Jul 2013, 19:48
Hi there,
I'm grateful if anyone help to explain the problem of which-clause in A C and D. If we consider which-clause will modify the noun right before it, the which-clause in A is right after "emission" and accepted, while in D & C is not accepted. Why???
Is is true that noun in an adjective /participle and preposition phrase cannot be an antecedent ???

Thanks
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

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07 Jul 2013, 23:30
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akhandamandala wrote:
Hi there,
I'm grateful if anyone help to explain the problem of which-clause in A C and D. If we consider which-clause will modify the noun right before it, the which-clause in A is right after "emission" and accepted, while in D & C is not accepted. Why???
Is is true that noun in an adjective /participle and preposition phrase cannot be an antecedent ???

Thanks

(A) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

(C) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

The intended subject of "which" is the "technique". In option A "which" correctly modifies it, but in option C (and D) the noun "technique" is too far away: "which" cannot jump to it.
Even though in A the preceding noun is "emission" the modifier which refers to the "technique", and this is an exception of the touching rule of this modifier.

So if you have something like : noun + modifier/perp phrase, which <== the which jumps to the noun, ignoring the modifier/perp phrase.

Another Official question that tests the same: emily-dickinsons-letters-to-susan-huntington-dickinson-were-10142.html

Hope everything is clear
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

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07 Jul 2013, 23:46
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akhandamandala wrote:
Hi there,
I'm grateful if anyone help to explain the problem of which-clause in A C and D. If we consider which-clause will modify the noun right before it, the which-clause in A is right after "emission" and accepted, while in D & C is not accepted. Why???
Is is true that noun in an adjective /participle and preposition phrase cannot be an antecedent ???

Thanks

Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.

(A) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,
here the which clause is modifying the entire noun phrase "proton-induced x-ray emission" and hence is correct. If a noun phrase is present, whole of it is modified by which and not just the last word.
(C) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,
This sentence says "air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission" hence wrong
(D) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying it,
This sentence says "air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission" hence wrong.

hope it helps!!
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

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07 Jul 2013, 23:54
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ankurgupta03 wrote:
akhandamandala wrote:
Hi there,
I'm grateful if anyone help to explain the problem of which-clause in A C and D. If we consider which-clause will modify the noun right before it, the which-clause in A is right after "emission" and accepted, while in D & C is not accepted. Why???
Is is true that noun in an adjective /participle and preposition phrase cannot be an antecedent ???

Thanks

Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.

(A) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,
here the which clause is modifying the entire noun phrase "proton-induced x-ray emission" and hence is correct. If a noun phrase is present, whole of it is modified by which and not just the last word.

Hi ankurgupta03, I am sorry but this is not correct.
The "which" does not refer to ""proton-induced x-ray emission" because then the sentence would say something like:
"proton-induced x-ray emission" "can quickly analyze the chemical elements" : no sense.
The correct antecedent of which is the "technique called(...)" and now the sentence makes sense:
"technique called(...)""can quickly analyze the chemical elements" : better.

The noun phrase is the entire part " a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission" because "called" is not a verb, is a modifier => "a technique + modifier"
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a [#permalink]

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08 Jul 2013, 01:12
Zarrolou wrote:
ankurgupta03 wrote:
akhandamandala wrote:
Hi there,
I'm grateful if anyone help to explain the problem of which-clause in A C and D. If we consider which-clause will modify the noun right before it, the which-clause in A is right after "emission" and accepted, while in D & C is not accepted. Why???
Is is true that noun in an adjective /participle and preposition phrase cannot be an antecedent ???

Thanks

Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.

(A) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,
here the which clause is modifying the entire noun phrase "proton-induced x-ray emission" and hence is correct. If a noun phrase is present, whole of it is modified by which and not just the last word.

Hi ankurgupta03, I am sorry but this is not correct.
The "which" does not refer to ""proton-induced x-ray emission" because then the sentence would say something like:
"proton-induced x-ray emission" "can quickly analyze the chemical elements" : no sense.
The correct antecedent of which is the "technique called(...)" and now the sentence makes sense:
"technique called(...)""can quickly analyze the chemical elements" : better.

The noun phrase is the entire part " a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission" because "called" is not a verb, is a modifier => "a technique + modifier"

I think i mistyped the statement and missed "a technique ..."
Extremely sorry for that and thanks for the explanation
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a   [#permalink] 08 Jul 2013, 01:12

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