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Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average

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Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

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New post 25 May 2017, 21:31
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Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.

A. Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore. -- Perhaps the choice that comes nearest to the best with the introductory prepositional phrase duly followed by the subject and its action of tripling.

B. Over the course of the eighteenth century, a tripling in the average output of ironwork was due to the replacement of charcoal by coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, in addition to several improvements in blowing machinery. --- The prepositional introducer is wrongly modified by a tripling while it should modify the subject 'the average output'.

C.With charcoal's being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery, the average output of ironwork tripled over the eighteenth century. ---Who is replacing the coal should be placed next to the comma after machinery. Faulty modification

D.The replacement of charcoal with coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery, the average output of ironwork tripled over the eighteenth century. -- No connect between the introducer and the main clause as many have pointed out.

E. Charcoal being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, and several improvements in blowing machinery, which tripled the average output of ironwork over the course of the eighteenth century. --- A fragment.
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Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jul 2017, 06:10
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Any advise on how A is correct even with parallelism issue? .....output tripled 'as a result of' x and 'because of' y? Firstly 'because' need not be present. Secondly is they are not parallel since the first part is a noun and the second is a verb.

Thanks

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Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jul 2017, 06:15
OreoShake wrote:
Any advise on how A is correct even with parallelism issue? .....output tripled 'as a result of' x and 'because of' y? Firstly 'because' need not be present. Secondly is they are not parallel since the first part is a noun and the second is a verb.

Thanks


The real question is - can a noun and verb be parallel when they are acting as modifiers?; the question rises since everything after 'tripled' is a modifier.

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Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

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New post 28 Oct 2017, 22:32
Hey, I got this question in my mock test.
Is the 10-year-old question still representative of the GMAT?
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Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

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New post 29 Oct 2017, 04:55
jerrywu wrote:
Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.
A.Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.

B.Over the course of the eighteenth century a tripling in the average output of ironwork was due to the replacement of charcoal by coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, in addition to several improvements in blowing machinery.

C.With charcoal's being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery, the average output of ironwork tripled over the eighteenth century.

D.The replacement of charcoal with coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery, the average output of ironwork tripled over the eighteenth century.

E.Charcoal being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, and several improvements in blowing machinery, which tripled the average output of ironwork over the course of the eighteenth century.



dont we have a parallelism issue in A

Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled

1. as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery

and

2. because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.

Are resaon 1 & reason 2 parallel ?

pls help

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Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

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New post 18 Nov 2017, 07:14
VeritasPrepKarishma mikemcgarry

Hi,

Can you please help me in understanding the meaning error in B ?
Also, I have a question for A: Is the construction "as a result of X and because Y" parallel ?

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Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

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New post 19 Nov 2017, 21:31
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jerrywu wrote:
Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.
A.Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.

B.Over the course of the eighteenth century a tripling in the average output of ironwork was due to the replacement of charcoal by coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, in addition to several improvements in blowing machinery.

C.With charcoal's being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery, the average output of ironwork tripled over the eighteenth century.

D.The replacement of charcoal with coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery, the average output of ironwork tripled over the eighteenth century.

E.Charcoal being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, and several improvements in blowing machinery, which tripled the average output of ironwork over the course of the eighteenth century.


Responding to a pm:

Between (A) and (B), (A) clearly explains the meaning.

Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.

The output tripled ...
When? over the course of the century
Why? as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore (2 reasons)
The 2 reasons are joined with an "and" and act as adverbs. There is no parallelism issue here.

Look at (B) now -

A tripling was ...
When? over the course of the century

What does that mean? "was" indicates a point in time. But "over the course ..." indicates a period of time.
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Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average   [#permalink] 19 Nov 2017, 21:31

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