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Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average

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Manager
Joined: 23 Jan 2016
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Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average  [#permalink]

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29 Jul 2017, 06:10
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Any advise on how A is correct even with parallelism issue? .....output tripled 'as a result of' x and 'because of' y? Firstly 'because' need not be present. Secondly is they are not parallel since the first part is a noun and the second is a verb.

Thanks
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29 Jul 2017, 06:15
OreoShake wrote:
Any advise on how A is correct even with parallelism issue? .....output tripled 'as a result of' x and 'because of' y? Firstly 'because' need not be present. Secondly is they are not parallel since the first part is a noun and the second is a verb.

Thanks

The real question is - can a noun and verb be parallel when they are acting as modifiers?; the question rises since everything after 'tripled' is a modifier.
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28 Oct 2017, 22:32
Hey, I got this question in my mock test.
Is the 10-year-old question still representative of the GMAT?
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29 Oct 2017, 04:55
jerrywu wrote:
Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.
A.Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.

B.Over the course of the eighteenth century a tripling in the average output of ironwork was due to the replacement of charcoal by coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, in addition to several improvements in blowing machinery.

C.With charcoal's being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery, the average output of ironwork tripled over the eighteenth century.

D.The replacement of charcoal with coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery, the average output of ironwork tripled over the eighteenth century.

E.Charcoal being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, and several improvements in blowing machinery, which tripled the average output of ironwork over the course of the eighteenth century.

dont we have a parallelism issue in A

Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled

1. as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery

and

2. because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.

Are resaon 1 & reason 2 parallel ?

pls help
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18 Nov 2017, 07:14
VeritasPrepKarishma mikemcgarry

Hi,

Also, I have a question for A: Is the construction "as a result of X and because Y" parallel ?
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Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average  [#permalink]

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19 Nov 2017, 21:31
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jerrywu wrote:
Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.
A.Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.

B.Over the course of the eighteenth century a tripling in the average output of ironwork was due to the replacement of charcoal by coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, in addition to several improvements in blowing machinery.

C.With charcoal's being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery, the average output of ironwork tripled over the eighteenth century.

D.The replacement of charcoal with coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery, the average output of ironwork tripled over the eighteenth century.

E.Charcoal being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, and several improvements in blowing machinery, which tripled the average output of ironwork over the course of the eighteenth century.

Responding to a pm:

Between (A) and (B), (A) clearly explains the meaning.

Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.

The output tripled ...
When? over the course of the century
Why? as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore (2 reasons)
The 2 reasons are joined with an "and" and act as adverbs. There is no parallelism issue here.

Look at (B) now -

A tripling was ...
When? over the course of the century

What does that mean? "was" indicates a point in time. But "over the course ..." indicates a period of time.
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Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average  [#permalink]

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27 Nov 2017, 10:25
GMATNinja, GMATNinjaTwo could you please explain how A is the correct answer here. The use of both 'as a result of' and 'because' is difficult to understand.
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Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average  [#permalink]

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25 Jan 2018, 20:31
AlexGenkins1234 wrote:
jerrywu wrote:
Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.

A.Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.

B.Over the course of the eighteenth century a tripling in the average output of ironwork was due to the replacement of charcoal by coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, in addition to several improvements in blowing machinery.

C.With charcoalâ€™s being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery, the average output of ironwork tripled over the eighteenth century.

D.The replacement of charcoal with coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery, the average output of ironwork tripled over the eighteenth century.

E.Charcoal being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, and several improvements in blowing machinery, which tripled the average output of ironwork over the course of the eighteenth century.

[V] - A
- The trick in A is understanding that we have - logically- 2 reasons. Now it is true that the gmat prefers 2 elements that are structurly as well as logically the same, but in this case we cannot structure the 2 elements the same, simply becuase one is a result and the other is a reason.

[X] - B
- "a tripling" is weired, and even weireder is " a tripling was due"
- Logically we lose the focus of the sentence: in the original sentence the focus (subject) was the avg. output, in this sentence the focus (subject) is the "tripling". so this is a change in the meaning.
- "in addition" is not a parallelism marker so we have no proper parallelism.

[X] - C
- with is a prepositional . it can modify a noun entity or a verb. Notice that in this case, we lose the logical meaning of a "the reasons for the avg. increasing". this is a major change of meaning.
- the use of "Being" is incorrect, sience we are talking about a time in the past.

[Correct Usage 1]

When Being is used as a noun.
For example: Being disrespectful to elders is not an acceptable behavior.
Notice the subject here – being disrespectful to her elders

[Correct Usage 2]

When passive continuous verb tense is required to communicate the meaning.
For example:The residents of this 100-year old apartment complex are being evacuated because of structural instability of the building.
Notice the verb tense here – are being evacuated – present continuous written in passive voice.

X - [D]
- The 1st phrase in this optional answer is not properly connected to the 1st clause.
- We have ambiguity problem: this 2 parallel object in the list created with "and" could have several logical options:
* "The replacement of charcoal with coal for the fuel used in [the smelting] of iron ore and [several improvements in blowing machinery]"
* "The replacement of charcoal with [coal] for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and [several improvements in blowing machinery]"
* "[The replacement of charcoal] with coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and [several improvements in blowing machinery]"

X - [E]
- "being replaced" is not a verb
- this is the wrong use of "being"
- we have no verb for charcoal
- ambiguity problem: [several improvements] in blowing [machinery], which tripled the average output
* both the improvments and the machinery could have tripled the output.

Dear Alex,

Thank you for your interpretation. Here I have a question! Answer (C) - “With charcoal’s being replaced ” - charcoal 's being = charcoal was being orcharcoal 's being = charcoal has being =something of charcoal being? If it is "charcoal was being ", then the tense used in sentence is correct. HOWEVER, "with" should not follow a sentence. I am confused with abbreviation in this sentence, could you explain it for me?
Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average &nbs [#permalink] 25 Jan 2018, 20:31

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