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# Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average

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Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

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07 Sep 2006, 09:40
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Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.
A.Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.

B.Over the course of the eighteenth century a tripling in the average output of ironwork was due to the replacement of charcoal by coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, in addition to several improvements in blowing machinery.

C.With charcoal's being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery, the average output of ironwork tripled over the eighteenth century.

D.The replacement of charcoal with coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery, the average output of ironwork tripled over the eighteenth century.

E.Charcoal being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, and several improvements in blowing machinery, which tripled the average output of ironwork over the course of the eighteenth century.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by Nevernevergiveup on 22 Oct 2016, 07:28, edited 1 time in total.
edited the question and added the OA
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Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

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07 Sep 2006, 10:46
Swagatalakshmi wrote:
(B) is my answer

I think A is good.
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Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

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07 Sep 2006, 10:56
I think (B) too.The two causes must be combined into a single sentence.
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Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

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07 Sep 2006, 11:11
I go for A. B sounds artificial, "a tripling was due" is painfully unidiomatic.
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07 Sep 2006, 12:23
A.Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.

Clear A...

B : tripling??
C : being??
D : no connection between the two phrases...
E : being??
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Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

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07 Sep 2006, 12:30
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ps_dahiya wrote:
Swagatalakshmi wrote:
(B) is my answer

I think A is good.

I goofed up. I was trying to solve it under 1.5 minute ... looks like I'm not there yet

I diagramed the original sentence and found two perfectly joined adverbial clauses.
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Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

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28 Oct 2011, 02:25
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Send me emails if you want to discuss SC with me, and the address is in the signiture.

The basic idea of my argument for choosing A is that there is an semantical ambiguity about the verbial modifier 'over the century'

I think D, E are clearly grammatically unsound.

So A B & C are left.

Now, suppose they are all grammatically correct.

In the sentence B, the problem is we are not sure about the time when 'a tripling' occurs.

Let's consider the following sentence:
#1，Over the course of the last two decades, the disintegration of the Soviet Union continued effecting the international politics.

The disintegration of Soviet Union didn't last for 20 years. What incessantly existed in the last 20 years was the effect of its disintegration. 'Over the course of the last two decades' is an adverbial modifier, and it is modifying the whole sentence, not the subject.

Back to the choice B:
Its main structure is:
over the course of 18th century (advervial modifier) a tripling (subject) was due to...(predicative).
And the adverbial is modifying the whole sentence, not the subject. So we are not sure when the 'tripling' happened.
But the author clearly wanted to tell us that 'the output of iron outwork' were incassently growing over the whole 18th century, and it tripled as a result.

So B is ambiguous.

For C

There are two ambiguous points:

1. Sentence C fails to show the causal relationship between 'the output of iron' and 'those technique improvements'.
As we can inform, the author tried to tell us the improvements of certain techniques CAUSE the tripling of iron output.
But by using 'with', the sentence C fails to tell us the logic relationship between the 'improvements of techniques' and 'tripling of iron output'

For example:
#3 I passed the exam, with the pan borrowed from my roommate.
#4 I passed the exam, by using the pan borrowed from my roommate.
#5 I passed the exam, with very little preparation

In #3, there is no causal relationship between 'pass the exam' and 'pan borrowed from my roommate'. They are just coincident.
but by #4, I claim that there is some (magical) causal relationship between 'pass the exam' and 'using the pan...'
In #5, the preposition 'with' shows a little flavor of surprise: even though I had little preparation, I passed the exam. And here, no causal relationship at all.

Back to our question. By using 'with', Sentence C only shows the coincidence of those events (like the pan and to pass the exam), not their causal relationship which the author was dying to tell us.

2. the adverbial modifier in sentence C failed tell us when those techniques improvements happed.

As I mentioned above, the adverbial modifier is modifying the sentence. In sentence C, luckily, the adverbial 'over 18 century' is clearly modifying the sentence 'the output tripled', and this is what the author wanted to say.

But it is not modifying other adverbials, i.e. 'charcoal's being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery'. Therefore, we are still not sure about when these happened.

So C is out.

Choose A.

A's structure looked wierd, because the author intenionally put the three parts together without using a comma:
1 the output tripled...
2 as a result of the improvement of...
3 and because the coal replace...
Therefore the adverbial modifier 'over the cause of the 18th century' with a comma can modify these three simultaneously, and A clearly tells us that the tripling is a tripling over the 18th century, and that the improvement of blowing technique and the coal replacement both happened some times during the 18th century.

So although A looks very artificial, it clearly shows what the author wanted to tell us
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Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

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28 Oct 2011, 10:28
egoistwlv wrote:
Send me emails if you want to discuss SC with me, and the address is in the signiture.

The basic idea of my argument for choosing A is that there is an semantical ambiguity about the verbial modifier 'over the century'

I think D, E are clearly grammatically unsound.

So A B & C are left.

Now, suppose they are all grammatically correct.

In the sentence B, the problem is we are not sure about the time when 'a tripling' occurs.

Let's consider the following sentence:
#1，Over the course of the last two decades, the disintegration of the Soviet Union continued effecting the international politics.

The disintegration of Soviet Union didn't last for 20 years. What incessantly existed in the last 20 years was the effect of its disintegration. 'Over the course of the last two decades' is an adverbial modifier, and it is modifying the whole sentence, not the subject.

Back to the choice B:
Its main structure is:
over the course of 18th century (advervial modifier) a tripling (subject) was due to...(predicative).
And the adverbial is modifying the whole sentence, not the subject. So we are not sure when the 'tripling' happened.
But the author clearly wanted to tell us that 'the output of iron outwork' were incassently growing over the whole 18th century, and it tripled as a result.

So B is ambiguous.

For C

There are two ambiguous points:

1. Sentence C fails to show the causal relationship between 'the output of iron' and 'those technique improvements'.
As we can inform, the author tried to tell us the improvements of certain techniques CAUSE the tripling of iron output.
But by using 'with', the sentence C fails to tell us the logic relationship between the 'improvements of techniques' and 'tripling of iron output'

For example:
#3 I passed the exam, with the pan borrowed from my roommate.
#4 I passed the exam, by using the pan borrowed from my roommate.
#5 I passed the exam, with very little preparation

In #3, there is no causal relationship between 'pass the exam' and 'pan borrowed from my roommate'. They are just coincident.
but by #4, I claim that there is some (magical) causal relationship between 'pass the exam' and 'using the pan...'
In #5, the preposition 'with' shows a little flavor of surprise: even though I had little preparation, I passed the exam. And here, no causal relationship at all.

Back to our question. By using 'with', Sentence C only shows the coincidence of those events (like the pan and to pass the exam), not their causal relationship which the author was dying to tell us.

2. the adverbial modifier in sentence C failed tell us when those techniques improvements happed.

As I mentioned above, the adverbial modifier is modifying the sentence. In sentence C, luckily, the adverbial 'over 18 century' is clearly modifying the sentence 'the output tripled', and this is what the author wanted to say.

But it is not modifying other adverbials, i.e. 'charcoal's being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery'. Therefore, we are still not sure about when these happened.

So C is out.

Choose A.

A's structure looked wierd, because the author intenionally put the three parts together without using a comma:
1 the output tripled...
2 as a result of the improvement of...
3 and because the coal replace...
Therefore the adverbial modifier 'over the cause of the 18th century' with a comma can modify these three simultaneously, and A clearly tells us that the tripling is a tripling over the 18th century, and that the improvement of blowing technique and the coal replacement both happened some times during the 18th century.

So although A looks very artificial, it clearly shows what the author wanted to tell us

I go for A. Dont think anything is wrong with the original sentence.
Very thorough analysis Zeng. Good one.
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Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

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28 Oct 2011, 19:06
I vote for an A here. But A does not seem parallel. Can we have some expert advice on that?
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Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

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01 Nov 2011, 17:13
Can't decide b/w A and C, but in exam would choose C. Because A is not parallel, as a result...and because
where as C lack cause effect but uses but is parallel.
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Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

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Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

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10 Jul 2016, 01:02
jerrywu wrote:
Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.
A.Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.

B.Over the course of the eighteenth century a tripling in the average output of ironwork was due to the replacement of charcoal by coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, in addition to several improvements in blowing machinery.

C.With charcoalâ€™s being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery, the average output of ironwork tripled over the eighteenth century.

D.The replacement of charcoal with coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery, the average output of ironwork tripled over the eighteenth century.

E.Charcoal being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, and several improvements in blowing machinery, which tripled the average output of ironwork over the course of the eighteenth century.

I got this question while attempting the exam pack 2 mock.
My understanding for the question was
Over the course of the eighteenth century,
the average output of ironwork tripled because of two reasons.
1. several improvements in blowing machinery
2. because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore

In error analysis, I deduced error in parallelism.
the first entity in the list is a noun phrase and second is a clause.
For option B usage of 'due to' is wrong as it is presenting action and also distorts the meaning.
Option C both the entities in the list are phrases but usage of being is incorrect.
Option D: the meaning is lost and there is no main verb.
Option E: No main verb

The correct ans is A. While attempting this ques, I thought that coal is not performing the action of replacing so replaced cannot be the verb. If the sentence were 'because coal was replaced by charcoal', then it would be a clause. I was really confused here and finally ended up marking incorrect option. Acc to my understanding correct ans should be:
Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and replacement of charcoal by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.

Any inputs will be much appreciated.
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Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

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24 Jul 2016, 10:20
In option A, are as a result of / and because Parallel?? There is nothing wrong to use it like that?

Wouldn't it be better to say it like this: "as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and the replacement of charcoal...."??
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Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

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26 Jul 2016, 18:31
jerrywu wrote:
Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.
A.Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.

B.Over the course of the eighteenth century a tripling in the average output of ironwork was due to the replacement of charcoal by coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, in addition to several improvements in blowing machinery.

C.With charcoalâ€™s being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery, the average output of ironwork tripled over the eighteenth century.

D.The replacement of charcoal with coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery, the average output of ironwork tripled over the eighteenth century.

E.Charcoal being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, and several improvements in blowing machinery, which tripled the average output of ironwork over the course of the eighteenth century.

Meaning: Over the course of 18th century average output tripled as a result of several improvements and coal replacing charcoal
Option A is correct as it
Option B: the usage of "due to" is wrong
Option C: Usage of being is incorrect.
Option D: we need a connector between the two sentences. They cannot be joined with a comma
Option E: There is no verb in this sentence.

Correct Option: A
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Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

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04 Oct 2016, 06:04
jerrywu wrote:
Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.

A.Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.

B.Over the course of the eighteenth century a tripling in the average output of ironwork was due to the replacement of charcoal by coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, in addition to several improvements in blowing machinery.

C.With charcoalâ€™s being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery, the average output of ironwork tripled over the eighteenth century.

D.The replacement of charcoal with coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery, the average output of ironwork tripled over the eighteenth century.

E.Charcoal being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, and several improvements in blowing machinery, which tripled the average output of ironwork over the course of the eighteenth century.

[V] - A
- The trick in A is understanding that we have - logically- 2 reasons. Now it is true that the gmat prefers 2 elements that are structurly as well as logically the same, but in this case we cannot structure the 2 elements the same, simply becuase one is a result and the other is a reason.

[X] - B
- "a tripling" is weired, and even weireder is " a tripling was due"
- Logically we lose the focus of the sentence: in the original sentence the focus (subject) was the avg. output, in this sentence the focus (subject) is the "tripling". so this is a change in the meaning.
- "in addition" is not a parallelism marker so we have no proper parallelism.

[X] - C
- with is a prepositional . it can modify a noun entity or a verb. Notice that in this case, we lose the logical meaning of a "the reasons for the avg. increasing". this is a major change of meaning.
- the use of "Being" is incorrect, sience we are talking about a time in the past.

[Correct Usage 1]

When Being is used as a noun.
For example: Being disrespectful to elders is not an acceptable behavior.
Notice the subject here – being disrespectful to her elders

[Correct Usage 2]

When passive continuous verb tense is required to communicate the meaning.
For example:The residents of this 100-year old apartment complex are being evacuated because of structural instability of the building.
Notice the verb tense here – are being evacuated – present continuous written in passive voice.

X - [D]
- The 1st phrase in this optional answer is not properly connected to the 1st clause.
- We have ambiguity problem: this 2 parallel object in the list created with "and" could have several logical options:
* "The replacement of charcoal with coal for the fuel used in [the smelting] of iron ore and [several improvements in blowing machinery]"
* "The replacement of charcoal with [coal] for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and [several improvements in blowing machinery]"
* "[The replacement of charcoal] with coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and [several improvements in blowing machinery]"

X - [E]
- "being replaced" is not a verb
- this is the wrong use of "being"
- we have no verb for charcoal
- ambiguity problem: [several improvements] in blowing [machinery], which tripled the average output
* both the improvments and the machinery could have tripled the output.

Last edited by AlexGenkins1234 on 24 Oct 2016, 10:13, edited 1 time in total.
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Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

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22 Oct 2016, 08:10
jerrywu wrote:
Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.
A.Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.

B.Over the course of the eighteenth century a tripling in the average output of ironwork was due to the replacement of charcoal by coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, in addition to several improvements in blowing machinery.

C.With charcoal's being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery, the average output of ironwork tripled over the eighteenth century.

D.The replacement of charcoal with coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery,the average output of ironwork tripled over the eighteenth century.

E.Charcoal being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, and several improvements in blowing machinery, which tripled the average output of ironwork over the course of the eighteenth century.

I find option A still weird as it uses both because and as a result of in a sentence and that too in parallel parts of it.
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Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

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26 Oct 2016, 20:30
Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.
Original question shows 2 reasons that make the average output of ironwork triple.
1. Improvements in blowing machinery
2. Replacement of coal.
A.Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average output of ironwork tripled as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery and because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore.
Tricky in this question is that it seems nonparallel. Actually, ‘as a result of several improvements in blowing machinery’ and ‘because coal replaced charcoal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore’. Are 2 adverbs which modify tripled. Same function, so parallel.

B.Over the course of the eighteenth century a tripling in the average output of ironwork was due to the replacement of charcoal by coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, in addition to several improvements in blowing machinery.
This choice change intended meaning.
From original question, ‘over the course of the eighteenth century’ modifies tripled.
In choice b, ‘over the course of eighteenth century’ modifies was. It means that the average output of ironwork was over the course of the eighteenth century due to…. It doesn’t make any sense.
Analogy:
Over 10 years, the average productivity of workers tripled as a result of technology investment..
Over 10 years, the tripling in average productivity of workers was over 1o years due to technology investment (suggest that now, the tripling can be a result of other factors. ..

C.With charcoal's being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery, the average output of ironwork tripled over the eighteenth century.
This choice is not parallel. Written this way, charcoal parallels with improvement. It wrongs. Improvement should parallel with replacement.

D.The replacement of charcoal with coal for the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore and several improvements in blowing machinery, the average output of ironwork tripled over the eighteenth century.
This choice does not show cause-effect relationship of original question.

E.Charcoal being replaced by coal as the fuel used in the smelting of iron ore, and several improvements in blowing machinery, which tripled the average output of ironwork over the course of the eighteenth century.
This choice contains many mistakes.
1. Do not have main verb.
2. Which illogically modifies machinery
3. Unparallel: charcoal and improvement.
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Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average [#permalink]

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06 Nov 2016, 18:12
I did not chose A because I thought there was no verb in the main clause - "the average output of ironwork tripled." Isn't it supposed to be like the average output of ironwork was tripled to have verb? Can someone please explain what I'm missing?
Re: Over the course of the eighteenth century, the average   [#permalink] 06 Nov 2016, 18:12
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