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Over the last century, paleontologists have used small [#permalink]
20 Oct 2005, 13:15
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15. Over the last century, paleontologists have used small differences between fossil specimens to classify triceratops into sixteen species. This classification is unjustified, however, since the specimens used to distinguish eleven of the species come from animals that lived in the same area at the same time.
Which of the following, if true, would enable the conclusion of the argument to be properly drawn?
(A) Not every species that lived in a given area is preserved as a fossil.
(B) At least one individual of every true species of triceratops has been discovered as a fossil specimen.
(C) No geographical area ever supports more than three similar species at the same time.
(D) In many species, individuals display quite marked variation.
(E) Differences between fossil specimens of triceratops that came from the same area are no less distinctive than differences between specimens that came from different areas.
Walter: A copy of an artwork should be worth exactly what the original is worth if the two works are visually indistinguishable. After all, if the two works are visually indistinguishable, they have all the same qualities, and if they have all the same qualities, their prices should be equal.
Marissa: How little you understand art! Even if someone could make a perfect copy that is visually indistinguishable from the original, the copy would have a different history and hence not have all the same qualities as the original.
8. Which of the following is a point at issue between Walter and Marissa?
(A) Whether a copy of an artwork could ever be visually indistinguishable from the original
(B) Whether the reproduction of a work of art is ever worth more than the original is worth
(C) Whether a copy of a work of art is ever mistaken for the original
(D) Whether a copy of a work of art could have all the same qualities as the original
(E) Whether originality is the only valuable attribute that a work of art can possess
9. Marissa uses which of the following techniques in attempting to refute Walterâ€™s argument?
(A) Attacking his assumption that the price of an artwork indicates its worth
(B) Raising a point that would undermine one of the claims on which his conclusion is based
(C) Questioning his claim that a perfect copy of a work of art would be visually indistinguishable from the original
(D) Giving reason to believe that Walter is unable to judge the quality of a work of art because of his inadequate understanding of the history of art
(E) Proposing alternative criteria for determining whether two works of art are visually indistinguishable
if no geographical area ever supports more than 3 similar species at the same time, then classification based on 11 similar species from the same geographical area can not be justified.
they both are talking about qualities of two forms of art. walter pledgs that if two art form are visually indistinguishable, they have the same value where as marissa says they donot have equal values.
merrissa raised the question about the qualities of the copy art even if the two forms of the arts are indishinguishable. so she raised question on walter's assumption that if two forms of art are indishingushable.
8. D is the best choice. Walter argues all artwork, copy and original possess the same qualities, while Marissa countered by saying copies do not have all the same qualities as the originals.
9. Choie B is best. Marissa claism that originals an extra bit of quality in their history. This counters Walter's claim that the copies and originals share the same qulities and so (conclusion) they should be equally priced.
E is wong because it makes a faulty comparison not supported in the passage. Although C uses extreme language, it logically supports the conclusion. Normally, we are taught to eliminate such answer choices, but here it states a potential fact, or rather, states a scientific explanation as to why the classification is unjustified.