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# Over the last century, paleontologists have used small

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Re: Over the last century, paleontologists have used small  [#permalink]

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07 Jul 2014, 02:58
tejal777 wrote:
What is the reson for eliminating *(D)?

The conclusion in the argument is the fact that researchers have taken 11 species from the same place to say that they all belong to different categories sort is unjustified".

Why is it unjustified ?

Kinda do a lil bit of pre-thinking :
1. Could be that the eleven distinguished fossils may belong to the same category sort but had their fossils altered due to some other factors (or)
2. U cant find all 11 at the same spot

C. says u cant find more than 3 at the same geo location. From pre-thought answer 2 we could say that right answer is C.

As per D it says : in many species , individuals have quite marked variations.

* Talks about species in general
* Even if you assume species to be ticeratops (which u r nt meant to assume) it does not help in saying why the conclusion is unjustified. If D is taken as true then
the conclusion should have been otherwise.

Hope this helps. Please correct me if I am wrong
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Re: Over the last century, paleontologists have used small  [#permalink]

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20 Oct 2014, 22:29
Was stuck for an eternity between C and D.Finally marked the correct answer!
D does not help to conclude the argument.The argument specifically mentions that, it is the fact that the fossils come from the same area is the reason for the problem.So we need to support only this "Area thing",not any other justification.Although D does provide a justification but it does not specifically attack the "Area" part of the problem.
Hope I'm able to explain it correctly.
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Re: Over the last century, paleontologists have used small  [#permalink]

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14 May 2015, 05:47
Jivana wrote:
Over the last century, paleontologists have used small differences between fossil specimens to classify triceratops into sixteen species. This classification is unjustified, however, since the specimens used to distinguish eleven of the species come from animals that lived in the same area at the same time.

Which of the following, if true, would enable the conclusion of the argument to be properly drawn?

(A) Not every species that lived in a given area is preserved as a fossil.
(B) At least one individual of every true species of triceratops has been discovered as a fossil specimen.
(C) No geographical area ever supports more than three similar species at the same time.
(D) In many species, individuals display quite marked variation.
(E) Differences between fossil specimens of triceratops that came from the same area are no less distinctive than differences between specimens that came from different areas.

I choose But it is not the OA.

C EXPLAINS WHY CLASSIFICATION IS NOT JUSTIFIED IN TERMS OF AREA
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15 May 2015, 08:59
E actually weakens the conclusion that "the claim is unjustified"..it actually supports the first premise of the argument

you can eliminate A,B

D-irrelavent as per argument.

Only C answers that not more than 3 species come from same land.

Sometimes some easy answer choices also leave us in doubt and we suspect it:) thats the beauty of gmat

IMO-C
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Re: Over the last century, paleontologists have used small  [#permalink]

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18 Jun 2015, 22:31
hocnhan wrote:
Jivana wrote:
Over the last century, paleontologists have used small differences between fossil specimens to classify triceratops into sixteen species. This classification is unjustified, however, since the specimens used to distinguish eleven of the species come from animals that lived in the same area at the same time.

Which of the following, if true, would enable the conclusion of the argument to be properly drawn?

(A) Not every species that lived in a given area is preserved as a fossil.
(B) At least one individual of every true species of triceratops has been discovered as a fossil specimen.
(C) No geographical area ever supports more than three similar species at the same time.
(D) In many species, individuals display quite marked variation.

(E) Differences between fossil specimens of triceratops that came from the same area are no less distinctive than differences between specimens that came from different areas.

Chose E, OA is C

The conclusion of the argument is "This classification is unjustified". Therefore, E is wrong because E weakens the conclusion.

GMATPill

Could you please provide your reasoning for C and E. Also Which framework we will apply here.
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Re: Over the last century, paleontologists have used small  [#permalink]

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25 Jul 2015, 23:09
Conclusion:The classification is unjustified
Premise:the specimens used to distinguish eleven of the species come from animals that lived in the same area at the same time.
The argument assumes that in same area at same time 11 species being present is not justified.We need to find the answer that talk about number of species in a particular area at same time.

A,B and D are not relevant.
E actually weakens the argument.
C is the answer as it talk about only 3 species can be present in same area at same time.
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Re: Over the last century, paleontologists have used small  [#permalink]

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02 Jun 2016, 08:40
Over the last century, paleontologists have used small differences between fossil specimens to classify triceratops into sixteen species. This classification is unjustified, however, since the specimens used to distinguish eleven of the species come from animals that lived in the same area at the same time.

Which of the following, if true, would enable the conclusion of the argument to be properly drawn?

EVIDENCE :- THE SAME ARE AND SAME TIME ANIMALS ARE USED AS SPECIMEN

CONCLUSION :- HENCE THE CLASSIFICATION IS WRONG

ASSUMPTION :- THE SAME ARE @ SAME TIME CANNOT BE THE SOLE REASON FOR CLASSIFICATION

(A) Not every species that lived in a given area is preserved as a fossil. :- IRRELEVANT
(B) At least one individual of every true species of triceratops has been discovered as a fossil specimen. :- IRRELEVANT
(C) No geographical area ever supports more than three similar species at the same time.:- WELL THATS I GUESS HAS TO BE TRUE AND ACTUALLY SUPPORTS THE ASSUMPTION
(D) In many species, individuals display quite marked variation.OKAY BUT IRRELEVANT OR RATHER 180
(E) Differences between fossil specimens of triceratops that came from the same area are no less distinctive than differences between specimens that came from different areas. THAT IS COMPLETE 180
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Re: Over the last century, paleontologists have used small  [#permalink]

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29 Aug 2016, 09:18
CR is creating a lot of Problem in my life..I have even buy the e-gmat whole course and revise the same five times..

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Re: Over the last century, paleontologists have used small  [#permalink]

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29 Aug 2016, 09:22
What is pre Thinking.
I not able to pre think a single Question

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Re: Over the last century, paleontologists have used small  [#permalink]

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07 Jul 2017, 08:56
Merged topics. Please, search before posting questions!
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Re: Over the last century, paleontologists have used small  [#permalink]

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08 Jul 2017, 02:18
[quote="Jivana"]Over the last century, paleontologists have used small differences between fossil specimens to classify triceratops into sixteen species. This classification is unjustified, however, since the specimens used to distinguish eleven of the species come from animals that lived in the same area at the same time.

Which of the following, if true, would enable the conclusion of the argument to be properly drawn?

(A) Not every species that lived in a given area is preserved as a fossil.
(B) At least one individual of every true species of triceratops has been discovered as a fossil specimen.
(C) No geographical area ever supports more than three similar species at the same time.
(D) In many species, individuals display quite marked variation.
(E) Differences between fossil specimens of triceratops that came from the same area are no less distinctive than differences between specimens that came from different areas.

Premise 1: Over the last century, paleontologists have used small differences between fossil specimens to classify triceratops into sixteen species
Premise 2:This classification is unjustified, however, since the specimens used to distinguish eleven of the species come from animals that lived in the same area at the same time

The valid conclusion is C
C fills the logical gap between the conclusion that the classification is false .
If we try to negate C the argument falls and the conclusion becomes invalid .

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Re: Over the last century, paleontologists have used small  [#permalink]

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24 Apr 2018, 08:45
Premise: paleontologists made 16 classification while opponents said that it should be classified in 11 species.

Conclusion: classification is unjustified.
Which of the following, if true, would enable the conclusion of the argument to be properly drawn?

(A) Not every species that lived in a given area is preserved as a fossil. ---- means there were more then 11 species, now problem is bigger.
(B) At least one individual of every true species of triceratops has been discovered as a fossil specimen. --- irrelevant
(C) No geographical area ever supports more than three similar species at the same time. --- means every area has only 3 species. in other words those 16 species classification is baseless. as those fossil are from only 3 species. conclusion is solidified.
(D) In many species, individuals display quite marked variation. ---- irrelevant
(E) Differences between fossil specimens of triceratops that came from the same area are no less distinctive than differences between specimens that came from different areas. ---- irrelevant
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28 Apr 2018, 22:50
+1 for option C. The question asks for the assumption.

The conclusion is - This classification is unjustified.
Why is the conclusion made ? - The specimens used to distinguish eleven of the species come from animals that lived in the same area at the same time.

Ask yourself - What if in a geographical area you find several different species ? Would the conclusion be valid ?

C it is !
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Re: Over the last century, paleontologists have used small  [#permalink]

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31 Oct 2018, 17:37
Bunuel,

Something that enables the conclusion of the argument to be properly drawn can be an assumption which is unstated truth for the argument to hold.

So should this question be "assumption question Type"

Probus
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31 Oct 2018, 17:46
1
Probus - Notice the words 'if true', this usually present in strengthen and weakening questions. It means that given situation/option can be an imaginary, However absurd you have to consider it true, look for its impact on given situation and decide. on the other hand assumption can not be among such cases. it is just a hidden premise. 'if true' cant be in assumption question. Hope it clarifies.
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Simple strategy:
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08 Sep 2019, 19:51
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Re: Over the last century, paleontologists have used small  [#permalink]

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08 Sep 2019, 22:13
Jivana wrote:
Over the last century, paleontologists have used small differences between fossil specimens to classify triceratops into sixteen species. This classification is unjustified, however, since the specimens used to distinguish eleven of the species come from animals that lived in the same area at the same time.

Which of the following, if true, would enable the conclusion of the argument to be properly drawn?

(A) Not every species that lived in a given area is preserved as a fossil.
(B) At least one individual of every true species of triceratops has been discovered as a fossil specimen.
(C) No geographical area ever supports more than three similar species at the same time.
(D) In many species, individuals display quite marked variation.
(E) Differences between fossil specimens of triceratops that came from the same area are no less distinctive than differences between specimens that came from different areas.

Paleontologists have used small differences between fossil specimens to classify triceratops into sixteen species.
The specimens used to distinguish eleven of the species come from animals that lived in the same area at the same time.

Conclusion: This classification is unjustified.

The conclusion is drawn based on the observation that 11 of the species come from animals living in the same area at the same time. This seems to indicate that the classification is unjustified. It seems that 11 is too many species from the same area at the same time though the argument doesn't state it explicitly.

Which of the following will help conclusion be properly drawn i.e. which of the following will justify the conclusion?

(A) Not every species that lived in a given area is preserved as a fossil.

Doesn't help our conclusion. Doesn't say why our current classification is not justified.

(B) At least one individual of every true species of triceratops has been discovered as a fossil specimen.

Again, doesn't tell us that our current classification is not justified.

(C) No geographical area ever supports more than three similar species at the same time.

Correct. We found 11 species in the same area at the same time. But no area supports more than 3 at the same time. So our classification is not justified,

(D) In many species, individuals display quite marked variation.

Our species are quite similar. Many species are quite dissimilar. This doesn't mean our classification is wrong. It doesn't say that the animals belong to different species only if they are quite dissimilar.

(E) Differences between fossil specimens of triceratops that came from the same area are no less distinctive than differences between specimens that came from different areas.

If anything, it helps to say that our classification is justified. Specimens of different species are quite distinctive.

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Re: Over the last century, paleontologists have used small   [#permalink] 08 Sep 2019, 22:13

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