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# Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait

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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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24 Jan 2015, 21:23
1
sondenso wrote:
43. Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

A due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are
B due to the reproduction or survival they enhance, but they are
C because they enhance reproduction or survival, but
D because they enhance reproduction or survival, but are
E because of enhancing reproduction or survival, but are

A - Can't use "due to" in this construction. To test "due to" in a sentence, replace it with "caused by" and see if it still makes sense. "Favored caused by"? No good.
B - Same as A
C - Without including "are", the role of "but simply random by-products..." becomes ambiguous. Does it connect with "are not" or does it modify the "favored because.." clause.
D - Correct
E - "Because of enhancing" is an incorrect idiom.

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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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18 Aug 2015, 19:09
Doesn't ,but construction should introduce a new independent clause ??

In D : because they enhance reproduction or survival, but areI do not see any subject post , but construction.

Thanks
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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21 Aug 2015, 12:43
Can someone explain the problem with D please?
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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18 Sep 2015, 20:40
Can any experts explain why D is a better choice than C ?

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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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17 Apr 2016, 08:09

A) and B) are out - due to - wrong usage.
C and E are out Not the X but are Y idiom.

Correct D.
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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07 Sep 2016, 22:15
[quote="tejal777"]Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

(A) due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are

(B) due to the reproduction or survival they enhance, but they are

(C) because they enhance reproduction or survival, but

(D) because they enhance reproduction or survival, but are

(E) because of enhancing reproduction or survival, but are

OA
:D

Please explain why C is incorrect.

Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits ARE not X, but ARE Y. Without the are in C, the two parts of the sentence are not \\ IMO.
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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04 Jun 2017, 07:01
Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

A due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are
B due to the reproduction or survival they enhance, but they are
C because they enhance reproduction or survival, but
D because they enhance reproduction or survival, but are
E because of enhancing reproduction or survival, but are
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2017, 06:30
egmat wrote:
tsheshraj wrote:
43. Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

A due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are
B due to the reproduction or survival they enhance, but they are
C because they enhance reproduction or survival, but
D because they enhance reproduction or survival, but are
E because of enhancing reproduction or survival, but are

hi all, i used the POE technique to eliminate (due to vs Because of) the wrong answers and was left with C & D as the choices for the following questions. I eliminated D because of the expression are not X, but are Y and selected C which has Not X, But Y construction. The OA seems to be D. Can you help pls?

Choice D is correct and choice C is incorrect primarily because meaning is more clear with Choice D. Remember the correct answer should be grammatically correct and it should communicate the meaning without any ambiguity. Essentially as you speak or write the sentence, the listener or the reader should not think - what did you just say or what did I just read.

I will only bring out the relevant portions of this sentence as they pertain to the meaning of Choices C and D.

Choice C
SJG said that bio traits are not the products of natural selection, favored because they enhance reproduction or survival, but simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.
When I read this sentence, I am a little confused whether the red part is an extension of "reproduction or survival" or the contrast for "products of natural selection". Yes logically I know it should be the latter but the way this choice is written as I go with the flow of the sentence, I may consider this part to be the extension of "reproduction or survival".

This problem is solved with Choice D. Here by repeating the verb - are - now the author clarifies that "the modifier is over" and now we are back to the contrast. i.e.
Biol traits are not the products of natural selection but are the by products of evolutionary development.

So yes from pure grammar standpoint choice C has the right parallel list but it fails to communicate the meaning clearly. Choice D on the other hand by adding "are" emphasizes on the important aspect of meaning as intended by choice A.

Hope this helps.
Regards,
Payal

Could you please be more clear on when to use Not x but y and Not + x but + verb + y ?
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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26 Aug 2017, 02:56
1
sumanainampudi wrote:
egmat wrote:
tsheshraj wrote:
43. Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

A due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are
B due to the reproduction or survival they enhance, but they are
C because they enhance reproduction or survival, but
D because they enhance reproduction or survival, but are
E because of enhancing reproduction or survival, but are

hi all, i used the POE technique to eliminate (due to vs Because of) the wrong answers and was left with C & D as the choices for the following questions. I eliminated D because of the expression are not X, but are Y and selected C which has Not X, But Y construction. The OA seems to be D. Can you help pls?

Choice D is correct and choice C is incorrect primarily because meaning is more clear with Choice D. Remember the correct answer should be grammatically correct and it should communicate the meaning without any ambiguity. Essentially as you speak or write the sentence, the listener or the reader should not think - what did you just say or what did I just read.

I will only bring out the relevant portions of this sentence as they pertain to the meaning of Choices C and D.

Choice C
SJG said that bio traits are not the products of natural selection, favored because they enhance reproduction or survival, but simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.
When I read this sentence, I am a little confused whether the red part is an extension of "reproduction or survival" or the contrast for "products of natural selection". Yes logically I know it should be the latter but the way this choice is written as I go with the flow of the sentence, I may consider this part to be the extension of "reproduction or survival".

This problem is solved with Choice D. Here by repeating the verb - are - now the author clarifies that "the modifier is over" and now we are back to the contrast. i.e.
Biol traits are not the products of natural selection but are the by products of evolutionary development.

So yes from pure grammar standpoint choice C has the right parallel list but it fails to communicate the meaning clearly. Choice D on the other hand by adding "are" emphasizes on the important aspect of meaning as intended by choice A.

Hope this helps.
Regards,
Payal

Could you please be more clear on when to use Not x but y and Not + x but + verb + y ?

background:
structure 1: "not X but Y"
this construction signifies that "X" is expected, normal, or customary in the given situation but that "Y" is what is actually present / has happened / will happen.
for instance:
Restaurant X's "hamburgers" are made not of actual hamburger but of turkey.

structure 2: "X but Y"
this construction signifies some sort of general contrast between X and Y, but lacks the semantic sense that Y is a substitute for X.
for instance:
i am not a doctor but can fix your broken finger.

so, the correct answer to this problem can be understood as a case of structure #2 -- note my example above ("i am not a doctor but can fix your broken finger"), which will also appear incorrect if you try to process it as structure #1.

background:
structure 1: "not X but Y"
this construction signifies that "X" is expected, normal, or customary in the given situation but that "Y" is what is actually present / has happened / will happen.
for instance:
Restaurant X's "hamburgers" are made not of actual hamburger but of turkey.

structure 2: "X but Y"
this construction signifies some sort of general contrast between X and Y, but lacks the semantic sense that Y is a substitute for X.
for instance:
i am not a doctor but can fix your broken finger.

so, the correct answer to this problem can be understood as a case of structure #2 -- note my example above ("i am not a doctor but can fix your broken finger"), which will also appear incorrect if you try to process it as structure #1.
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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17 Oct 2017, 20:48
I thought C is correct via the "in-out" principle? So, "ARE not x, but (ARE) Y", so in D it would go "ARE ARE" if that makes sense?

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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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30 Oct 2017, 23:20
1
You can read the structure two ways:

1) are NOT x BUT y
2) are not x BUT are y

In other words, we can see the parallel markers as "NOT/BUT," or we can see a single parallel marker: "BUT." The interpretation the GMAT is going with on this one is 2. It's really a matter of emphasis: I am not this but I AM that. As my colleague Kyle points out above, the use of "are" in this case helps us to interpret the overall meaning more clearly. It's very common (both on the GMAT and in "real" writing) to use seemingly unneeded structuring words or punctuation to make the meaning clear.
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Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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22 Aug 2018, 17:18
Due to is a noun modifier.
Hence " natural selection (is) favored because of enhancement..." is correct, rather than " natural selection (is) favored due to.."
The correct use of 'due to' in this sentence would be ' The favor was due to..'

Second issue is of parallelism. We need 'are' as in option D to remove ambiguity.
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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22 Aug 2018, 20:11
kinjiGC wrote:
Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

As per the meaning of the sentence:
SJG argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection but they are simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.
Products of Natural selection are favored due to their enhancement and reproduction or survival.
As per the sentence favored is a Verb+ed Modifier or past participle modifier

Why not "Due to" or "because of"
Now as we know "Products" cannot do favoring so the action is performed on "products", so "favored" is a verb+ed modifier.

Any verb+ed Modifier can be written as a clause.
For example:
kept at the corner of the room, the rock was glittering.

Obviously rock cannot do the action of keeping so kept is a verb+ed modifier modifying the noun -> Rock.
So we can also write The rock that was kept at the corner of the room was glittering. So this modifier can be written as a clause.

And we know
1) Due to" modifies a noun or noun phrase and followed by a noun or noun phrase.
For example:
Delay in the match was due to heavy rain
here "Delay" (a noun or noun phrase) is modified by Due to and Due to takes "Heavy rain" (noun or noun phrase).

2) Because of modifies a noun or noun phrase and followed by a clause.
For example:
Match was delayed because of heavy rain.
So "Match was delayed" is a complete clause and it is modified by "because of" and because of takes "heavy rain" (noun or noun phrase)..

So we need a "because" or "because of" as verb+ed modifier can be expressed as a clause.

(A) due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are
Two issues:
1) Due to is wrong as it cannot modify any clause.
2) "they are" is repeated and is not required. "They" refers to "biological traits"

(B) due to the reproduction or survival they enhance, but they are
Same issues as above

(E) because of enhancing reproduction or survival, but are
Though the structure is correct bit not sure who is enhancing the "reproduction or survival"

Now lets check the below options:

Let me demonstrate the problem with Option C)

Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored because they enhance reproduction or survival, but simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

There can be two interpretations:
1) Interpretation 1:
Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection,
[favored because they enhance reproduction or survival,
but
(because they) simply (enhance) random by-products of other evolutionary developments]

A little bit illogical but yes, does conveys some meaning.

2) Interpretation 2:
Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are
not
the products of natural selection,(favored because they enhance reproduction or survival),
but
simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

This interpretation makes a lot of sense. So to remove the ambiguity we need repeat the "are" so that reader shouldn't get the 1st illogical meaning at all. And that's the reason why D) wins.

(D) because they enhance reproduction or survival, but are - Correct

Nice explanation. Thank you for the post
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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23 Aug 2018, 01:55
sondenso wrote:
Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

(A) due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are
(B) due to the reproduction or survival they enhance, but they are
(C) because they enhance reproduction or survival, but
(D) because they enhance reproduction or survival, but are
(E) because of enhancing reproduction or survival, but are

I dont know wheather i am correct, but pls, read the following and be satisfied with explanation of choice C

"simply" can not logically modifies 'random" , so, "simply" is adverb
so, choice C is not parallel
are not the products... but SIMPLY random by-product
the word "simple" make C not parallel.
what grammatically parallel with "the product " is "simply", an adverb.

am I correct?
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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26 Aug 2018, 04:35
I choose C over D

Rule: not X, but Y. So the sentence should be: ARE not X, but Y ( are being common to X and Y) - as in answer option C

However, OA -D, Changes it to ARE not X, but ARE Y.

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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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27 Aug 2018, 23:23
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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28 Aug 2018, 04:25
Tanvi94 wrote:
I choose C over D

Rule: not X, but Y. So the sentence should be: ARE not X, but Y ( are being common to X and Y) - as in answer option C

However, OA -D, Changes it to ARE not X, but ARE Y.

Hi,
What you have mentioned is correct, but We need ARE here to remove ambiguity.
Use of ARE ensures that '..Random by-products of...' is parallel with 'the products of natural selections', rather than with 'reproduction or survival'

I hope that helps
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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28 Aug 2018, 04:30
Prateek176 wrote:
anairamitch1804

In answer choice E, it is not clear who is enhancing reproduction or survival. There is another choice available that removes this ambiguity, conveys the meaning correctly and is error-free.

I hope that helps
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait &nbs [#permalink] 28 Aug 2018, 04:30

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