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# Paleontologists believe that fragments of a primate jawbone

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Director
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Re: Paleontologists believe that fragments of a primate jawbone [#permalink]

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13 Aug 2013, 20:58
1
KUDOS
SRG13 wrote:
D it is.

Guys, Does estimate as have a correct usage ?

I just see estimate to be in Manhattan , so just checking.

NO.

CORRECT USAGE:

ESTIMATED ...THAT

ESTIMATE X ..TO BE Y.

HOPE IT HELPS.
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Re: Paleontologists believe that fragments of a primate jawbone [#permalink]

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13 Aug 2013, 21:01
blueseas wrote:
SRG13 wrote:
D it is.

Guys, Does estimate as have a correct usage ?

I just see estimate to be in Manhattan , so just checking.

NO.

CORRECT USAGE:

ESTIMATED ...THAT

ESTIMATE X ..TO BE Y.

HOPE IT HELPS.

It does. Thanks mate.

+1 Kudos to you.
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Re: Paleontologists believe that fragments of a primate jawbone [#permalink]

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26 Dec 2013, 11:11
SRG13 wrote:
D it is.

Guys, Does estimate as have a correct usage ?

I just see estimate to be in Manhattan , so just checking.

Most likely not. Stick to the ones mentioned above.

You can also reference a video explanation provided here:

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Re: Paleontologists believe that fragments of a primate jawbone [#permalink]

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27 Dec 2013, 01:43
SRG13 wrote:
D it is.

Guys, Does estimate as have a correct usage ?

I just see estimate to be in Manhattan , so just checking.

As a verb, estimate/estimated should be followed by "to be"
As a noun, estimate can be followed by as.

Germany cut short its wine production estimate as output of white grapes declined.
--> 'as' here shows a cause-effect relationship; note that estimate here is used as a noun, not a verb.
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What are modifiers ??

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Re: Paleontologists believe that fragments of a primate jawbone [#permalink]

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26 Feb 2014, 04:17
GMATPill wrote:
"fragments" is plural so the only possible options are (A) and (D).

"estimated at" vs "estimated to be" - "estimated to be" is better. Choose (D).
So yes, for this example, you need to know this idiom..

Would you please explain how to use "estimated at" and "estimated to be" correctly, I'm confused. Thanks in advance.
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Re: Paleontologists believe that fragments of a primate jawbone [#permalink]

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14 Mar 2014, 23:45
sher676 wrote:
Paleontologists believe that fragments of a primate jawbone unearthed in Burma and estimated at 40 to 44 million years old provide evidence of a crucial step along the evolutionary path that led to human beings.
(A) at 40 to 44 million years old provide evidence of
(B) as being 40 to 44 million years old provides evidence of
(C) that it is 40 to 44 million years old provides evidence of what was
(D) to be 40 to 44 million years old provide evidence of
(E) as 40 to 44 million years old provides evidence of what was

In this question how two verbs(estimated and provide) are present without any conjunction?

I guess estimated & unearthed are verb-ed modifier here .
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Re: Paleontologists believe that fragments of a primate jawbone [#permalink]

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15 Mar 2014, 10:43
abid1986 wrote:
sher676 wrote:
Paleontologists believe that fragments of a primate jawbone unearthed in Burma and estimated at 40 to 44 million years old provide evidence of a crucial step along the evolutionary path that led to human beings.
(A) at 40 to 44 million years old provide evidence of
(B) as being 40 to 44 million years old provides evidence of
(C) that it is 40 to 44 million years old provides evidence of what was
(D) to be 40 to 44 million years old provide evidence of
(E) as 40 to 44 million years old provides evidence of what was

In this question how two verbs(estimated and provide) are present without any conjunction?

I guess estimated & unearthed are verb-ed modifier here .

Dear Abid,

I think you've already answered your own question! "Unearthed" and "estimated" are modifiers, so "estimated" is not parallel to "provide", and no conjunction is needed. One way to be sure of this is to remove the modifiers and see whether the subject and verb still make sense:

Paleontologists believe that fragments of a primate jawbone provide evidence of a crucial step along the evolutionary path that led to human beings.

"Fragments... provide" makes perfect sense.

Regards,
Meghna
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Re: Paleontologists believe that fragments of a primate jawbone [#permalink]

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16 Mar 2014, 17:00
10 Seconds.. .Was it that easy or Am I improving finally..
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Appreciate the efforts...KUDOS for all
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Re: Paleontologists believe that fragments of a primate jawbone [#permalink]

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05 Apr 2015, 12:30
egmat wrote:
abid1986 wrote:
sher676 wrote:
Paleontologists believe that fragments of a primate jawbone unearthed in Burma and estimated at 40 to 44 million years old provide evidence of a crucial step along the evolutionary path that led to human beings.
(A) at 40 to 44 million years old provide evidence of
(B) as being 40 to 44 million years old provides evidence of
(C) that it is 40 to 44 million years old provides evidence of what was
(D) to be 40 to 44 million years old provide evidence of
(E) as 40 to 44 million years old provides evidence of what was

In this question how two verbs(estimated and provide) are present without any conjunction?

I guess estimated & unearthed are verb-ed modifier here .

Dear Abid,

I think you've already answered your own question! "Unearthed" and "estimated" are modifiers, so "estimated" is not parallel to "provide", and no conjunction is needed. One way to be sure of this is to remove the modifiers and see whether the subject and verb still make sense:

Paleontologists believe that fragments of a primate jawbone provide evidence of a crucial step along the evolutionary path that led to human beings.

"Fragments... provide" makes perfect sense.

Regards,
Meghna

is 'estimated at' always wrong on the GMAT?
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Re: Paleontologists believe that fragments of a primate jawbone [#permalink]

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07 May 2015, 14:10
Hi All,

An explanation from my side for the people who have confusion whether fragments or jawbone is a subject for provide.

Rule: a noun in a prepositional phrase ,in this case "of a primate jawbone", can never be a subject.Jawbone being a noun can never be a subject here.

Mike: Is this ok?
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Re: Paleontologists believe that fragments of a primate jawbone [#permalink]

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25 May 2016, 14:02
sher676 wrote:
Paleontologists believe that fragments of a primate jawbone unearthed in Burma and estimated at 40 to 44 million years old provide evidence of a crucial step along the evolutionary path that led to human beings.
(A) at 40 to 44 million years old provide evidence of
(B) as being 40 to 44 million years old provides evidence of
(C) that it is 40 to 44 million years old provides evidence of what was
(D) to be 40 to 44 million years old provide evidence of
(E) as 40 to 44 million years old provides evidence of what was

Estimated to be is the only correct idiom here. Easy one.
Straight D! :D
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Paleontologists believe that fragments of a primate jawbone [#permalink]

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16 Aug 2016, 08:55
arpanpatnaik wrote:

I guess the trick is to understand the difference between 'estimated at' and 'estimated to be'. Since at is a preposition, it should be followed by a noun,

I don't think this is true. In the following official question, the correct answer says "dated AT 34 million years old".

fossils-of-the-arm-of-a-sloth-found-in-puerto-rico-in-80744.html

Perhaps "estimated to be" is the only correct idiom and people have been wrong in saying "estimated at". Interesting grammar rule that I otherwise would have been unaware of.
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Paleontologists believe that fragments of a primate jawbone [#permalink]

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17 Jan 2017, 07:25
30. Paleontologists believe that fragments of a primate
jawbone unearthed in Burma and estimated at 40 to
44 million years old provide evidence of
a crucial step
along the evolutionary path that led to human beings.

(A) at 40 to 44 million years old provide evidence of

(B) as being 40 to 44 million years old provides
evidence of

(C) that it is 40 to 44 million years old provides
evidence of what was

(D) to be 40 to 44 million years old provide
evidence of

(E) as 40 to 44 million years old provides evidence
of what was

Idiom; Agreement

The verb estimated should be followed by the
infinitive to be, not the preposition at—unless the
writer intends to indicate a location at which
someone made the estimate. The jawbone
fragments were estimated to be a certain age. The
plural subject fragments requires the plural verb
provide.
A Estimated is incorrectly followed by at.

B Estimated should be followed by to be, not as
being; the singular verb provides incorrectly
follows the plural subject fragments.

C Introducing a clause, that it is … , creates an
ungrammatical sentence; the singular verb
provides does not agree with the plural
subject fragments.

D Correct. In this sentence, the verb estimated
is correctly followed by the infinitive to be.

E The singular verb provides does not match
the plural subject fragments.

Rock samples taken from the remains of an asteroid
about twice the size of the 6-mile-wide asteroid that
eradicated the dinosaurs has been dated to be 3.47
billion years old and thus is
evidence of the earliest
known asteroid impact on Earth.

(A) has been dated to be 3.47 billion years old and
thus is

(B) has been dated at 3.47 billion years old and thus

(C) have been dated to be 3.47 billion years old and
thus are

(D) have been dated as being 3.47 billion years old
and thus

(E) have been dated at 3.47 billion years old and
thus are

Agreement; Idiom
Th e plural subject of this sentence, Rock samples,
requires plural verb phrases—have been dated and
are rather than has been dated and is. Th e idiomatic
way of expressing estimation of age is with the
phrase dated at.

A The subject and verbs do not agree; dated to
be … is not idiomatic.

B The subject and verb do not agree; the
conjunction and thus should be followed by
a verb.

C Dated to be is not idiomatic.

D As being is not idiomatic; the conjunction
and thus should be followed by a verb.

E Correct. The plural verbs match the plural
subject, and the wording of the sentence is
idiomatic.

Last edited by Vyshak on 17 Jan 2017, 07:58, edited 1 time in total.
Topic Merged. Refer to the previous discussions.
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Paleontologists believe that fragments of a primate jawbone [#permalink]

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14 May 2017, 11:59
sher676 wrote:
Paleontologists believe that fragments of a primate jawbone unearthed in Burma and estimated at 40 to 44 million years old provide evidence of a crucial step along the evolutionary path that led to human beings.
(A) at 40 to 44 million years old provide evidence of
(B) as being 40 to 44 million years old provides evidence of
(C) that it is 40 to 44 million years old provides evidence of what was
(D) to be 40 to 44 million years old provide evidence of
(E) as 40 to 44 million years old provides evidence of what was

A "Estimated at" is not the proper idiom.
B "Provides" does not agree in number with "fragments."
C "Provides" does not agree in number with "fragments."
D Correct.
E "Provides" does not agree in number with "fragments."
Paleontologists believe that fragments of a primate jawbone   [#permalink] 14 May 2017, 11:59

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