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# All of the cells in a particular plant start out with the same complem

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Re: All of the cells in a particular plant start out with the same complem [#permalink]

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24 Oct 2015, 02:10
Hi,

Can someone tell me the max time to be spent on passages such as this?

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Re: All of the cells in a particular plant start out with the same complem [#permalink]

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24 Oct 2015, 04:03
i think 4-5 min would be ok for such passages.

my ans are:
1.b
2.e
3.b
4.e
5.e
6.c
7.a

got all good but 2 & 3 and also cant find good explanations for the same.
pls bring some expert here....
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Re: All of the cells in a particular plant start out with the same complem [#permalink]

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12 Aug 2016, 00:03
In the context of last para, Oligosaccharins, the last entity in the plant cell activity hierarchy is analogous to the hormones in of living being.

The author clearly states the functions of hormones in the below line.
One hormone stimulates the thyroid gland, for example, another the ovarian follicle cells, and so forth.

Hence option D is correct.

D. Influencing the development of a plant’s cells by controlling the expression of the cells’ genes.

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Re: All of the cells in a particular plant start out with the same complem [#permalink]

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07 Oct 2016, 05:00
unlike the oligosaccharins, the five well-known plant hormones are pleiotropic rather than specific,.
Doesn rather than specific dont mean that they are not specific.? Then how can the answer be option b for que 1. Not able to get the logic.

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Re: All of the cells in a particular plant start out with the same complem [#permalink]

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06 Jul 2017, 03:18
Plus, for question 5, the last line says that there are indications hormones might work by activating enzymes that release oligosaccharins, so why is d not the answer for 5

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Re: All of the cells in a particular plant start out with the same complem [#permalink]

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13 Jul 2017, 20:47
Expert's post
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anikacr7 wrote:
Plus, for question 5, the last line says that there are indications hormones might work by activating enzymes that release oligosaccharins, so why is d not the answer for 5

Quote:
3. the passage suggests that which of the following is a function likely to be performed by an oligosaccharin?

(a) to stimulate a particular plant cell to become part of a plant's root system

(b) to stimulate the walls of a particular cell to produce other oligosaccharins

(c) to activate enzymes that release specific chemical messengers from plant cell walls

(d) to duplicate the gene complement in a particular plant cell

(e) to produce multiple effects on a particular subsystem of plant cells

The passage tells us that "a complex system of chemical messengers that in plants include hormones and other regulatory molecules" allows cells to "differentiate and form structures as different as roots, stems, leaves, and fruits." Furthermore, the passage tells us that the five well-known hormones, which are "pleiotropic" ("P's") because they have multiple effects, might function by activating certain enzymes that in turn release regulatory molecules called oligosaccharins ("O's"), which, because they are not "P's", have only one specific effect on the growth and development of plants.

In other words, the five "P's" activate enzymes which in turn release "O's", which have a single, specific effect on the growth and development of the plant (for example, forming roots, stems, leaves, or fruits). Thus, the passage suggests that the "O's" could be directly responsible for causing a plant cell to become part of a plant's root system. Thus, choice (A) is the best answer.

Quote:
5. according to the passage, which of the following best describes a function performed by oligosaccharins?

(a) regulating the daily functioning of a plant's cells

(b) interacting with one another to produce different chemicals

(c) releasing specific chemical messengers from a plant's cell walls

(d) producing the hormones that cause plant cells to differentiate to perform different functions

(e) influencing the development of a plant's cells by controlling the expression of the cells' genes

As explained above, the "O's" have one specific effect on the growth and development of plants. How is this possible, when "all of the cells in a particular plant start out with the same complement of genes"? It's because "only a small subset of the genes in a particular kind of cell are expressed, or turned on, at a given time." Thus, it makes sense that the "O's" could function by "influencing the development of a plant's cells by controlling the expression of the cells' genes", as described in choice (E).

Quote:
(d) producing the hormones that cause plant cells to differentiate to perform different functions

(D) cannot be the answer because we are not told that the "O's" produce hormones. Rather, as described above, the "P" hormones activate enzymes that release "O" regulatory molecules, which in turn cause plant cells to differentiate and perform different functions.

I hope that helps!
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Re: All of the cells in a particular plant start out with the same complem [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2017, 20:13
eyunni wrote:
Anyone care to answer questions 5 and 7? Explanations are appreciated.

For Question 7. it clearly mentions in the 3 rd paragraph "Such a hierarchy may also exist in plants" . This should lead us to understand that author specifically mentioned the animal hierarchy to draw an analogy between plant and animal hormones.

Hope this helps.
Give kudos if you like the answer.

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Re: All of the cells in a particular plant start out with the same complem [#permalink]

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18 Jul 2017, 10:08
Question 5 was really tough .
I guess there is no short cut to RC other than improving reading.
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Re: All of the cells in a particular plant start out with the same complem [#permalink]

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03 Aug 2017, 19:49
JarvisR wrote:
10 mins.
1. according to the passage, the five well-known plant hormones are not useful in controlling the growth of crops because
(a) it is not known exactly what functions the hormones perform
(b) each hormone has various effects on plants
>> unlike the oligosaccharins, the five well-known plant hormones are pleiotropic rather than specific,

(c) none of the hormones can function without the others
(d) each hormone has different effects on different kinds of plants
(e) each hormone works on only a small subset of a cell's genes at any particular time

2. the passage suggests that the place of hypothalamic hormones in the hormonal hierarchies of animals is similar to the place of which of the following in plants?
(a) plant cell walls
(b) the complement of genes in each plant cell
(c) a subset of a plant cell's gene complement
(d) the five major hormones
>> Animal hormones example is presented to present the idea of hormone hierarchy in plants.

(e) the oligosaccharins

3. the passage suggests that which of the following is a function likely to be performed by an oligosaccharin?
(a) to stimulate a particular plant cell to become part of a plant's root system
>> unlike the oligosaccharins, the five well-known plant hormones are pleiotropic rather than specific,

(b) to stimulate the walls of a particular cell to produce other oligosaccharins
(c) to activate enzymes that release specific chemical messengers from plant cell walls
(d) to duplicate the gene complement in a particular plant cell
(e) to produce multiple effects on a particular subsystem of plant cells

4. the author mentions specific effects that auxin has on plant development in order to illustrate the
(a) point that some of the effects of plant hormones can be harmful
(b) way in which hormones are produced by plants
(c) hierarchical nature of the functioning of plant hormones
(d) differences among the best-known plant hormones
(e) concept of pleiotropy as it is exhibited by plant hormones
>>the five well-known plant hormones are pleiotropic rather than specific.Since auxin has multiple effects.

5. according to the passage, which of the following best describes a function performed by oligosaccharins?
(a) regulating the daily functioning of a plant's cells
(b) interacting with one another to produce different chemicals
(c) releasing specific chemical messengers from a plant's cell walls
(d) producing the hormones that cause plant cells to differentiate to perform different functions
(e) influencing the development of a plant's cells by controlling the expression of the cells' genes
>> unlike the oligosaccharins, the five well-known plant hormones are pleiotropic rather than specific,

6. the passage suggests that, unlike the pleiotropic hormones, oligosaccharins could be used effectively to
(a) trace the passage of chemicals through the walls of cells
(b) pinpoint functions of other plant hormones
(c) artificially control specific aspects of the development of crops
>> Unlike P, O can influence specific property.

(d) alter the complement of genes in the cells of plants
(e) alter the effects of the five major hormones on plant development

7. the author discusses animal hormones primarily in order to
(a) introduce the idea of a hierarchy of hormones
>>the pleiotropy of the five well-studied plant <b>(25)</b> hormones is somewhat analogous to that of certain hormones in animal.

(b) explain the effects that auxin has on plant cells
(c) contrast the functioning of plant hormones and animals hormones
(d) illustrate the way in which particular hormones affect animals
(e) explain the distinction between hormones and regulatory molecules

For Q3, agreed that Oligosachhariins perform specific function and plant root system is specific. But arent we inferring too far here because there is nothing mentioned in passage about oligosachharin and root system. Passage just mentions specific function:It can be any specific function but we dont know that from passage.
Please, can anyone throw light on this.

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Re: All of the cells in a particular plant start out with the same complem [#permalink]

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07 Aug 2017, 10:01
For Q3, agreed that Oligosachhariins perform specific function and plant root system is specific. But arent we inferring too far here because there is nothing mentioned in passage about oligosachharin and root system. Passage just mentions specific function:It can be any specific function but we dont know that from passage.
Please, can anyone throw light on this.

I agree with your point. But notice the wording of the question. It says "likely" to be performed.

This means we need to find out an option that says the function is specific rather than generic. Hence, only option A does so. Thus, the correct answer.
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Re: All of the cells in a particular plant start out with the same complem [#permalink]

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07 Aug 2017, 10:19
abhimahna wrote:
For Q3, agreed that Oligosachhariins perform specific function and plant root system is specific. But arent we inferring too far here because there is nothing mentioned in passage about oligosachharin and root system. Passage just mentions specific function:It can be any specific function but we dont know that from passage.
Please, can anyone throw light on this.

I agree with your point. But notice the wording of the question. It says "likely" to be performed.

This means we need to find out an option that says the function is specific rather than generic. Hence, only option A does so. Thus, the correct answer.

Hi @abhimahna
Yes'likely' does make a good difference.
Thanks for pointing it out.

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Re: All of the cells in a particular plant start out with the same complem   [#permalink] 07 Aug 2017, 10:19

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