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# Pedro: Unlike cloth diapers, disposable diapers are a threat

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Pedro: Unlike cloth diapers, disposable diapers are a threat [#permalink]

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17 Dec 2010, 07:01
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Difficulty:

85% (hard)

Question Stats:

46% (01:14) correct 54% (01:18) wrong based on 445 sessions

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Pedro: Unlike cloth diapers, disposable diapers are a threat to the environment. Sixteen billion disposable diapers are discarded annually, filling up landfills at an alarming rate. So people must stop buying disposable diapers and use cloth diapers.

Maria:
But you forget that cloth diapers must be washed in hot water, which requires energy. Moreover, the resulting wastewater pollutes our rivers. When families use diaper services, diapers must be delivered by fuel-burning trucks that pollute the air and add to traffic congestion.

Maria objects to Pedro's argument by

(A) claiming that Pedro overstates the negative evidence about disposable diapers in the course of his argument in favour of cloth diapers.
(B) indicating that Pedro draws a hasty conclusion, based on inadequate evidence about cloth diapers.
(C) pointing out that there is an ambiguous use of the word "disposable" in Pedro's argument
(D) demonstrating that cloth diapers are a far more serious threat to the environment than disposable diapers are
(E) suggesting that the economic advantages of cloth diapers outweigh whatever environmental damage they may cause
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by broall on 10 Jun 2017, 08:56, edited 1 time in total.
Reformatted question

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Re: Pedro: Unlike cloth diapers, disposable diapers are a threat [#permalink]

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18 Dec 2010, 10:00
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Between B and D.
D is out because Maria never mentioned that cloth diapers represents a more serious threat.
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Re: Pedro: Unlike cloth diapers, disposable diapers are a threat [#permalink]

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19 Dec 2010, 21:49
metallicafan wrote:
Between B and D.
D is out because Maria never mentioned that cloth diapers represents a more serious threat.

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Re: Pedro: Unlike cloth diapers, disposable diapers are a threat [#permalink]

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29 Dec 2010, 03:33
I am also confused between B & D.I am not satisfied by the reasoning of metallicafan. Can any body explain it ?

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Re: Pedro: Unlike cloth diapers, disposable diapers are a threat [#permalink]

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29 Dec 2010, 21:31
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Pedro: Unlike cloth diapers, disposable diapers are a threat to the environment. Sixteen billion disposable diapers are discarded annually, filling up landfills at an alarming rate. So people must stop buying disposable diapers and use cloth diapers.

Pedro - compares cloth diapers (CD) with disposable diapers (DD) and favours CD while giving disadvantages of DD.

Maria: But you forget that cloth diapers must be washed in hot water, which requires energy. Moreover, the resulting wastewater pollutes our rivers. When families use diaper services, diapers must be delivered by fuel-burning trucks that pollute the air and add to traffic congestion.

Maria : doesnt refer to DD, but gives disadvantages of usage of CD.She doesnt compare effects just mentions abt CD.

Maria objects to Pedro's argument by

(A) claiming that Pedro overstates the negative evidence about disposable diapers in the course of his argument in favour of cloth diapers. = Pedro doesnt overstate the problem of DD, because he backs up his comments with concrete statistics.

(B) indicating that Pedro draws a hasty conclusion, based on inadequate evidence about cloth diapers. == conclusion of pedro is based only on the basis of disadvantages of DD and he jumps to a conclusion that CD will be better then DD, but pedro forgets to consider that even CD could hv more or equally distratous effects of its usage too. If X can't work, it doesnt mean Y will work. ( there could be other options also, you cant take decision of Y's working just because X cant work )
(C) pointing out that there is an ambiguous use of the word "disposable" in Pedro's argument === There is no discussion or revert by maria on arguing abt the definition of "disposable" , she doesnt doubt on the usage of this word
(D) demonstrating that cloth diapers are a far more serious threat to the environment than disposable diapers are == This choice cant be a correct usage because if you analye the argument of Maria, she just mentions why CD are also not good.. she never compares the effects of usage of either CD or DD, she argues with the disadvantages of CD only.
(E) suggesting that the economic advantages of cloth diapers outweigh whatever environmental damage they may cause == There is no discussion on economical values or impact or environmental impact as core issue, the core issue is CD or DD
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Re: Pedro: Unlike cloth diapers, disposable diapers are a threat [#permalink]

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17 Apr 2013, 04:19
A – Not Correct, Maria simply points out that there is also evidence against using cloth diapers. She does not claim anything
B say “based on inadequate evidence”. the evidence (almost none) that Pedro presents is inadequate. For evidence, he describes the bad environmental effects of disposable diapers, without examining the effects of using cloth diapers.
C. Not correct , Maria did not point out ambiguous use of the word "disposable
D . Maria never argues that cloth diapers are worse than disposables; she only points out that the issue isn’t as black and white as Pedro thinks.
(E) is beyond the scope of the argument.

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Re: Pedro: Unlike cloth diapers, disposable diapers are a threat [#permalink]

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06 May 2013, 01:40
This is Flaw in the reasoning question. One of the most difficult type of CR. Any answer choice that contains new information is incorrect. Use the fact test to eliminate answers.

Stimulus:
Pedro: DD (disposable diapers) --> are threat to the environment. But CD (cloth diapers) are not.
Maria: CD --> washed in hot water --> need energy
Maria: CD --> need trucks to deliver --> pollute the air and add traffic congestion.

Flaw of Pedro's reasoning: he just talked about DD's threat, but did not mention anything about CD's threats ==> He concluded people must stop buying DD.

(A) claiming that Pedro overstates the negative evidence about disposable diapers in the course of his argument in favour of cloth diapers.
Wrong. This is EXAGGERATE answer. The fact that Pedro said is true, he didn't OVERSTATE it.

(B) indicating that Pedro draws a hasty conclusion, based on inadequate evidence about cloth diapers.
Correct. Pedro did not talk about CD, he just mentioned threat of DD.

(C) pointing out that there is an ambiguous use of the word "disposable" in Pedro's argument
Wrong. This is "NEW" Element answer.

(D) demonstrating that cloth diapers are a far more serious threat to the environment than disposable diapers are

(E) suggesting that the economic advantages of cloth diapers outweigh whatever environmental damage they may cause
Wrong. This is "NEW" Element answer.

Hope it helps.
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Re: Pedro: Unlike cloth diapers, disposable diapers are a threat [#permalink]

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09 Dec 2013, 12:27
pqhai wrote:
This is Flaw in the reasoning question. One of the most difficult type of CR. Any answer choice that contains new information is incorrect. Use the fact test to eliminate answers.

Stimulus:
Pedro: DD (disposable diapers) --> are threat to the environment. But CD (cloth diapers) are not.
Maria: CD --> washed in hot water --> need energy
Maria: CD --> need trucks to deliver --> pollute the air and add traffic congestion.

Flaw of Pedro's reasoning: he just talked about DD's threat, but did not mention anything about CD's threats ==> He concluded people must stop buying DD.

(A) claiming that Pedro overstates the negative evidence about disposable diapers in the course of his argument in favour of cloth diapers.
Wrong. This is EXAGGERATE answer. The fact that Pedro said is true, he didn't OVERSTATE it.

(B) indicating that Pedro draws a hasty conclusion, based on inadequate evidence about cloth diapers.
Correct. Pedro did not talk about CD, he just mentioned threat of DD.

(C) pointing out that there is an ambiguous use of the word "disposable" in Pedro's argument
Wrong. This is "NEW" Element answer.

(D) demonstrating that cloth diapers are a far more serious threat to the environment than disposable diapers are

(E) suggesting that the economic advantages of cloth diapers outweigh whatever environmental damage they may cause
Wrong. This is "NEW" Element answer.

Hope it helps.

Hello pqhai,

Could you please explain how ans choice D is an opposite ans ?

Thanks

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Re: Pedro: Unlike cloth diapers, disposable diapers are a threat [#permalink]

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09 Dec 2013, 12:49
aimkp wrote:
31. Pedro: Unlike cloth diapers, disposable diapers are a threat to the environment. Sixteen billion disposable diapers are discarded annually, filling up landfills at an alarming rate. So people must stop buying disposable diapers and use cloth diapers.

Maria: But you forget that cloth diapers must be washed in hot water, which requires energy. Moreover, the resulting wastewater pollutes our rivers. When families use diaper services, diaper must be delivered by fuel-burning trucks that pollute the air and add to traffic congestion.

Pedro - Disposable diaper threat to environment , since it is filling up landfills at an alarming rate.

Maria : Clot diaper produces more energy wastage as well as environmental pollution along with other problems.

Maria objects to Pedro's argument by

Finding the point which Maria objects / bases her argument .

(A) claiming that Pedro overstates the negative evidence about disposable diapers in the course of his argument in favour of cloth diapers.

Pedro fails to provide any negative evidence , he simply mentions that since Disposable diaper are filling up landfills at an alarming rate people must stop using it.

(B) indicating that Pedro draws a hasty conclusion, based on inadequate evidence about cloth diapers.

Pedro's conclusion is indeed hasty , he fails to justify / explain the effects which might result in , lets keep this option.

(C) pointing out that there is an ambiguous use of the word "disposable" in Pedro's argument

No Maria accepts disposable diapers and presents her point of view opposing use of cloth diapers as suggested by Pedro.

Maria mentions - "....must be washed in hot water.... " which suggests there isn't any ambiguity and she could comprehend unambiguously what Pedro wanted to convey.

(D) demonstrating that cloth diapers are a far more serious threat to the environment than disposable diapers are

Maria highlights the environmental threat related to use of cloth diapers but she never drew any comparison with Cloth Diapers , hence out..

Had it not been the highlighted part , I would have genuinely chosen (D) as the answer.

(E) suggesting that the economic advantages of cloth diapers outweigh whatever environmental damage they may cause

Maria neither compared nor did she convey something like this...

Hence IMO (B) is better than (D) , the most close option and I will go with (B)
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Re: Pedro: Unlike cloth diapers, disposable diapers are a threat [#permalink]

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09 Dec 2013, 13:16
karant wrote:
pqhai wrote:
This is Flaw in the reasoning question. One of the most difficult type of CR. Any answer choice that contains new information is incorrect. Use the fact test to eliminate answers.

Stimulus:
Pedro: DD (disposable diapers) --> are threat to the environment. But CD (cloth diapers) are not.
Maria: CD --> washed in hot water --> need energy
Maria: CD --> need trucks to deliver --> pollute the air and add traffic congestion.

Flaw of Pedro's reasoning: he just talked about DD's threat, but did not mention anything about CD's threats ==> He concluded people must stop buying DD.

(A) claiming that Pedro overstates the negative evidence about disposable diapers in the course of his argument in favour of cloth diapers.
Wrong. This is EXAGGERATE answer. The fact that Pedro said is true, he didn't OVERSTATE it.

(B) indicating that Pedro draws a hasty conclusion, based on inadequate evidence about cloth diapers.
Correct. Pedro did not talk about CD, he just mentioned threat of DD.

(C) pointing out that there is an ambiguous use of the word "disposable" in Pedro's argument
Wrong. This is "NEW" Element answer.

(D) demonstrating that cloth diapers are a far more serious threat to the environment than disposable diapers are

(E) suggesting that the economic advantages of cloth diapers outweigh whatever environmental damage they may cause
Wrong. This is "NEW" Element answer.

Hope it helps.

Hello pqhai,

Could you please explain how ans choice D is an opposite ans ?

Thanks
He mostly is wrong. It is not an opposite answer.
Maria demonstrates that CD have disadvantages but never compared the disadvantages with DD..... So option D cannot be considered...

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Re: Pedro: Unlike cloth diapers, disposable diapers are a threat [#permalink]

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Re: Pedro: Unlike cloth diapers, disposable diapers are a threat [#permalink]

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20 Apr 2016, 19:58
aimkp wrote:
31. Pedro: Unlike cloth diapers, disposable diapers are a threat to the environment. Sixteen billion disposable diapers are discarded annually, filling up landfills at an alarming rate. So people must stop buying disposable diapers and use cloth diapers.
Maria: But you forget that cloth diapers must be washed in hot water, which requires energy. Moreover, the resulting wastewater pollutes our rivers. When families use diaper services, diapers must be delivered by fuel-burning trucks that pollute the air and add to traffic congestion.
Maria objects to Pedro's argument by
(A) claiming that Pedro overstates the negative evidence about disposable diapers in the course of his argument in favour of cloth diapers.
(B) indicating that Pedro draws a hasty conclusion, based on inadequate evidence about cloth diapers.
(C) pointing out that there is an ambiguous use of the word "disposable" in Pedro's argument
(D) demonstrating that cloth diapers are a far more serious threat to the environment than disposable diapers are
(E) suggesting that the economic advantages of cloth diapers outweigh whatever environmental damage they may cause

by POE, I eliminated all but B.
A. nothing to say that pedro is not right
B. looks good
C. nothing close to that
D. which one is more serious threat - not discussed
E. economic advantages are not discussed, so no.

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Re: Pedro: Unlike cloth diapers, disposable diapers are a threat [#permalink]

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25 Nov 2016, 04:28
A lot of disposable diapers, throw out away every day all over the world and it is very harmful for the environment and health. The Disposable Diapers are more 40% harmful than the cloth diapers.

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Re: Pedro: Unlike cloth diapers, disposable diapers are a threat [#permalink]

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06 Mar 2017, 08:57
Abhishek009 wrote:
aimkp wrote:
31. Pedro: Unlike cloth diapers, disposable diapers are a threat to the environment. Sixteen billion disposable diapers are discarded annually, filling up landfills at an alarming rate. So people must stop buying disposable diapers and use cloth diapers.

Maria: But you forget that cloth diapers must be washed in hot water, which requires energy. Moreover, the resulting wastewater pollutes our rivers. When families use diaper services, diaper must be delivered by fuel-burning trucks that pollute the air and add to traffic congestion.

Pedro - Disposable diaper threat to environment , since it is filling up landfills at an alarming rate.

Maria : Clot diaper produces more energy wastage as well as environmental pollution along with other problems.

Maria objects to Pedro's argument by

Finding the point which Maria objects / bases her argument .

(A) claiming that Pedro overstates the negative evidence about disposable diapers in the course of his argument in favour of cloth diapers.

Pedro fails to provide any negative evidence , he simply mentions that since Disposable diaper are filling up landfills at an alarming rate people must stop using it.

(B) indicating that Pedro draws a hasty conclusion, based on inadequate evidence about cloth diapers.

Pedro's conclusion is indeed hasty , he fails to justify / explain the effects which might result in , lets keep this option.

(C) pointing out that there is an ambiguous use of the word "disposable" in Pedro's argument

No Maria accepts disposable diapers and presents her point of view opposing use of cloth diapers as suggested by Pedro.

Maria mentions - "....must be washed in hot water.... " which suggests there isn't any ambiguity and she could comprehend unambiguously what Pedro wanted to convey.

(D) demonstrating that cloth diapers are a far more serious threat to the environment than disposable diapers are

Maria highlights the environmental threat related to use of cloth diapers but she never drew any comparison with Cloth Diapers , hence out..

Had it not been the highlighted part , I would have genuinely chosen (D) as the answer.

(E) suggesting that the economic advantages of cloth diapers outweigh whatever environmental damage they may cause

Maria neither compared nor did she convey something like this...

Hence IMO (B) is better than (D) , the most close option and I will go with (B)

In my opinion, even if you remove the highlighted part in option D, Maria's statement does not suggest or highlight that one is a greater threat than the other. She points out the disadvantages with Cloth Diapers. I don't think it was meant as a comparison.

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Re: Pedro: Unlike cloth diapers, disposable diapers are a threat   [#permalink] 06 Mar 2017, 08:57
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