GMAT Question of the Day - Daily to your Mailbox; hard ones only

 It is currently 16 Dec 2018, 07:19

### GMAT Club Daily Prep

#### Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

## Events & Promotions

###### Events & Promotions in December
PrevNext
SuMoTuWeThFrSa
2526272829301
2345678
9101112131415
16171819202122
23242526272829
303112345
Open Detailed Calendar
• ### Free GMAT Prep Hour

December 16, 2018

December 16, 2018

03:00 PM EST

04:00 PM EST

Strategies and techniques for approaching featured GMAT topics
• ### FREE Quant Workshop by e-GMAT!

December 16, 2018

December 16, 2018

07:00 AM PST

09:00 AM PST

Get personalized insights on how to achieve your Target Quant Score.

# People who live unusually long tend to have been lean young

Author Message
TAGS:

### Hide Tags

SVP
Joined: 29 Mar 2007
Posts: 2425
People who live unusually long tend to have been lean young  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

Updated on: 10 Mar 2018, 02:05
3
18
00:00

Difficulty:

65% (hard)

Question Stats:

54% (01:19) correct 46% (01:22) wrong based on 589 sessions

### HideShow timer Statistics

7. People who live unusually long tend to have been lean young adults who went on to gain approximately one pound every year, so lean young adults can improve their chances of living a long life by gaining about a pound every year.

A flaw in the argument above is that it

(A) gives reasons for the truth of its conclusion that presuppose the truth of that conclusion

(B) proceeds as though a condition that by itself is enough to guarantee a certain result must always be present for that result to be achieved

(C) assumes without proof that two phenomena that occur together share an underlying cause

(D) concludes that one phenomenon is the cause of another when at most what has been established is an association between them

(E) fails to recognize that a tendency widely shared by a subgroup within a given population will not necessarily be widely shared by that population as a whole

Originally posted by GMATBLACKBELT on 01 Feb 2008, 12:37.
Last edited by broall on 10 Mar 2018, 02:05, edited 1 time in total.
Director
Joined: 14 Oct 2007
Posts: 724
Location: Oxford
Schools: Oxford'10
Re: People who live unusually long tend to have been lean young  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

01 Feb 2008, 14:01
1
GMATBLACKBELT wrote:
7. People who live unusually long tend to have been lean young adults who went on to gain approximately one pound every year, so lean young adults can improve their chances of living a long life by gaining about a pound every year.
A flaw in the argument above is that it
(A) gives reasons for the truth of its conclusion that presuppose the truth of that conclusion i don't understand this so I won't choose it
(B) proceeds as though a condition that by itself is enough to guarantee a certain result must always be present for that result to be achieved the words "tend" and "chance" is used, so can't be a guarantee
(C) assumes without proof that two phenomena that occur together share an underlying cause doesn't assume this without any proof. The proof is provided.
(D) concludes that one phenomenon is the cause of another when at most what has been established is an association between them does not conclude this, just acknowleges the association in the argument, and recommends following one part of the association
(E) fails to recognize that a tendency widely shared by a subgroup within a given population will not necessarily be widely shared by that population as a whole the people who live longer are a subgroup, therefore applying their association with their weight to the whole population will not necessarily work. this is therefore the right ans in my opinion
SVP
Joined: 29 Mar 2007
Posts: 2425
Re: People who live unusually long tend to have been lean young  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

02 Feb 2008, 15:33
OA is D. I thought this one was very tough b/c many of the answer choices seem to fit the bill of what is being asked.
Senior Manager
Joined: 21 Dec 2010
Posts: 454
Re: People who live unusually long tend to have been lean young  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

30 Apr 2011, 02:10
1
it is very straight forward D , though E created a bit of confusion . i think less than 2 minutes is ok for this question
Manager
Joined: 02 Mar 2011
Posts: 63
Re: People who live unusually long tend to have been lean young  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

01 May 2011, 08:57
3
the stem has a construction - since A tends to B so B must tend to A.
this is faulty and both options B and D seem to fit the bill.
i chose D though since it seemed better,but still need clarification why B is wrong.
Intern
Status: "
Joined: 22 Jan 2011
Posts: 38
Schools: IE- ESCP - Warwick
Re: People who live unusually long tend to have been lean young  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

03 May 2011, 01:14
Why is B wrong?

It fits perfectly for me;

one pound each year -> live long

The flaw is that the author does not explain why one pound each year is the cause. It might be the effect of another cause, or there might be something else so there is a flaw of logic because the author does not make this cause as self sufficient to live longer...

Intern
Joined: 21 Jun 2013
Posts: 31
Re: People who live unusually long tend to have been lean young  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

24 Oct 2013, 09:32
3
1
GMATBLACKBELT wrote:
7. People who live unusually long tend to have been lean young adults who went on to gain approximately one pound every year, so lean young adults can improve their chances of living a long life by gaining about a pound every year.
A flaw in the argument above is that it
(A) gives reasons for the truth of its conclusion that presuppose the truth of that conclusion
(B) proceeds as though a condition that by itself is enough to guarantee a certain result must always be present for that result to be achieved
(C) assumes without proof that two phenomena that occur together share an underlying cause
(D) concludes that one phenomenon is the cause of another when at most what has been established is an association between them
(E) fails to recognize that a tendency widely shared by a subgroup within a given population will not necessarily be widely shared by that population as a whole

A - lean young adults. B - people who live long. C - adults who gained one pound every year.
Premise: B tend to have been (usually are) A who became C. B=A+C
Conclusion: A can become B if they become C too. A-> B, if A+C

A. reasons for the truth of conclusion (premise) presupposes (requires) the truth of conclusion. No, premise does not require the conclusion to be true. Rather, the conclusion is clearly derived from the premise.
B. there is no guarantee in the argument anywhere. 'Tends to' does not indicate a guarantee.
C. Proof is provided. Also, it is unclear which two phenomena occur together and which one is the cause? A and B do not occur together. There is a 'if' relationship between A and B which makes them sequential.
D. Correct. Concludes that combination of A and C causes B, whereas 'tends to' in the premise indicates only a weak association. So does 'can improve' in conclusion.
E. The conclusion restricts itself to lean people. Population as a whole is not referred to anywhere in the argument.
Manager
Status: IF YOU CAN DREAM IT, YOU CAN DO IT
Joined: 03 Jul 2017
Posts: 201
Location: India
Re: People who live unusually long tend to have been lean young  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

14 Feb 2018, 21:34
here we see a cause and effect pattern that is -X (Lean young adult who gain app one pound per year) ---- Y (Adults live longer). but the conclusion says that the reverse causation is also true and hence option D is correct.
Director
Joined: 09 Mar 2017
Posts: 524
Location: India
Concentration: Marketing, Organizational Behavior
WE: Information Technology (Computer Software)
Re: People who live unusually long tend to have been lean young  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

14 Feb 2018, 22:26
People who live unusually long tend to have been lean young adults who went on to gain approximately one pound every year, so lean young adults can improve their chances of living a long life by gaining about a pound every year.
A flaw in the argument above is that it

(B) proceeds as though a condition that by itself is enough to guarantee a certain result must always be present for that result to be achieved

(D) concludes that one phenomenon is the cause of another when at most what has been established is an association between them

Although D can be credited as correct, B has a more logical reasoning.
mikemcgarry,

Would you please assist in understanding why is B wrong?
Thank you

_________________

------------------------------
"Trust the timing of your life"
Hit Kudus if this has helped you get closer to your goal, and also to assist others save time. Tq

Magoosh GMAT Instructor
Joined: 30 Oct 2017
Posts: 195
Re: People who live unusually long tend to have been lean young  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

15 Feb 2018, 16:19
2
TaN1213 wrote:
People who live unusually long tend to have been lean young adults who went on to gain approximately one pound every year, so lean young adults can improve their chances of living a long life by gaining about a pound every year.
A flaw in the argument above is that it

(B) proceeds as though a condition that by itself is enough to guarantee a certain result must always be present for that result to be achieved

(D) concludes that one phenomenon is the cause of another when at most what has been established is an association between them

Although D can be credited as correct, B has a more logical reasoning.
mikemcgarry,

Would you please assist in understanding why is B wrong?
Thank you

Hi TaN1213,

Carolyn from Magoosh here -- I can step in for Mike

The wording here is all a bit complicated here, so it's important to really read the answer choices carefully. When we do that, we find that B does not quite fit the situation that we're talking about. Let's think about this argument. There is an observation that people who live for a long time started out lean and then gained about a pound every year. So there is an association made: gain one pound every year <--> live long. The argument then says that if someone wants to live long, they should gain one pound every year. In order to make that conclusion, we need to turn that association into a cause-and-effect: gain one pound every year --> live long. This, of course, is a fallacy. And that fallacy is perfectly described by option D here.

Now, B is talking about a condition that must be present in order for a result to be achieved. Look at the first part: "a condition that by itself is enough to guarantee a certain result". What is that condition, in this context? There isn't one -- we don't know of any condition here that by itself will guarantee that someone will live long. We know that there is an association with gaining one pound every year, but we certainly can't say that this is guaranteeing that someone will live for a long time. So even without reading the second half of B, we know that this answer choice cannot be correct. There simply is no condition mentioned here that by itself can guarantee that someone will live for a long time.

I hope that helps!
-Carolyn
_________________
Director
Joined: 09 Mar 2017
Posts: 524
Location: India
Concentration: Marketing, Organizational Behavior
WE: Information Technology (Computer Software)
Re: People who live unusually long tend to have been lean young  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

15 Feb 2018, 22:38
MagooshExpert wrote:
TaN1213 wrote:
People who live unusually long tend to have been lean young adults who went on to gain approximately one pound every year, so lean young adults can improve their chances of living a long life by gaining about a pound every year.
A flaw in the argument above is that it

(B) proceeds as though a condition that by itself is enough to guarantee a certain result must always be present for that result to be achieved

(D) concludes that one phenomenon is the cause of another when at most what has been established is an association between them

Although D can be credited as correct, B has a more logical reasoning.
mikemcgarry,

Would you please assist in understanding why is B wrong?
Thank you

Hi TaN1213,

Carolyn from Magoosh here -- I can step in for Mike :-)

The wording here is all a bit complicated here, so it's important to really read the answer choices carefully. When we do that, we find that B does not quite fit the situation that we're talking about. Let's think about this argument. There is an observation that people who live for a long time started out lean and then gained about a pound every year. So there is an association made: gain one pound every year live long. The argument then says that if someone wants to live long, they should gain one pound every year. In order to make that conclusion, we need to turn that association into a cause-and-effect: gain one pound every year --> live long. This, of course, is a fallacy. And that fallacy is perfectly described by option D here.

Now, B is talking about a condition that must be present in order for a result to be achieved. Look at the first part:"a condition that by itself is enough to guarantee a certain result". What is that condition, in this context? There isn't one -- we don't know of any condition here that by itself will guarantee that someone will live long. We know that there is an association with gaining one pound every year, but we certainly can't say that this is guaranteeing that someone will live for a long time. So even without reading the second half of B, we know that this answer choice cannot be correct. There simply is no condition mentioned here that by itself can guarantee that someone will live for a long time.

I hope that helps!
-Carolyn

Hello Carolyn,

Please find my understanding of B :
[combining the question stem and option B]
A flaw in the argument above is that it "proceeds as though a condition that by itself is enough to guarantee a certain result must always be present for that result to be achieved"

The B states the flaw as though(assuming) the following is correct :
The action of gaining approximately one pound every year(a condition) that by itself is enough to guarantee a longer lifespan (a certain result) must always be present for actually getting a longer lifespan(result to be achieved).

The bold 'as though' part is the flawed assumption that is stated in B. For example: Everyone greeted Garry as though he is the owner of the casino. This is the flawed assumption implied by 'as though'. It does not mean that this sentence is telling that Garry himself was the owner of the casino. Similarly, B is not talking about a condition that must be present in order for a result to be achieved. B states the flaw.

By the way, just wondering where is Mike. Since quite many days, I haven't had seen him around in the gmatclub. I hope he is doing well.

Thank you.
GMATNinja, your insight is much appreciated.
Thank you.

_________________

------------------------------
"Trust the timing of your life"
Hit Kudus if this has helped you get closer to your goal, and also to assist others save time. Tq

Manager
Joined: 08 Jan 2018
Posts: 234
Location: United States (ID)
GPA: 3.33
WE: Accounting (Accounting)
Re: People who live unusually long tend to have been lean young  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

17 Feb 2018, 08:58
B is wrong b/c B talks about if and only if.
A is wrong b/c the argument does not present the conclusion to the premise.
C is out b/c there is only one phenomenon.
E is not obvious but I believe E is wrong b/c the argument talks about the population first with a tendency, and then a subgroup later.

D is a pattern in gmat: "relation vs cause"
Magoosh GMAT Instructor
Joined: 30 Oct 2017
Posts: 195
Re: People who live unusually long tend to have been lean young  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

17 Feb 2018, 15:56
TaN1213 wrote:

Hello Carolyn,

Please find my understanding of B :
[combining the question stem and option B]
A flaw in the argument above is that it "proceeds as though a condition that by itself is enough to guarantee a certain result must always be present for that result to be achieved"

The B states the flaw as though(assuming) the following is correct :
The action of gaining approximately one pound every year(a condition) that by itself is enough to guarantee a longer lifespan (a certain result) must always be present for actually getting a longer lifespan(result to be achieved).

The bold 'as though' part is the flawed assumption that is stated in B. For example: Everyone greeted Garry as though he is the owner of the casino. This is the flawed assumption implied by 'as though'. It does not mean that this sentence is telling that Garry himself was the owner of the casino. Similarly, B is not talking about a condition that must be present in order for a result to be achieved. B states the flaw.

By the way, just wondering where is Mike. Since quite many days, I haven't had seen him around in the gmatclub. I hope he is doing well.

Thank you.
GMATNinja, your insight is much appreciated.
Thank you.

Hi TaN1213,

Mike is currently working on other projects at Magoosh, and so won't be posting on GMATclub much for now.

Thanks for clarifying your reasoning Let's use a different example to understand this better, since the wording here can get a little complicated. Say we have a statement like:

John incorrectly assumes that his ice cream, which is chocolate, is dairy-free.

Now, the incorrect assumption here is that the ice cream is dairy-free. It is NOT that the ice cream is chocolate. The fact that the ice cream is chocolate is not part of his assumption -- it is something that this statement is assuming is fact. So according to this statement, there is no question that the ice cream is chocolate. If the ice cream is not in fact chocolate, then this entire statement no longer applies, because it does not match the situation. If John's ice cream is vanilla, this statement doesn't make sense. His assumption is only that the ice cream is dairy-free.

Now let's look at our actual statement:

B assumes that the action of gaining approximately one pound every year (a condition) that by itself is enough to guarantee a longer lifespan (a certain result) must always be present for actually getting a longer lifespan (result to be achieved).

So, the "which is chocolate" part is analogous to "that by itself is enough to guarantee a longer lifespan". It is NOT part of the assumption -- it is something that must be true in order for the statement to make sense. However, this is not true. Gaining approximately one point every year is NOT enough to guarantee a longer lifespan by itself. This is like saying that John's ice cream is vanilla. It makes the entire statement irrelevant to our situation, because it is simply not true. Here, the only assumption is that the action of gaining approximately one pound every year must always be present for getting a longer lifespan.

In your second example, there isn't an analogous part. Let's modify it to say: Everyone greeted Garry as though he is the owner of the casino, since he spends so much time gambling. The assumption here is still just that Garry is the owner of the casino. The fact that he spends so much time gambling is NOT part of the assumption -- it is something that must be true in order for this statement to apply. So let's say that Garry actually never gambles. Then, this statement will simply not apply; it no longer makes any sense. If Garry never gambles, then it's not that people are making an incorrect assumption -- the facts are just totally wrong.

Does that help to clear things up any more here? If not, let me know
-Carolyn
_________________
Manager
Joined: 20 Jun 2017
Posts: 93
GMAT 1: 570 Q49 V19
Re: People who live unusually long tend to have been lean young  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

01 Sep 2018, 09:38
The argument says that people who were lean young adults and gained 1 pound a year lived unusually long. Based on this the author concludes that lean young adults can live longer by gaining 1 pound a year. The author here links 2 events that occurred on the same set of people as though 1 event caused the other but the 2 events even though observed on the same set people could be correlated but not have causal relation. This is what option D says.
Intern
Joined: 10 May 2018
Posts: 1
Concentration: Finance, Strategy
WE: Analyst (Commercial Banking)
Re: People who live unusually long tend to have been lean young  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

07 Nov 2018, 10:30
People who live unusually long tend to have been lean young adults who went on to gain approximately one pound every year, so lean young adults can improve their chances of living a long life by gaining about a pound every year.

A flaw in the argument above is that it

(A) gives reasons for the truth of its conclusion that presuppose the truth of that conclusion
[A seems to say that the conclusion (live long) is true before conclusion is verified. Since it is a flaw question, Stimuli info are not in question, argument structure is: shouldn't have to question the facts. Incorrect]

(B) proceeds as though a condition that by itself is enough to guarantee a certain result must always be present for that result to be achieved
[B states the flaw in argument is that stimulus asserts that condition (lean and gain weight) --> result (live long) and no other alternative condition is possible. However, stimulus used "tend" and "improve", which are not 100% probability words. So B is not a flaw. Incorrect]

(C) assumes without proof that two phenomena that occur together share an underlying cause
[Does not matter to the argument, argument did not state that the two phenomena share a cause. Incorrect]

(D) concludes that one phenomenon is the cause of another when at most what has been established is an association between them
[Stimulus states (live long)-->(lean + gain weight) as evidence for conclusion of (gain weight + lean) --> (live long). This is a flaw of mistake reversal. Also could be assuming causal relationship from correlation. Either way, that is the flaw of the argument. Correct]

(E) fails to recognize that a tendency widely shared by a subgroup within a given population will not necessarily be widely shared by that population as a whole
[Stimulus argument's flaw is not a flaw of composition as the evidence and results are both targeted at the same subgroup of population: lean young people. Incorrect]

Hope this helps
Verbal Forum Moderator
Status: Greatness begins beyond your comfort zone
Joined: 08 Dec 2013
Posts: 2129
Location: India
Concentration: General Management, Strategy
Schools: Kelley '20, ISB '19
GPA: 3.2
WE: Information Technology (Consulting)
People who live unusually long tend to have been lean young  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

09 Nov 2018, 06:42
People who live unusually long tend to have been lean young adults who went on to gain approximately one pound every year, so lean young adults can improve their chances of living a long life by gaining about a pound every year.

A flaw in the argument above is that it

(A) gives reasons for the truth of its conclusion that presuppose the truth of that conclusion - Incorrect

(B) proceeds as though a condition that by itself is enough to guarantee a certain result must always be present for that result to be achieved - Incorrect - we are told about a correlation and it has not been mentioned as necessary condition

(C) assumes without proof that two phenomena that occur together share an underlying cause - Incorrect - no such underlying cause is mentioned

(D) concludes that one phenomenon is the cause of another when at most what has been established is an association between them - Correct - this explains correlation vs causation

(E) fails to recognize that a tendency widely shared by a subgroup within a given population will not necessarily be widely shared by that population as a whole - Incorrect - this option seems incorrect if we consider the population as all adults (or humans) and the subgroup within a given population refers to lean young adults.

But what If we consider the population as the lean young adults and the subgroup as the population of lean young adults with a tendency to gain approximately one pound every year and thus live a long life? Won't E make sense then?

AjiteshArun , GMATNinja , MagooshExpert , GMATGuruNY , VeritasKarishma , DmitryFarber , ChiranjeevSingh , RonPurewal , VeritasPrepBrian , MartyMurray , ccooley , other experts - please enlighten
_________________

When everything seems to be going against you, remember that the airplane takes off against the wind, not with it. - Henry Ford
The Moment You Think About Giving Up, Think Of The Reason Why You Held On So Long
+1 Kudos if you find this post helpful

SVP
Joined: 15 Jul 2015
Posts: 1916
Location: India
GMAT 1: 780 Q50 V51
GRE 1: Q170 V169
Re: People who live unusually long tend to have been lean young  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

09 Nov 2018, 18:10
2
Skywalker18 wrote:
But what If we consider the population as the lean young adults and the subgroup as the population of lean young adults with a tendency to gain approximately one pound every year and thus live a long life? Won't E make sense then?

AjiteshArun , GMATNinja , MagooshExpert , GMATGuruNY , VeritasKarishma , DmitryFarber , ChiranjeevSingh , RonPurewal , VeritasPrepBrian , MartyMurray , ccooley , other experts - please enlighten
When they say "people who...", we should look at that group as all people who live unusually long. Many, but not all, people in this group were generally lean when they were young adults, and they had gained ~1 pound every year. So we can't say that the population consists of only those people who were lean as young adults.
_________________
Manager
Joined: 24 Mar 2018
Posts: 170
Re: People who live unusually long tend to have been lean young  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

20 Nov 2018, 01:51
AjiteshArun
Can you please brief the option A ?
I didn't even understand the option
SVP
Joined: 15 Jul 2015
Posts: 1916
Location: India
GMAT 1: 780 Q50 V51
GRE 1: Q170 V169
Re: People who live unusually long tend to have been lean young  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

20 Nov 2018, 18:11
teaserbae wrote:
AjiteshArun
Can you please brief the option A ?
I didn't even understand the option
When we say something like the premise presupposes the truth of the conclusion, what we mean is that the premise takes the conclusion as a given. For example:

A high GMAT score is essential because it is necessary to get a high GMAT score.
_________________
Re: People who live unusually long tend to have been lean young &nbs [#permalink] 20 Nov 2018, 18:11
Display posts from previous: Sort by