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# People with serious financial problems are so worried about

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25 Dec 2016, 21:04
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prakashgmat2016 wrote:
Hi Sayan,

I have a doubt in the following question. This is based on If A then B conditional statement. So the possible inference is if NOT B then NOT A. I tried to apply this logic but ended up with the wrong answer. E is the correct answer for this question

People with serious financial problems are so worried about money that they cannot be happy. Their misery makes everyone close to them—family, friends, colleagues—unhappy as well. Only if their financial problems are solved can they and those around them be happy.
Which one of the following statements can be properly inferred from the passage?
(A) Only serious problems make people unhappy.
(B) People who solve their serious financial problems will be happy.
(C) People who do not have serious financial problems will be happy.
(D) If people are unhappy, they have serious financial problems.
(E) If people are happy, they do not have serious financial problems. CORRECT ANSWER GIVEN

My First Explanation:

If I take the last statement " Only if their financial problems are solved can they and those around them be happy."

It means IF no financial problem(A) THEN people are happy (B)
So, I can conclude IF not happy (not B) THEN financial problem (not A) -- > This is exactly what D says

My Second Explanation:

Now if i take the first statement "People with serious financial problems are so worried about money that they cannot be happy."

It means IF serious financial problem(A) THEN people can not be happy (B)
So, I can conclude IF happy (not B) THEN no serious financial problem (not A) -- > This is exactly what E says and this is the CORRECT answer

1. Where i am going wrong in my first explanation?
2. Is the second explanation is correct

While solving this problem I marked D with 100% confidence and got it wrong

You second explanation is correct.

The statement "Only if THEIR financial problems are solved can they and those around them be happy" is said about the people who had financial problems. However there could be other people who do not have financial problems but still are unhappy. Nothing has been said about these people. Hence the first explanation is not perfect.
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27 Jan 2017, 03:54
B and E , both are correct as per the argument. How one can choose E over B . Experts please help
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27 Jan 2017, 04:09
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anje29 wrote:
B and E , both are correct as per the argument. How one can choose E over B . Experts please help

The passage states, "Only if their financial problems are solved, CAN they and those around them be happy." This implies that solving financial problems makes it possible for them to be happy. Whether they WILL actually be happy is not known, because there could be other reasons of being unhappy. Hence option B is incorrect.
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28 Jan 2017, 10:40
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For B, the argument says 'only if their financial problems are solved can they and those around them be happy'. Not surely that they will be happy. B says they will surely be happy, which is not correct.

E. If they are happy, we can be sure that they have no serious financial problem.
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03 Apr 2017, 06:42
This questions is of the type

Only if P, then Q.

Meaning : Q cannot exists without P.

~Q --> ~P.

P: Financial Problems
Q: Not Happy
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22 Apr 2017, 01:36
The stimulus can be diagrammed as follows:
Sentence 1: SF—>notH(Serious Financial Problems ---> People cannot be happy)
Sentence 3: H —>notSF(People Happy ---> no serious Financial Problems)
The sufficient condition in the first
sentence is introduced by the phrase “people with.” The necessary condition
in the third sentence is introduced by the phrase, “only if.” Note that the third
sentence provides the contrapositive of the first sentence. The second
sentence is not conditional and contains only general statements about the
effects of their misery. The question stem uses the word “inferred” and can
be classified as a Must Be True. When you encounter a stimulus that
contains conditional reasoning and a Must Be True question stem,
immediately look for a contrapositive or a repeat form in the answer choices.
In problems with this same combination, avoid Mistaken Reversals and
Mistaken Negations as they are attractive but wrong answer traps.
Contrapositive of sentence 1 :- notSF --> H & Sentence 3 :- H ---> notSF(only option E is correct because it is contrapositive of the first sentence and a repeat of the third sentence).
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15 Jul 2017, 00:23
Vavali wrote:
People with serious financial problems are so worried about money that they cannot be happy. Their misery makes everyone close to them—family, friends, colleagues—unhappy as well. Only if their financial problems are solved can they and those around them be happy.
Which one of the following statements can be properly inferred from the passage?
(A) Only serious problems make people unhappy.
(B) People who solve their serious financial problems will be happy.
(C) People who do not have serious financial problems will be happy.
(D) If people are unhappy, they have serious financial problems.
(E) If people are happy, they do not have serious financial problems.

I am not getting convinced with any of the answer choices. The contenders are "B" and "E". One way or the other both of them indicate that if people do not have serious financial problem they will be happy. However, as per the premise misery of a person makes family, friends and colleagues unhappy as well. The point is even if someone has solved his/her serious financial problem or do not have it at all, he/she still could be unhappy if his/her family, friends and colleagues are not happy because of some misery on their part.
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18 Sep 2017, 12:19
Question for experts:

I've read that conditional "if-then" on CR passages follow the following format:
X -> Y, or
X (not) -> Y (not)

AND the ONLY following Conclusion can be: Y (not) -> X (not)
- My question is this: Does it have to be in this order??

- Let me give an example: If I work out, then I am in shape. (format: If X, then Y).
-- According to this theory, the only possible if-then statement that can apply to this is: "If I am NOT in shape, then I do NOT work out".
-- Can I also say: "If I do NOT work out, then I am NOT in shape"?
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09 Nov 2017, 03:45
The concept of sufficient and necessary condition is very well explained by VeritasPrepKarishma

Statement: If A, then B (A is sufficient for B to happen)

ð A implies B

ð B does NOT imply A

ð ‘Not A’ does NOT imply ‘Not B’

ð ‘Not B’ implies ‘Not A’

Statement: Only if A, then B (A is necessary for B to happen)

ð A does NOT imply B

ð B implies A

ð ‘Not A’ implies ‘Not B’

ð ‘Not B’ does NOT imply ‘Not A’

Choice E (correct answer) falls into Only if A, then B => B implies A
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10 Jan 2018, 02:57
LakerFan24 wrote:
Question for experts:

I've read that conditional "if-then" on CR passages follow the following format:
X -> Y, or
X (not) -> Y (not)

AND the ONLY following Conclusion can be: Y (not) -> X (not)
- My question is this: Does it have to be in this order??

- Let me give an example: If I work out, then I am in shape. (format: If X, then Y).
-- According to this theory, the only possible if-then statement that can apply to this is: "If I am NOT in shape, then I do NOT work out".
-- Can I also say: "If I do NOT work out, then I am NOT in shape"?

I will now respond to your question. No, the logic is different. "If I do NOT work out, then I am NOT in shape" is the negation that is often used in assumption questions.
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26 Jan 2018, 10:20
Option E is the best bet. Straightforward answer by negation technique
P - Q
~Q- ~ P
Here P implies people having financial problems and Q implies not happy
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30 Jan 2018, 21:04
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dinesh86 wrote:
People with serious financial problems are so worried about money that they cannot be happy. Their misery makes everyone close to them—family, friends, colleagues—unhappy as well. Only if their financial problems are solved can they and those around them be happy.

Which one of the following statements can be properly inferred from the passage?

Conc: FP solved ----> Happiness (ana. to x --> y)

(A) Only serious problems make people unhappy - 'serious problems' is superset and we are concerned for 'serious financial problems'' only. Language is extreme.
(B) People who solve their serious financial problems will be happy - Correct. Go with argument
(C) People who do not have serious financial problems will be happy - no mention of people having no serious FP.
(D) If people are unhappy, they have serious financial problems - If x --> y then it doesn't mean that (-y) --> (-x)
(E) If people are happy, they do not have serious financial problems - If x --> y then it doesn't mean that y --> x

Correct me if I am wrong in my reasoning....

To solve this question I found helpful to review the logic of conditionality
If X then Y
This is the equivalent of: If non Y then non X.
Example: If it rains, then I will take an umbrella with me. I don't have a umbrella with me. That must mean it is not raining.
This is NOT equivalent to: If Y then X, or If Y then non X, or if non Y then X. In fact, if we know "If X then Y" and Y occurred, X may or may not happen.
Example. If it rains, then I will definitely take an umbrella with me. I have a umbrella with me today. Is it raining? It may or may not be raining. I said if it rains I will take an umbrella with me. But I could also take an umbralla with me just for the sake of it, even if it doesn't rain. By the same token, if it is not raining, do I have an umbralla with me? I may or may not have.
Using symbols:
X->Y nonY>nonX
nonX->Y nonY>X
X->nonY Y>non X

You can also think of it through the concept of necessary and sufficient conditions:
To get an A+ (sufficient) you must study (necessary).
Studying (necessary) is necessary to get an A+ (sufficient).
Only someone who studies can get an A+.

Sufficient indicator words: If, When, Whenever, Every, All, Any, People who, In order to
Necessary indicator words: Then, Only Only if, Must, Required, Unless, Except, Until, Without

Necessary conditions: If A is a necessary condition of B, that means A must happen for B to happen. In other words, if B happened, A must be true. If A is not true, then B can't happen. In summary: If B then A. If non A then non B.
Sufficient conditions: If A is a sufficient condition of B, that means if A happens B must happen. In other words, if B did not happen, A must be false. In summary: If A then B. If non B then non A.
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02 Mar 2018, 05:56
giuliab3 wrote:
dinesh86 wrote:
People with serious financial problems are so worried about money that they cannot be happy. Their misery makes everyone close to them—family, friends, colleagues—unhappy as well. Only if their financial problems are solved can they and those around them be happy.

Which one of the following statements can be properly inferred from the passage?

Conc: FP solved ----> Happiness (ana. to x --> y)

(A) Only serious problems make people unhappy - 'serious problems' is superset and we are concerned for 'serious financial problems'' only. Language is extreme.
(B) People who solve their serious financial problems will be happy - Correct. Go with argument
(C) People who do not have serious financial problems will be happy - no mention of people having no serious FP.
(D) If people are unhappy, they have serious financial problems - If x --> y then it doesn't mean that (-y) --> (-x)
(E) If people are happy, they do not have serious financial problems - If x --> y then it doesn't mean that y --> x

Correct me if I am wrong in my reasoning....

To solve this question I found helpful to review the logic of conditionality
If X then Y
This is the equivalent of: If non Y then non X.
Example: If it rains, then I will take an umbrella with me. I don't have a umbrella with me. That must mean it is not raining.
This is NOT equivalent to: If Y then X, or If Y then non X, or if non Y then X. In fact, if we know "If X then Y" and Y occurred, X may or may not happen.
Example. If it rains, then I will definitely take an umbrella with me. I have a umbrella with me today. Is it raining? It may or may not be raining. I said if it rains I will take an umbrella with me. But I could also take an umbralla with me just for the sake of it, even if it doesn't rain. By the same token, if it is not raining, do I have an umbralla with me? I may or may not have.
Using symbols:
X->Y nonY>nonX
nonX->Y nonY>X
X->nonY Y>non X

You can also think of it through the concept of necessary and sufficient conditions:
To get an A+ (sufficient) you must study (necessary).
Studying (necessary) is necessary to get an A+ (sufficient).
Only someone who studies can get an A+.

Sufficient indicator words: If, When, Whenever, Every, All, Any, People who, In order to
Necessary indicator words: Then, Only Only if, Must, Required, Unless, Except, Until, Without

Necessary conditions: If A is a necessary condition of B, that means A must happen for B to happen. In other words, if B happened, A must be true. If A is not true, then B can't happen. In summary: If B then A. If non A then non B.
Sufficient conditions: If A is a sufficient condition of B, that means if A happens B must happen. In other words, if B did not happen, A must be false. In summary: If A then B. If non B then non A.

I have found it extremely valuable discsuuion, but even after going through powescore CR bible, still I'm not comfortable to identify the necessary & sufficient conditions. I wish to avoid to memorise the key words; and got 3rd sentence diagramming wrong as (not) F.P ---> happy. please help how to identify the nessesary & suff conditions
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27 Mar 2018, 00:11
I think this argument is not propertly framed.
Here we have assume that all Financial Problems are Serious Financial Problems then only we can solve this
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09 Apr 2019, 06:47
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