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Peyer's patches, located in the lowest portion of the small intestine,

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Peyer's patches, located in the lowest portion of the small intestine,  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jan 2015, 10:07
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Peyer's patches, located in the lowest portion of the small intestine, are regions of lymphatic tissue in the intestinal wall that identify antigens within the intestine and facilitate the immune response to them.

a. are regions of lymphatic tissue in the intestinal wall that identify antigens within the intestine and facilitate
b. by means of regions of lymphatic tissue in the intestinal wall which identify antigens within the intestine, facilitating
c. are regions of lymphatic tissue in the intestinal wall and, as such, are identifiers of antigens within the intestine, facilitating
d. being regions of lymphatic tissue in the intestinal wall, identifying antigens within the intestine, and facilitating
e. regions of lymphatic tissue in the intestinal wall which identify antigens within the intestine and are facilitating
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Re: Peyer's patches, located in the lowest portion of the small intestine,  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jan 2015, 01:55
Good question, beattheheat!

Clearly except for A, all others are ungrammatical and wordy.
B - by means of regions is ungrammatical and usage of which is incorrect.
C - usage of "as such" is wordy and facilitating is wrongly used without parallelism and correct tense.
D - unnecessary usage of being and wordy
E - usage of which is incorrect

A seems to be the best among the given choices however that is a singular pronoun and the verbs used "identify" and "facilitate" are plural. Is that correct? Any expert opinion will be appreciated.


beattheheat wrote:
Peyer's patches, located in the lowest portion of the small intestine, are regions of lymphatic tissue in the intestinal wall that identify antigens within the intestine and facilitate the immune response to them.

a. are regions of lymphatic tissue in the intestinal wall that identify antigens within the intestine and facilitate
b. by means of regions of lymphatic tissue in the intestinal wall which identify antigens within the intestine, facilitating
c. are regions of lymphatic tissue in the intestinal wall and, as such, are identifiers of antigens within the intestine, facilitating
d. being regions of lymphatic tissue in the intestinal wall, identifying antigens within the intestine, and facilitating
e. regions of lymphatic tissue in the intestinal wall which identify antigens within the intestine and are facilitating
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Re: Peyer's patches, located in the lowest portion of the small intestine,  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Dec 2017, 12:21
fireinbelly wrote:
Good question, beattheheat!

Clearly except for A, all others are ungrammatical and wordy.
B - by means of regions is ungrammatical and usage of which is incorrect.
C - usage of "as such" is wordy and facilitating is wrongly used without parallelism and correct tense.
D - unnecessary usage of being and wordy
E - usage of which is incorrect

A seems to be the best among the given choices however that is a singular pronoun and the verbs used "identify" and "facilitate" are plural. Is that correct? Any expert opinion will be appreciated.


Hi, beattheheat, I do have similar confusion. That always follows touch rule and in the sentence it seems to modify the intestine wall. In such a case, verbs don't agree in number with singular noun wall. mikemcgarry Can you pls help here.

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Re: Peyer's patches, located in the lowest portion of the small intestine,  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Dec 2017, 15:09
"facilitating..." will have to be an action that results from the previous clause. However, since the preceding clause contains "and", it is illogical to have "facilitating" here.
Also, "as such" is wordy.

C is wrong.
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Re: Peyer's patches, located in the lowest portion of the small intestine,  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Dec 2017, 18:54
Hi Experts,

Can you please clear the doubt here. As per A "that" refers to wall which is singular and the verbs include and facilitate are plural. Also , as per the meaning it should be the regions which "include" "facilitate" and hence the plural verbs would make sense. Just because of 'that' , I rejected option A and chose C.
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Re: Peyer's patches, located in the lowest portion of the small intestine,  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Jan 2018, 21:34
umrani.sonali The modifier "that identify antigens . . . " applies to "regions," not "wall." Normally a noun modifier applies to the adjoining noun. However, in this case, the entire stretch from "regions" to "wall" is one big noun phrase: regions (of lymphatic tissue) (in the intestinal wall). Since those modifiers are "mission-critical" for specifying what regions we're talking about, we can skip over them in applying the modifier. If we read "that" as modifying "wall," the sentence doesn't make sense. This implies that there is one intestinal wall that identifies antigens and another that does not. Also, there is no answer choice that successfully conveys that meaning, so we can rule it out.
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Re: Peyer's patches, located in the lowest portion of the small intestine,  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Jan 2018, 22:22
Peyer's patches, located in the lowest portion of the small intestine, are regions of lymphatic tissue in the intestinal wall that identify antigens within the intestine and facilitate the immune response to them.

a. are regions of lymphatic tissue in the intestinal wall that identify antigens within the intestine and facilitate (Correct)
b. by means of regions of lymphatic tissue in the intestinal wall which identify antigens within the intestine, facilitating (Lack of main verb in the sentence)
c. are regions of lymphatic tissue in the intestinal wall and, as such, are identifiers of antigens within the intestine, facilitating (Patches are identifiers of antigens. It totally changes the meaning)
d. being regions of lymphatic tissue in the intestinal wall, identifying antigens within the intestine, and facilitating (Same as B)
e. regions of lymphatic tissue in the intestinal wall which identify antigens within the intestine and are facilitating (Same as B)
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Re: Peyer's patches, located in the lowest portion of the small intestine,  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Sep 2018, 05:16

Official Explanation


A question about Peyer’s patches, which are important in keeping our guts healthy.

Choice (A) has the subject “Peyer’s patches” and the full verb “are.” The latter part of the sentence is inside a “that”-clause. This is well-organized, concise, and error-free.

Choice (B) has [subject][noun modifier][noun modifier] “and these regions identify”—the second part, after the “and,” is a full independent clause, but the first part has a subject and no verb, the famous missing verb mistake. This choice is incorrect.

Choice (C) has an awkward wording “are located in … as regions of lymphatic tissue.” What on earth does that mean? Does it mean that if they were located somewhere else, they wouldn’t be lymphatic tissue? The construction illogically implies a connection between location and substantial identity. This choice is incorrect.

Choice (D) has “PP are located … and, as such, are identifiers .. and facilitate”—this is problematic as parallelism. First of all, in a list of three elements, the word “and” should not appear twice. More importantly, the use of “are identifiers” rather than simply “identify” is quite awkward. This choice is incorrect.

Choice (E) is awkward. Notice the entire second half of the sentence is a gigantic prepositional phrase beginning with “for.” The actions of identifying and facilitating are changed their noun form—this change has the effect of making the sentence more plodding and punchless. Nouns tend to be about statis, things that sit still, and verbs are about action & movement. Finally, the preposition “for” is awkward: it implies that “Peyer’s patches” were put there in some intentionally designed way. Whether that’s ultimately true is well beyond GMAT SC: the implications made in GMAT SC are considerably more modest. This choice is incorrect.

The only possible choice is (A).
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Re: Peyer's patches, located in the lowest portion of the small intestine, &nbs [#permalink] 15 Sep 2018, 05:16
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