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# Phrase must be introduced by a prepostion, no a participle?

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Phrase must be introduced by a prepostion, no a participle? [#permalink]

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03 Apr 2007, 20:47
While studying OG11, I came across the following SC question:

After gradual declension down to about 39 hours in 1970, the work week in the U.S. has steadily increased to the point that the average worker now puts in an estimated 164 extra hours of paid labor a year.

B) Following a gradual declension down

A, B, and C are wrong. declension or declining in combination with the word down is redundant. Between choice D and E, I choose E.

E is incorrect. When I looked at the explaination, OG11 tells me: Phrase must be introduced by a preposition (after), not a participle (following).

I am confused. I see many phrases begin with participles in OG11:
1) Warning (participle) that computers in the U.S. are not secure...
2) Rising (participle) inventories, if not accompanied by sales...

What is going on? Please explain.
If you have any questions
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03 Apr 2007, 22:00
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03 Apr 2007, 23:17
I got this link from some of the previous posts as well

This is a very good link to under the use of verbals

Totally worth time understanding the complete page

Good one wilfred
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Re: Phrase must be introduced by a prepostion, no a particip [#permalink]

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04 Apr 2007, 05:25
leeye84 wrote:
While studying OG11, I came across the following SC question:

After gradual declension down to about 39 hours in 1970, the work week in the U.S. has steadily increased to the point that the average worker now puts in an estimated 164 extra hours of paid labor a year.

B) Following a gradual declension down

A, B, and C are wrong. declension or declining in combination with the word down is redundant. Between choice D and E, I choose E.

E is incorrect. When I looked at the explaination, OG11 tells me: Phrase must be introduced by a preposition (after), not a participle (following).

I am confused. I see many phrases begin with participles in OG11:
1) Warning (participle) that computers in the U.S. are not secure...
2) Rising (participle) inventories, if not accompanied by sales...

What is going on? Please explain.

OG is only saying that beginning the phrase using a participle (as appearing in the answer choices) is not correct. I don't think OG is advocating a general rule to show that no sentence should begin with a participle.
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Re: Phrase must be introduced by a prepostion, no a particip [#permalink]

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04 Apr 2007, 18:28
Sometimes OG is confused, driving me to the wall , so I have to ask for help here.

In this case, "Following ..." modifies "the work week", but " the work week is follwing ..." sounds weird.
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05 Apr 2007, 06:33
Ya Wudy u are right...there is a modifier error in this.
And a participle can introduce a phrase...only in this case it cant because it makes no sense.

hi Leeye,in the sentence
Warning (participle) that computers in the U.S. are not secure...
Warning is not a participle but a noun.

-ing ending words can be Participles(adjectives) or Gerunds(nouns).

Use the link below for better understanding.
http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/grammar/g_verbals.html

Hope this helps...
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Re: Phrase must be introduced by a prepostion, no a participle? [#permalink]

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20 May 2008, 23:15
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leeye84 wrote:
While studying OG11, I came across the following SC question:

After gradual declension down to about 39 hours in 1970, the work week in the U.S. has steadily increased to the point that the average worker now puts in an estimated 164 extra hours of paid labor a year.

B) Following a gradual declension down

A, B, and C are wrong. declension or declining in combination with the word down is redundant. Between choice D and E, I choose E.

E is incorrect. When I looked at the explaination, OG11 tells me: Phrase must be introduced by a preposition (after), not a participle (following).

I am confused. I see many phrases begin with participles in OG11:
1) Warning (participle) that computers in the U.S. are not secure...
2) Rising (participle) inventories, if not accompanied by sales...

What is going on? Please explain.

"The work week" is simply too far from "following".
Also, I don't think "following" is supposed to modify "the work week",
it is supposed to modify "the gradual decline of the work week" - which is not stated in its NOUN form in case of E.
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12 Jun 2008, 08:22
ywilfred wrote:

It did help a lot buddy thanks a lot
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Re: Phrase must be introduced by a prepostion, no a participle? [#permalink]

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03 Nov 2008, 13:16
leeye84 wrote:
While studying OG11, I came across the following SC question:

After gradual declension down to about 39 hours in 1970, the work week in the U.S. has steadily increased to the point that the average worker now puts in an estimated 164 extra hours of paid labor a year.

B) Following a gradual declension down

Try looking at the question this way:

Following declining..., the work week increased ...
compare the above sentence to D (without the adv mod as well):
After declining..., the work week increased...

The “following declining” sentence just does not make sense, whereas "after declining" sentence is clean clear and under control
And yes it looks like “following” modifies the “work week”

From what I know, if you see two gerunds in a row -- wrong
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Re: Phrase must be introduced by a prepostion, no a participle? [#permalink]

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03 Nov 2008, 13:29
leeye84 wrote:
While studying OG11, I came across the following SC question:

After gradual declension down to about 39 hours in 1970, the work week in the U.S. has steadily increased to the point that the average worker now puts in an estimated 164 extra hours of paid labor a year.

B) Following a gradual declension down

Can I argue that in "Following gradually declining" (option E) it is not clear what the adv. modifier "gradually" actually modifies (eg: "following" how? "gradually")?
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Re: Phrase must be introduced by a prepostion, no a participle? [#permalink]

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04 Nov 2008, 10:57
Excellent post. I seem to have got my concepts on partiple, gerund and infinitive clear.

Option E introduces participle phrase "following gradually...." whereas option option D retains the object form by introducing gerund phrase("gradually declining....".

Thus, option E changes the meaning and option D is correct.
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Re: Phrase must be introduced by a prepostion, no a participle? [#permalink]

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01 Aug 2011, 23:25
The overall answer has to be D
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Re: Phrase must be introduced by a prepostion, no a participle? [#permalink]

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15 Aug 2011, 06:40
Re: Phrase must be introduced by a prepostion, no a participle?   [#permalink] 15 Aug 2011, 06:40
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