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# Pioneered by scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory,

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Pioneered by scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory,  [#permalink]

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09 Oct 2009, 12:29
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Pioneered by scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory, BEAM robots are not programmed to walk: instead they use brainlike circuits called neural networks to learn to walk through trial and error.
A. BEAM robots are not programmed to walk; instead they use brainlike circuits called neural networks to learn to walk through trial and error
B. BEAM robots learn to walk through trial and error by using brainlike circuits called neural networks instead of by programming them
C. BEAM robots are not being programmed to walk but instead using brainlike circuits called neural networks and learning to walk through trial and error
D. brainlike circuits called neural networks are used instead of programming for BEAM robots learning to walk through trial and error
E. brainlike circuits called neural networks are being used for BEAM robots that learn to walk through trial and error instead of being programmed

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Re: Pioneered by scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory,  [#permalink]

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09 Oct 2009, 12:46
A seems fine

B: 'instead of by' - awkward
C: obviously wrong
D & E: change meaning - robots and not brainlike circuits were pioneered by scientists
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Re: Pioneered by scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory,  [#permalink]

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09 Oct 2009, 22:50
OA is A

I was confused with option D, as reading the first time a reader can also think that its 'brain like circuits' and not 'Robots'. Moreover, if you read the rest of the sentence in option D you'll find that, though it has a different meaning, it is grammatically correct sentence. Any suggestions??
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Re: Pioneered by scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory,  [#permalink]

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21 Jun 2010, 11:20
1
I am confussed here. B is the more parallel for me.
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Re: Pioneered by scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory,  [#permalink]

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21 Jun 2010, 20:42
D and E are clear OUT bcos of modifier issue
C uses being OUT
B is passive
A it is.
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Re: Pioneered by scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory,  [#permalink]

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06 Jul 2010, 07:05
1
'Pioneered by scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory' should modify 'BEAM Robots'

B is out for passive and awkward - by using brainlike circuits............instead of by programming them.

C is incorrect - being programmed

D and E are out for modifier issue

A it is.
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Re: Pioneered by scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory,  [#permalink]

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15 Dec 2010, 09:50
seekmba wrote:
'Pioneered by scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory' should modify 'BEAM Robots'

B is out for passive and awkward - by using brainlike circuits............instead of by programming them.

C is incorrect - being programmed

D and E are out for modifier issue

A it is.

i have more reason to eliminate B. It is because "them" is ambiguous. We dont know whether "them" refers to "robots" or "circuits".
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Re: Pioneered by scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory,  [#permalink]

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15 Dec 2010, 12:14
A is the only one that doesn't sound really awkward
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Re: Pioneered by scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory,  [#permalink]

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16 Dec 2010, 09:03
I agree that the ans is A. What's the OA?
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Re: Pioneered by scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory,  [#permalink]

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05 Jan 2011, 12:17
OA is A. However, how can "instead they use brainlike circuits called neural networks to learn to walk through trial and error" stand by itself as it should because of the ;

Thoughts on that.
Thanks.
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Re: Pioneered by scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory,  [#permalink]

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05 Jan 2011, 21:26
noboru wrote:
OA is A. However, how can "instead they use brainlike circuits called neural networks to learn to walk through trial and error" stand by itself as it should because of the ;

Thoughts on that.
Thanks.

hi, it is simply that OA is always correct answer so that rather than questioning the OA, we should find out why other choices are incorrect. Let me try to attack the four incorrect options. Plz let me know if i make any wrong elucidation in concept.
Pioneered by scientists ... --> what is pioneered here? it must be Robot --> eliminate D,E for wrong modifier. This is dangling error.
C: is wrong in tense which is using present participle. The original meaning does not focus on what is happening but what happens. Moreover, it is wrong in meaning. The robot use brain to learn not :use brain and learn
B: is wrong in meaning when it says that Robots learn X by using Y instead of programing them--> robots program themselves? Ridiculous right?
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Re: Pioneered by scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory,  [#permalink]

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06 Jan 2011, 03:18
I understand why B, C, D, and E are wrong.

My question is how can A be correct taking into account how the ; is used in that answer.

Thanks.

MICKEYXITIN wrote:
noboru wrote:
OA is A. However, how can "instead they use brainlike circuits called neural networks to learn to walk through trial and error" stand by itself as it should because of the ;

Thoughts on that.
Thanks.

hi, it is simply that OA is always correct answer so that rather than questioning the OA, we should find out why other choices are incorrect. Let me try to attack the four incorrect options. Plz let me know if i make any wrong elucidation in concept.
Pioneered by scientists ... --> what is pioneered here? it must be Robot --> eliminate D,E for wrong modifier. This is dangling error.
C: is wrong in tense which is using present participle. The original meaning does not focus on what is happening but what happens. Moreover, it is wrong in meaning. The robot use brain to learn not :use brain and learn
B: is wrong in meaning when it says that Robots learn X by using Y instead of programing them--> robots program themselves? Ridiculous right?

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Re: Pioneered by scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory,  [#permalink]

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07 Jan 2011, 01:06
noboru wrote:
I understand why B, C, D, and E are wrong.

My question is how can A be correct taking into account how the ; is used in that answer.

Thanks.

[/quote]
i, interesting question noboru, i should have understood your query on usage of ";" here. to my limited knowlege, ";" is use when we have 2 independent clauses which have close meaning with each other. S1+V1; S2+V2.
I've found the very helpful elaboration from jnelson0612 , a manhattan gmat staff that helps us elucidate this confuse.
http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/hi- ... 11430.html
hope it helps
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Re: Pioneered by scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory,  [#permalink]

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07 Jan 2011, 03:44
MICKEYXITIN wrote:
noboru wrote:
I understand why B, C, D, and E are wrong.

My question is how can A be correct taking into account how the ; is used in that answer.

Thanks.

i, interesting question noboru, i should have understood your query on usage of ";" here. to my limited knowlege, ";" is use when we have 2 independent clauses which have close meaning with each other. S1+V1; S2+V2.
I've found the very helpful elaboration from jnelson0612 , a manhattan gmat staff that helps us elucidate this confuse.
http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/hi- ... 11430.html
hope it helps[/quote]

Thanks.

I guess that the point here is that "instead they use brainlike circuits called neural networks to learn to walk through trial and error" is actually an independent clause. The word "instead" was confusing me, and I thought that it was not an independent clause.
Thoughts?
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Re: Pioneered by scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory,  [#permalink]

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08 Jan 2011, 08:24
noboru wrote:
MICKEYXITIN wrote:
noboru wrote:

Thanks.

I guess that the point here is that "instead they use brainlike circuits called neural networks to learn to walk through trial and error" is actually an independent clause. The word "instead" was confusing me, and I thought that it was not an independent clause.
Thoughts?

actually we were on the same page. The first time i saw the sc which uses "instead" i think the word is a conjunction word like "but" or "and".
However "instead" is adverb so the second clause is an independent clause indeed. You can check your dictionary to confirm my search.
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Re: Pioneered by scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory,  [#permalink]

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23 Jan 2015, 09:45
abhi758 wrote:
Pioneered by scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory, BEAM robots are not programmed to walk: instead they use brainlike circuits called neural networks to learn to walk through trial and error.
A. BEAM robots are not programmed to walk; instead they use brainlike circuits called neural networks to learn to walk through trial and error
B. BEAM robots learn to walk through trial and error by using brainlike circuits called neural networks instead of by programming them
C. BEAM robots are not being programmed to walk but instead using brainlike circuits called neural networks and learning to walk through trial and error
D. brainlike circuits called neural networks are used instead of programming for BEAM robots learning to walk through trial and error
E. brainlike circuits called neural networks are being used for BEAM robots that learn to walk through trial and error instead of being programmed

Stated that you can pioneer both BEAM robots and brainlike circuits, let's walk through the answers.

B) sounds like robots are programming circuits, when scientists are.
C) there's no parallelism at all. Robots are not being programmed (they are subjected to an action), but using (who's using?)
D) for BEAM robots learning to walk is wrong.
E) this one is a mess.

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Re: Pioneered by scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory,  [#permalink]

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08 May 2015, 00:57
abhi758 wrote:
Pioneered by scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory, BEAM robots are not programmed to walk: instead they use brainlike circuits called neural networks to learn to walk through trial and error.
A. BEAM robots are not programmed to walk; instead they use brainlike circuits called neural networks to learn to walk through trial and error
B. BEAM robots learn to walk through trial and error by using brainlike circuits called neural networks instead of by programming them
C. BEAM robots are not being programmed to walk but instead using brainlike circuits called neural networks and learning to walk through trial and error
D. brainlike circuits called neural networks are used instead of programming for BEAM robots learning to walk through trial and error
E. brainlike circuits called neural networks are being used for BEAM robots that learn to walk through trial and error instead of being programmed

Ans A.

D, E is straightout because of modifier issue.

B - by using brainlike circuits is passive and instead of by programming - wrong
C - not being programmed - wrong and wordy
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Re: Pioneered by scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory,  [#permalink]

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05 Sep 2017, 20:13
The modifier “Pioneered by scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory” should modify “BEAM robots”, so BEAM robots must follow the comma. This eliminates D and E.

In B, according to the parallelism, "them" would refer to the circuits, not the robots. Tn fact, "them" can't refer to the robots in this construction, because "robots" is actually still the subject at this point. If "them" were to refer to the robots, it'd have to appear as "themselves" - which would be grammatically ok, but still ABSURD.

C uses the present continuous tense (passive). Continuous tenses denote a moment, not a period of time. WRONG meaning here! Also, there is no contrast word in C; as we are discussing 2 contrasting ideas, we must have a contrast word.

A semi-colon serves to connect two complete sentences that are closely related in meaning.
A: “BEAM robots are not programmed to walk; instead they use brain like circuits.”
Here,” instead they use brain-like circuits” is a complete sentence in which ” instead” serves as an introductory modifier.
The purpose of “instead” is to express that the second action (“they use”) happens IN PLACE OF the proceeding action (“are programmed”).
Conveyed meaning:
“BEAM robots are not programmed. “
“Instead” -- meaning IN PLACE OF THIS ACTION – “BEAM robots USE BRAIN-LIKE CIRCUITS. “
A: correct
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Re: Pioneered by scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory,  [#permalink]

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06 Sep 2017, 00:20
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Pioneered by scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory, BEAM robots are not programmed to walk: instead they use brainlike circuits called neural networks to learn to walk through trial and error.

A. BEAM robots are not programmed to walk; instead they use brainlike circuits called neural networks to learn to walk through trial and error--- correct

B. BEAM robots learn to walk through trial and error by using brainlike circuits called neural networks instead of by programming them--- instead of is incorrect usage

C. BEAM robots are not being programmed to walk but instead using brainlike circuits called neural networks and learning to walk through trial and error --- unparallel and a fragment

D. brainlike circuits called neural networks are used instead of programming for BEAM robots learning to walk through trial and error-- 1. modification error 2. instead of is wrong.

E. brainlike circuits called neural networks are being used for BEAM robots that learn to walk through trial and error instead of being programmed ----1. modification error 2. instead of is wrong
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Re: Pioneered by scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory,  [#permalink]

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06 Sep 2017, 04:31
The reasoning for this question is that the scientists developed beam Robots
So D and E are out
Instead of by is wrong in B
C is wordy and there is shift in meaning as well
It suggests that the robots are programmed not to walk but to use circuits
A is the only possible choice

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