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Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the

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Re: Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2019, 10:42
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A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
The first is actually against and in no way a basis for the original course of action.................Eliminated.

B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption.
Second doesn't question the first boldface as implied in this option..............Eliminated.


C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
The first is actually against the original course of action and second, suggest the new one.................Correct answer.


D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy.
The first is actually against and in no way explains the appeal of the original strategy................Eliminated.

E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy.
The second doesn't support the old strategy and presents a new one....................Eliminated.


ANSWER: C
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New post 26 Jul 2019, 10:54
Answer C

first BF=Assumption against strategy
2nd BF=course of action
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New post 26 Jul 2019, 11:01
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A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
THe first is not the course of actions, the first is the prediction what unplanned issues may occur;
I like the second part of the option

B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption.
the first part is correct, we can use the first to oppose the current strategy
THe second is another strategy, and does not cast doubt on the first

C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
I'll bet on this
the first opposes the current strategy, the second offers another strategy, which is considered more realistic

D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy.
Both parts are wrong
the first casts doubt on the current strategy, the second is another strategy

E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy.
the first part is correct, but the second part says that the second is presented to explain current strategy, thats definitely wrong, the second is the second offered strategy by the author

IMO
Ans: C
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Re: Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2019, 11:02
A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument. (CORRECT - The first bold part is an assumption that forms the basis of the course action that was criticized as it appeared in the next sentence that these "...practical factors have certainly not been planned for...". The second bold part presents the course of action expected)

B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption. (INCORRECT - The second bold part is not used to cast doubt on the first bold part but rather, it is a suggestion presented by the author)

C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument. (INCORRECT - This looks tempting and while the second bold part is correct as explained above, the first bold part explanation here is not so wrong. The first bold part here says that the assumption is used to oppose a certain strategy but in "A" above, there was more information of what the assumption was specifically used for, therefore this is not good enough)

D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy. (INCORRECT - The first bold part is not a consideration to explain a certain strategy neither is it an appeal but rather to explain what would have happened - an assumption)

E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy. (INCORRECT - The first bold part is clearly an assumption and not a consideration. The second bold part is clearly not presented to explain the any appeal of the failed strategy)


Hence answer choice A.
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Re: Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2019, 11:22
IMO correct answer is A

Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the state’s railroad program, blatantly overlooked by those in power, is its timeline. 12 years’ horizon for the ambitious project is way too long given the importance it carries for development of the lagging state. In such a span, the government will change twice, technology shall advance by generations, and inflation will halve the value of the allocated budget! Given the lackadaisical record of the administering body, these practical factors have certainly not been planned for and the taxpayer’s money and state’s infrastructure are in jeopardy. A phase-wise implementation with smaller budgets and timelines shall give the project, its best chance of success.

A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument - The first one is an assumption that the author makes in order to justify the basis of the course of action that as a whole the argument criticizes - what the author is trying to convey is that the X program is having a flaw in it's planning in terms of proposed timeline, & in order to support his remark, he presents his assumption that during this time frame a lot of important factors are going to be changes which will in turn collapse the program - the first statement is TRUE - Now, the second one - the course of actions that should be in place as per the author for the plan to be successful (endorsed by the argument) is given in this statement - TRUE - Correct Answer.
B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption - The second is definitely not a consideration, it is a plan to overcome the shortfall of the strategy, which according to the author is flawed - Incorrect
C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument - The assumption is not opposing any strategy, it is in turn saying that if these factors were true then definitely the long timeline that has been proposed for the plan to be executed will have more hurdles to overcome - Incorrect
D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy. "The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy" - The first Bold face statement is not a consideration, it is a to be scenario that if happens poses most significant drawback in the given plan; "The second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy" - this portion is also not true, the second bold face plays an alternative good plan according to the author, will bring success if employed - Incorrect
E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy - again, the second portion, "the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy" is not true, it is not presented to show the appeal, moreover it is opposing the strategy & providing an alternative one for a better result - Incorrect
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Re: Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2019, 11:24
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Quote:
Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the state’s railroad program, blatantly overlooked by those in power, is its timeline. 12 years’ horizon for the ambitious project is way too long given the importance it carries for development of the lagging state. In such a span, the government will change twice, technology shall advance by generations, and inflation will halve the value of the allocated budget! Given the lackadaisical record of the administering body, these practical factors have certainly not been planned for and the taxpayer’s money and state’s infrastructure are in jeopardy. A phase-wise implementation with smaller budgets and timelines shall give the project, its best chance of success.

A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption.
C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy.
E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy.


The passage presents one side of a political debate regarding a very essential but extremely large scale railroad project. The author is opposing the implementation plan and noting potential pitfalls of the plan in place. Author concludes the argument by presenting an alternate plan for the project.

BF-1: States how the extended timeframe of the project will impact the project's execution. The govt would change twice, technological developments may render the project outdated or redundant and inflation will eat away the budget.
BF-2: Presents an alternate plan where phase wise planning and implementation is instead put in place, which in the author's opinion shall enhance the project's chances of success.

Quote:
A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.

The first is for sure an assumption but it does not form the basis of the criticism, it IS the criticism. The 1st BF enlists why the project strategy is destined for failure it is not the basis for the critique. Eliminate.

Quote:
B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption.

The first is an assumption that opposes the current strategy, sure that seems fine. The 2nd though clearly does not cast doubt on the assumption rather presents an alternate plan that alleviates the criticisms that the assumptions raise. Eliminate.

Quote:
C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.

The first part is a repeat of B and we already concluded that it fits the argument. Yup! and the second does provide an alternate strategy that the argument supports. Everything seems to be in order here. Lets hold on to this one.

Quote:
D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy.

The first BF does not support but actually opposes the strategy and the 2nd one provides a workaround. All wrong.Eliminate.

Quote:
E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy.

The first part seems fine although I would argue that E softens the blow a bit, but the second definitely does not present the appeal of that strategy it says it should be reworked altogetherEliminate.

C is your answer then.
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Re: Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2019, 11:35
the government will change twice, technology shall advance by generations, and inflation will halve the value of the allocated budget! an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes

A phase-wise implementation with smaller budgets and timelines shall give the project, its best chance of success. the course of action endorsed by the argument.

A is correct.
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New post 26 Jul 2019, 11:57
1
Quote:
Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the state’s railroad program, blatantly overlooked by those in power, is its timeline. 12 years’ horizon for the ambitious project is way too long given the importance it carries for development of the lagging state. In such a span, the government will change twice, technology shall advance by generations, and inflation will halve the value of the allocated budget! Given the lackadaisical record of the administering body, these practical factors have certainly not been planned for and the taxpayer’s money and state’s infrastructure are in jeopardy. A phase-wise implementation with smaller budgets and timelines shall give the project, its best chance of success.


ANALYSIS:
Biggest flaw is timeline.... 12 yrs is too long..... govt will change, tech will advance, inflation will devalue budget.... taxpayers moneya nd states infrastructure are in jeopardy.... phase wise implementation gives best chance.

A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
>> argument criticises 12yr plan... first is NOT BASIS for 12 yr plan... though 2nd is the endorsed course of action......DISCARDED

B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption.
>> first may be considered to be opposing A STRATEGY... even if 1st is correct, 2nd is NOT CASTING DOUBT on 1st assumption.. 2nd is a suggested course of action based on 1st assumption....DISCARDED

C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
>> Yes, 1st IS Opposing 12 Year Plan.... 2nd presents phase wise implementation which is endorsed by the argument...... THIS IS CORRECT

D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy.
>> 1st may be considered a way to explain strategy of PHASE WISE implementation... BUT, if that were true, 2nd DOES NOt QUESTION the phase implementation strategy, 2nd IS that strategy....... DISCARDED

E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy.
>> 1st may be considered to shaw that 12 YEAR PLAN is unlikely to acheive intended effect, BUT, 2nd is NOT EXPLAINING APPEAL of 12 year plan... it is suggesting another strategy.... DISCARDED


ANSWER: C
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Re: Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2019, 12:34
1
Quote:
Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the state’s railroad program, blatantly overlooked by those in power, is its timeline. 12 years’ horizon for the ambitious project is way too long given the importance it carries for development of the lagging state. In such a span, the government will change twice, technology shall advance by generations, and inflation will halve the value of the allocated budget! Given the lackadaisical record of the administering body, these practical factors have certainly not been planned for and the taxpayer’s money and state’s infrastructure are in jeopardy. A phase-wise implementation with smaller budgets and timelines shall give the project, its best chance of success.

A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption.
C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy.
E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy.


In the above argument the spokesperson criticises the railroad program for taking too much time to complete.
In BF1, the author gives various possibilities that can happen during the time of the program.
In Bf2, the author suggests us a better approach for execution.

POE:
A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.Incorrect --> yes BF1 is an assumption but it does not form the basis for the course of action
B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption.Incorrect --> BF2 gives another approach
C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.Correct it resolves both the issues of A and B
D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy.Incorrect --> both are incorrect as per our prethinking
E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy.Doesnt match with prethinking of BF2

Option C is the answer
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Re: Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2019, 13:16
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In the first boldface the author makes a sort of prediction of how things will change in the next 12 years. It is fair to call this an assumption.

In the second boldface, the author gives a suggestion overcome the challenges presented by the assumption

A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
The first is used as a support to draw the suggestion presented in the second but this option presents the two boldfaces in opposite sides. - Eliminate

B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption.
First and second are not on opposite sides - Eliminate

C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
First opposes the 12 year plan. Seconds presents the phase wise plan - Correct

D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy.
First and second are not on opposite sides - Eliminate

E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy.
The first does try to show that the 12 year plan won't work but the second does not explain the appeal of the 12 year plan - Eliminate

Answer is (C)
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Re: Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2019, 13:18
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The flow of the argument firstly reveals the flaw of the program, then giving the reason to explain why its flaw matters and it should be considered. So, it can be seen as opposing the program. The following sentence gives another reason to persuade readers that the program is problematic and unwise. After all, the last sentence gives the solution with possible chain of action should be taken.
---->Generally, I rely on the flow of the argument to examine the role of the boldface parts.

A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.---->Incorrect.

B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption.---->Incorrect, since the 1st part gives the reason to believe that the flaw on the program should be thought twice. It is obviously that 2 boldface is not opposite each other.

C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.---->Correct, due to basing on my explanation above.

D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy.--->Incorrect, there's no info that makes the strategy appeals.

E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy.--->Incorrect, there's no info that makes the strategy appeals.
------->The answer is C.
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New post Updated on: 26 Jul 2019, 23:00
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If country’s currency is expected to depreciate by half over the next dozen years, then the state indeed seems to be in much trouble. Without improved railroad infrastructure and logistics it will probably lag many more years. So let’s dissect the argument to make it as clear as possible to those in power, because that spokesperson is saying really wise things.

What is the main message of the spokesperson? – Of course, an alternative proposal! All of what he said before his last sentence was well laid arguments against the current, but for the new strategy that he introduces at the end.

Spokesperson’s assessment: The timeline that the current strategy requires is its BIGGEST FLAW.

Spokesperson’s reasoning: Why that timeline is the biggest flaw? The reason is that during this period government will change twice, current technology will become obsolete, and the allocated budget will depreciate by half (the first boldface). However, current strategy DOESN’T address these issues.

Spokesperson’s alternative proposal: Therefore, we need a new strategy requiring less time and budget.

From our analyses we can see that the author uses the first boldface as a reason to oppose the current strategy of implementing the railroad program. Indeed the first boldface enumerates three practical factors that jeopardize the taxpayer’s money and state’s infrastructure. The second boldface is by no means the course of action (strategy) the spokesperson endorses. That’s what the correct answer choice C says.

Assumption = author’s hypothesis about the future. All those three factors are not 100% certain to happen. But there is a high probability that they will take place. Thus using the notion “assumption” is correct.

A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes. That’s incorrect because in reality, the spokesperson uses the first boldface in order to create a basis for a new strategy that he ENDORSES, but NOT criticizes.

B. The second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption (first boldface). That’s incorrect because the second boldface doesn’t cast doubt on the first boldface. In other words, the second boldface DOESN'T claim that inflation, technology obsolescence, and government change will NOT happen.

D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy. That’s incorrect because the first explains NOT the appeal, BUT the disaster of the current strategy.

The second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy. That’s incorrect because the second talks NOT about the current, BUT about the alternative strategy.

E. The second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy (the current strategy). That’s incorrect because the first explains NOT the appeal, BUT the disaster of the current strategy.

Hence C
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Originally posted by JonShukhrat on 26 Jul 2019, 15:50.
Last edited by JonShukhrat on 26 Jul 2019, 23:00, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2019, 17:23
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The stimulus is as follows:
Conclusion opposing the plan: most apparent flaw in the state’s railroad program, blatantly overlooked by those in power, is its timeline.
Assumptions justifying the conclusion against the plan: the government will change twice, technology shall advance ... --> boldface (1)
Alternative plan Proposal: A phase-wise implementation with smaller budgets and timelines shall give the project --> boldface (2)

Boldface (1) is not the basis of the criticized plan ], but assumed consequences of the criticized plan --> A out
Boldface (1) 's primary objective is to clarify the flaws of the current plan rather than to promote an alternative strategy , D is not quite right.

Boldface (2) is a alternative course of action, proposed by the author relying on the conclusion reached, not to explain the appeal the current strategy (as in E)
It is not conflicting with the author's assumptions (as in B) and, by itself, is not carrying any evidences or assumptions that criticize the current plan (as in D)

A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption.
C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy.
E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy.

C
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Re: Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2019, 18:31
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Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the state’s railroad program, blatantly overlooked by those in power, is its timeline. 12 years’ horizon for the ambitious project is way too long given the importance it carries for development of the lagging state. In such a span, the government will change twice, technology shall advance by generations, and inflation will halve the value of the allocated budget! Given the lackadaisical record of the administering body, these practical factors have certainly not been planned for and the taxpayer’s money and state’s infrastructure are in jeopardy. A phase-wise implementation with smaller budgets and timelines shall give the project, its best chance of success.

Paraphrase:

The spokesperson highlights timeline as the most apparent flaw in the state's railroad program. The support he is providing for this statement is that 12 years is a long time and during that time span, he is assuming that a lot of things would change. The spokesperson argues that these potential changing factors have not been taken into consideration. Hence providing an alternate course of action to make the project a success.

Hence BF1 is an assumption used to criticize the state's plan and BF2 is an alternate course of action.

A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument. BF1 is not the basis for an action the argument criticizes. It's the opposite. Its a basis for the alternate course of action suggested.
B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption. BF2 is not casting doubt on the assumption.
C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument. Correct, matches with prethinking.
D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy. BF1 is not a consideration that appeals to the state's current strategy.
E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy. BF2 is not an explanation of the proposed strategy, its the strategy itself that's proposed.
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New post 26 Jul 2019, 18:42
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Political spokeperson's view about one important aspect overlooked in railroad program - timeline. so what about timeline. It's long 12 years. Many obvious things will happen in these 12 years - government will change two times, technology will advance and inflation will be half of budgeted value. these factors don't seem to have been considered well and could put taxpayer's money at risk of completing the project. hence, phase-wise implementation with smaller budgets and timelines will have best chance of success.

A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
apparently the factors in first have not been considered , if they were considered and formed a basis for a course of action, then it would be different course of action that would have planned for these factors.

B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption.
while first is used to show limitation/concerns with 12 year timeline strategy, so we could say it is used to oppose that strategy. however, second is not casting doubt on these missing factors.

C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
while first is used to show limitation/concerns with 12 year timeline strategy, so we could say it is used to oppose that strategy. second does present a course of action endorsed by the author - the phase-wise implementation. keep the answer

D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy.
first does not support 12 years timeline strategy or phase wise strategy. second is a course of action or strategy indication in itself.

E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy.
While it can be said first is a consideration raised to show plan(12 year plan) is unlikely achieve its effect. second is advocating a different strategy(phase-wise) and not the same strategy as the first talks about.

C is the answer :)
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Re: Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2019, 20:06
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IMO-C

Understanding Passage:
# State's railroad program biggest & most apparent flaw is its timelines.
# Timeline of 12 years is a along duration considering the importance of this project for state.
# Now it is assumed that during this timeline, govt.will change twice , technologies will advance & allocated budget face value will halve. (First BF)
# it is further assumed that these above mentioned factors must not have been planned by administering body considering their previous records.
# At last, a course of action has been suggested to implement the program in phase-wise manner with small budget and timeline. This can improve the chances of success. (Second BF)

Answer Choice Analysis:

A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.-----Incorrect------As discussed during meaning analysis, the first BF is an assumption that forms the basis (eg. govt change twice , technologies adv.etc) to opposes a certain strategy(current strategy) the argument seek to criticize- (Not OK). Second bF presents the course of action endorsed. (OK)

B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption.-----Incorrect------The first BF is an assumption to oppose a certain strategy (OK). But the second BF presents a course of action and not doubts the assumption (Not Ok).

C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.-----Correct-----This in inline as per meaning analysis. The first BF is an assumption (Govt. chnage, technology advance ) that has been used to oppose a certain strategy (12 yrs state’s railroad program) -(OK). The second BF presents a course of action (Phase-wise implementation) endorsed to improve chances of success (Ok)

D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy.-----Incorrect------The First BF is an assumption/not consideration to oppose and not explain a certain strategy (Not Ok). The second BF doesn't call into question the wisdom of adopting the strategy, rather provide an alternate course of action to improve chances of success (Not Ok)

E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy.-----Incorrect------The first is an assumption/not consideration to oppose the strategy (Not Ok). The second is presented to provide an alternate strategy and not explain the appeal of the strategy. (Not Ok)
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New post 26 Jul 2019, 20:11
2nd portion presents the course of action on how to implement. Hence, B, D & E are out.

1st portion is an assumption, NOT the basis for a course of action. Hence, A is out

IMO Option C

Pls Hit kudos if you like the solution
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Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2019, 21:11
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Strategy that is called into question by the argument: 12 years’ horizon for the ambitious project
Statement (1): The government will change twice, technology shall advance by generations, and inflation will halve the value of the allocated budget! --> assumption used to oppose the aforementioned strategy
Statement (2): A phase-wise implementation with smaller budgets and timelines shall give the project, its best chance of success. --> an alternative strategy better than the aforementioned one

A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
The first is an assumption that does not form the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes, but is used to oppose that course of action; the second indeed presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.

B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption.
The first is indeed an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy, i.e. 12 years’ horizon for the ambitious project; the second is not a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption, but presents a course of action (an alternative strategy) that is endorsed by the argument.

C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
CORRECT ANSWER. The first is indeed an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy, i.e. 12 years’ horizon for the ambitious project; the second indeed presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.

D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy.
The first is a consideration raised not to explain the appeal of a particular strategy, but to show that adopting that particular strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is not a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy, but describes an alternative strategy (or course of action) that is endorsed by the argument.

E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy.
The first is indeed a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented not to explain the appeal of that strategy, but to provide an alternative strategy (or course of action) that is endorsed by the argument.


Answer is (C)
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New post 26 Jul 2019, 21:48
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the government will change twice, technology shall advance by generations, and inflation will halve the value of the allocated budget! - assumption that calls the strategy into question
A phase-wise implementation with smaller budgets and timelines shall give the project, its best chance of success. - alternate strategy provided by the argument

A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
first opposes the strategy, not a course of action. C is better.

B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption.
second is not used to cast doubt on the assumption

C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
Correct.

D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy.
second is not a consideration that calls the strategy into question

E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy.
second is not used to explain appeal of a strategy

Option C.
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Re: Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2019, 22:01
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The answer is C


A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument. - the course of action that the argument criticises is to build the railway over 12 years. However, the government changing, advancement of technology etc is NOT the basis of the course of action to build the railway over 12 years, rather it is an assumption that forms the basis of the argument against the course of action. so, out

B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption. - the first can be considered an assumption used to oppose the strategy of building the railway over 12 years; however, the second does NOT cause doubt over the assumption as it is not in conflict with the assumption. so, out


C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument. - yes, the first (changing government, tech advancement etc) is the assumption used to oppose the course of action to build over 12 years; and yes, the second is the alternative course of action supported by the argument. so, correct

D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy. - just from the surface, this implies the first and second are in conflict, but they are not and rather are supporting; wrong.

E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy. - just from the surface, this implies the first and second are in conflict, but they are not and rather are supporting; wrong.
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Re: Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the   [#permalink] 26 Jul 2019, 22:01

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