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# Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the

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Re: Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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26 Jul 2019, 22:41
1
Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the state’s railroad program, blatantly overlooked by those in power, is its timeline. 12 years’ horizon for the ambitious project is way too long given the importance it carries for development of the lagging state. In such a span, the government will change twice, technology shall advance by generations, and inflation will halve the value of the allocated budget! Given the lackadaisical record of the administering body, these practical factors have certainly not been planned for and the taxpayer’s money and state’s infrastructure are in jeopardy. A phase-wise implementation with smaller budgets and timelines shall give the project, its best chance of success.

Conclusion : The biggest and most apparent flaw in the state’s railroad program, blatantly overlooked by those in power, is its timeline.
BF1 is a forecast which provides support for the conclusion.
BF2 suggests an alternative.

A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption.
C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy.
E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy.

Now, coming back to A & C,
C looks better.
My choice would be (C)
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Re: Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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26 Jul 2019, 23:38
Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the state’s railroad program, blatantly overlooked by those in power, is its timeline. 12 years’ horizon for the ambitious project is way too long given the importance it carries for development of the lagging state. In such a span, the government will change twice, technology shall advance by generations, and inflation will halve the value of the allocated budget! Given the lackadaisical record of the administering body, these practical factors have certainly not been planned for and the taxpayer’s money and state’s infrastructure are in jeopardy. A phase-wise implementation with smaller budgets and timelines shall give the project, its best chance of success.

PS strongly argues against that state’s railroad program by pointing towards flaws it entails. He/She specifically talks about the time horizon of 12 years and importance the project holds. Then PS gives his/her grounds(BF1: how future would change over that period) based on which why he/she assumes such a time span is too long. PS then takes the past records tells us about why things are not good. Finally, in BF2, he gives prospective approach, a suggestion, which state can adopt so that the project may become a success.

A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument. – CORRECT. BF1 is an assumption based on which PS criticizes the state’s course of action. BF2 is PS’s suggestion.
B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption. – WRONG. Well the first part of this option talks about a strategy which is nowhere mentioned in the argument but second part is certainly does not say what is there in the argument actually. Second BF is not casting any doubt on anything.
C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument. – WRONG. Again first part is similar to option (B) but the second part rightly elaborates BF2’s role.
D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy. – WRONG. This one seems to suggest that BF1 supports a certain strategy which is wrong and BF2 never questions anything.
E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy. – WRONG. Both part of this option are wrongly interpreted for similar reasons elaborated above.

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Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 27 Jul 2019, 00:47
1
Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the state’s railroad program, blatantly overlooked by those in power, is its timeline. 12 years’ horizon for the ambitious project is way too long given the importance it carries for development of the lagging state. In such a span, the government will change twice, technology shall advance by generations, and inflation will halve the value of the allocated budget! Given the lackadaisical record of the administering body, these practical factors have certainly not been planned for and the taxpayer’s money and state’s infrastructure are in jeopardy. A phase-wise implementation with smaller budgets and timelines shall give the project, its best chance of success.

Analysis :

(premise )Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the state’s railroad program, blatantly overlooked by those in power, is its timeline. 12 years’ horizon for the ambitious project is way too long given the importance it carries for development of the lagging state

(BF1)In such a span, the government will change twice, technology shall advance by generations, and inflation will halve the value of the allocated budget!.

(premise )Given the lackadaisical record of the administering body, these practical factors have certainly not been planned for and the taxpayer’s money and state’s infrastructure are in jeopardy

( BF2 : conclusion) A phase-wise implementation with smaller budgets and timelines shall give the project, its best chance of success.

BF1 is the premise in assumption form , . If this assumption turned true then our strategy ( laying railroad ) will fail.
BF2 , has the contents of the conclusion by giving the better alternative to the strategy .

POE

A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
The first is not forming the basis for the strategy,. It infact providing facts which will make that course of action to fail. So this is wrong.

B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption.
the second is not a consideration to cast doubt on BF1. it infact accepting the bf1 assumption to provide better alternative. So this is wrong.

C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.

1) First is an assumption ( such as inflation will be halved, govt will be changed twice, technological advance will happen)
2) has been used to oppose a certain strategy ( these probable assumptions will make the railroad project a failure)
3) The second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.( by providing better alternatives )
So this option is correct .

D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy.
first is not used to appeal infact it is used to oppose the strategy. The second is not a consideration raised to quesion the strategy. It infact provides alternatives by providing better course of action in the conclusion format. So this is wrong

E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy.
the second is not presented to appeal the strategy.infact its other way around. it opposes the strategy. so It is giving another course of action as a better alternative. So this is wrong.

Our ans is C

Originally posted by ccheryn on 27 Jul 2019, 00:24.
Last edited by ccheryn on 27 Jul 2019, 00:47, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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27 Jul 2019, 00:45
1
IMO C.

Premise: A new state railroad program has a timeline of 12 years. The author feels this timeline is way too long because there could be a lot of changes happening in and around in terms of tech, the ruling government and inflation. The author then proposes that the project can be implemeneted in phases.

Boldface 1: the government will change twice, technology shall advance by generations, and inflation will halve the value of the allocated budget!--> An assumption made by the author to criticise the timeline of the new project.

Boldface 2: A phase-wise implementation with smaller budgets and timelines shall give the project, its best chance of success.--> An alternate way of implementing the project to be it more optimal.

Boldface 2 is not casting doubt on the assumption or raising questions on the original approach. Just an alternate strategy that can optimize the whole process. Hence, eliminate options B and D.
Boldface 2 is not appealing to the strategy, instead it is giving a better and more optimized approach. Eliminate option E.
Boldface 1 is not the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes. The basis is the lackadaisical record of the administrative body. Eliminate option A.
[b]Making option C the right answer.
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Re: Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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27 Jul 2019, 00:46
1
Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the state’s railroad program, blatantly overlooked by those in power, is its timeline. 12 years’ horizon for the ambitious project is way too long given the importance it carries for development of the lagging state. In such a span, the government will change twice, technology shall advance by generations, and inflation will halve the value of the allocated budget! Given the lackadaisical record of the administering body, these practical factors have certainly not been planned for and the taxpayer’s money and state’s infrastructure are in jeopardy. A phase-wise implementation with smaller budgets and timelines shall give the project, its best chance of success.

Spokesperson explains flaws of the current strategy and suggest better course of action to achieve the goals faster
Bold 1 : Explains the negatives of the current strategy
Bold 2 : Suggest new course of action for better-faster results

A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.-Incorrect
Bold 1 - is the assumption used to criticize but does not form basis for the course of the action

B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption-Incorrect
Bold 2 does not cast doubt on assumption , only suggest new strategy

C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument-Correct
Correct as per our analysis above.

D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy.-Incorrect
Bold 1 is not a consideration raised to explain the strategy but to explore negatives of the strategy

E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy.-Incorrect
Bold 2 - does not present / explain the strategy presented in Bold 1 , it gives us a new strategy

Option C is the Correct Answer
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Re: Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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27 Jul 2019, 00:57
1
Analysis of argument: accordung to political spokes argument, state has railrooad program which is a 12 year program, P.S person opposes the fact that the rail road program will barely succeed as 12 years is long duration and government can change, technology will change, inflation will increase, so in this statement P.S person
criticizes based on assumption,
A phase-wise implementation with smaller budgets and timelines shall give the project, its best chance of success.-in this statement, P.S person proposes a plan to achieve the rail road program

A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument. wrong as first is assumption and do not form a course of action
B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption.- second is not consideration that casts doubt on some strategy
C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.-it matches our analysis and hence correct answer
D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy. - incorrect as it do not matches our pre thinking
E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy. -incorrect, first is assumption which criticizes rail road program
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Re: Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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27 Jul 2019, 01:07
1
In Bold Faced questions, we need to find conclusion first and then evaluate BF sentences in light of that conclusion that is whether BF supportive of conclusion OR neutral OR against. Once, we establish role of BF, we need to find a match from answer choices and our analysis. Let's break down the argument first.
Spokesperson starts his argument with conclusion "The biggest and most apparent flaw in the state’s railroad program, blatantly overlooked by those in power, is its timeline." Second sentence elaborates why it is FLAW that the project takes so long, e.g. 12 years. Next, in span of 12 years many things may change such as government, technology, and inflation might "eat" as much as half the budget (this is first BF). But administrating body overlooked those factors. The last sentence is author's proposal that a new project is needed with lower budget and timelines (the second BF).

Now, let's put side by side conclusion and both BF and see they roles towards one another:
Conclusion: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the state’s railroad program, blatantly overlooked by those in power, is its timeline
First BF: the government will change twice, technology shall advance by generations, and inflation will halve the value of the allocated budget! - this sentence is used to prove why current project is a bad idea. Well, because so many things will change by the time railroad is built. Also, note that this BF is assumption because we do not know if technology will SURELY improve (highly likely it will but we are not 100% sure), inflation will be so high and if government will change.
Second BF: A phase-wise implementation with smaller budgets and timelines shall give the project, its best chance of success. - this one is proposal by the argument to fix the project.

A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument. - Although the second BF is presented correctly, first one is not. First BF is used to support the strategy argument supports, not criticizes. Wrong, eliminate

B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption. - if I can live with first BF here, I cannot do so with the second one because it is wrong. The second does not cast doubt on first one. With this said, second does not say that government will not change, technology will not improve, and inflation will not be so high. Eliminate

C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument. - first one is indeed an assumption - The first BF is indeed assumption that is used to oppose strategy (12 years long project); the second one is indeed a strategy that is proposed by the argument. So far, both BF matches our analysis. Keep C

D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy. - both are incorrect here. In first BF I don't like word "appeal" because first one does not appeal but shows flow in choosing such a long duration for a project. Second BF is an issue also. Second one does not cast any doubt on current strategy. It rather provides alternative strategy. Eliminate D

E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy. - the second does not explain the appeal of the current strategy. Second presents alternative strategy. This already makes E wrong. Eliminate

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Re: Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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27 Jul 2019, 01:34
1
Main conclusion:Currrent 12 year plan is waste, instead a phase wise plan should be implemented.
BF1: These are the assumptions that if true would make the current startegy unsuccessfull.
BF2: This is a new course of action suggested to make the plan successful.

A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.-incorrect- first is an assumption but that doesn't form the basis for a course of action instead it forms the basis of criticism to the current course of action.
B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption.-incorrect-first is true but second is not a consideration but an alternate to current course of action.
C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.-Correct- First is the assumption used to oppose current course of action & Second is alternate course of action supported by the arguement.
D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy.-Incorrect-Second is not a consideration to call into question the wisdom of current startegy, instead it is an alternate course action.
E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy.-Incorrect-First is not a consideration but an assumption & second is alternative course of action and not an explanation to current strategy

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Re: Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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27 Jul 2019, 01:54
1
A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument. - The first portion is not about the basis for a course of action that the argument criticises.
B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption. - the second portion doesn't cast any doubt on the assumption, it is a possible course of action.
C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument. -Correct. First portion is used to oppose the strategy, second portion presents alternative course of action.
D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy. - The first portion is not about appeal.
E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy. - The second portion doesn't present any appeal of the mentioned strategy.

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Re: Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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27 Jul 2019, 03:04
1
Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the state’s railroad program, blatantly overlooked by those in power, is its timeline. 12 years’ horizon for the ambitious project is way too long given the importance it carries for development of the lagging state. In such a span, the government will change twice, technology shall advance by generations, and inflation will halve the value of the allocated budget! Given the lackadaisical record of the administering body, these practical factors have certainly not been planned for and the taxpayer’s money and state’s infrastructure are in jeopardy. A phase-wise implementation with smaller budgets and timelines shall give the project, its best chance of success.

Let's decipher the meaning behind:

Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the state’s railroad program, blatantly overlooked by those in power, is its timeline.
Speaker is Political Spokesperson, so we are expecting something about politics. So we get to know that some people in power underestimate disadvantage of state's railroad programm - timeline. Premise.

12 years’ horizon for the ambitious project is way too long given the importance it carries for development of the lagging state.
12 year is too long to get the project done taking into consideration development of the lagging state. This part acts as premise.

In such a span, the government will change twice, technology shall advance by generations, and inflation will halve the value of the allocated budget!
Further we have description what could happen in this time period mostly negative effects of it. Premise that shows drawback of such project.

Given the lackadaisical record of the administering body, these practical factors have certainly not been planned for and the taxpayer’s money and state’s infrastructure are in jeopardy.
Now the author presents that planning was not done properly and just a waste of money. Again criticism presented as a premise.

A phase-wise implementation with smaller budgets and timelines shall give the project, its best chance of success.
Author tries to give a solution to make the situation better, I think we can consider this part as a conclusion of the argument.

Summary:

There is main disadvantage of railroad program - timeline - presented by Political Spokesperson. Further author presents to us drawback of such a long program and then provide some better way of execution for such project. So first boldface part here is the assumption or consideration that presented as opposition to the long project strategies. The second part solution for such a project.

A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption.

C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy.
E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy.

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Re: Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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27 Jul 2019, 03:07
1
A is incorrect because it erroneously states that the first boldface is an assumption that forms the basis for what the argument criticizes. On the contrary, the first boldface rather present an assumption which opposes the course of action that the argument does not favor.

B incorrectly states that the second boldface is used to cast doubt on the assumption in the first boldface. Rather, the second boldface draws upon the points raised in the assumption made in the first boldface to present a counter strategy which is endorsed by the argument.

D states wrongly that the first boldface is an explanation for a strategy, rather, the first boldface is an assumption that opposes the strategy the argument challenges. Unlike it is stated in D, the second boldface does not question any strategy. It rather draws its strengths from the points made to oppose the strategy the argument challenges and presents a counter strategy that is endorsed by the argument.

E erroneously states that the second boldface is used to explain the appeal of the strategy that the argument opposes. The second boldface rather offers a counter strategy that the argument endorses, drawing drawing strength from the points raised against the strategy the argument challenges.

C is the correct answer. It clearly states that the first boldface is an assumption used to oppose a strategy, and truly this boldface forms part of the points raised in the argument to oppose the strategy frowned upon by the argument. It also rightly states that the second boldface presents a counter strategy which is endorsed by the argument.

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Re: Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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27 Jul 2019, 03:52
1
Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the state’s railroad program, blatantly overlooked by those in power, is its timeline. 12 years’ horizon for the ambitious project is way too long given the importance it carries for development of the lagging state. In such a span, the government will change twice, technology shall advance by generations, and inflation will halve the value of the allocated budget! Given the lackadaisical record of the administering body, these practical factors have certainly not been planned for and the taxpayer’s money and state’s infrastructure are in jeopardy. A phase-wise implementation with smaller budgets and timelines shall give the project, its best chance of success.

A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.-out, first does not provide any basis to criticize the argument rather it is used to oppose a certain strategy.
B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption.-out, as second is not casting any doubt on the assumption in the first.
C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.--correct.
D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy.-out, as second is suggesting accurate strategy what should be.
E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy.-out, as first is an assumption to oppose the current action and second is not to explain the appeal of that strategy.

so, the correct answer choice is (C)
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Re: Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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27 Jul 2019, 04:02
1
A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument. --> Incorrect. The second part is correct. The first part is not. The first part is an assumption that is used by the argument to critisize the strategy.

B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption. --> Incorrect. The first part is correct. The second is not. The second is the recommended course of action.

C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument. --> Correct.

D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy. --> Incorrect. Both parts are incorrect here. First is assumption used to criticize the strategy. The second is the recommended strategy.

E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy. --> Incorrect. Both parts are incorrect. The first part is an assumption. The second part is the recommended alternative approach by the argument.

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Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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27 Jul 2019, 04:37
Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the state’s railroad program, blatantly overlooked by those in power, is its timeline. 12 years’ horizon for the ambitious project is way too long given the importance it carries for development of the lagging state. In such a span, the government will change twice, technology shall advance by generations, and inflation will halve the value of the allocated budget! Given the lackadaisical record of the administering body, these practical factors have certainly not been planned for and the taxpayer’s money and state’s infrastructure are in jeopardy. A phase-wise implementation with smaller budgets and timelines shall give the project, its best chance of success.

Analysis:
Intermediate conclusion: flaw in the state’s railroad program is its timeline.
BF1: supports the intermediate conclusion ie oppose the railroad program
BF2: present a new proposal supported by the argument

A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption.
C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.—>correct
D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy.
E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy.

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Re: Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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27 Jul 2019, 05:03
1
Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the state’s railroad program, blatantly overlooked by those in power, is its timeline. 12 years’ horizon for the ambitious project is way too long given the importance it carries for development of the lagging state. In such a span, the government will change twice, technology shall advance by generations, and inflation will halve the value of the allocated budget! Given the lackadaisical record of the administering body, these practical factors have certainly not been planned for and the taxpayer’s money and state’s infrastructure are in jeopardy. A phase-wise implementation with smaller budgets and timelines shall give the project, its best chance of success.

As per the argument, the political spokesperson questions/criticizes the state's railroad program and its timeline. In first bold he provides the reasons/his opinions why such a timeline is not feasible and later on in second bold mentions the strategy he thinks is right for best chance of success.

A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument. --> First is the political spokesperson's assumption to oppose a certain strategy. It does not form any basis for the strategy. Incorrect.
B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption. --> Second is not casting doubt on the assumption. Rather second is the right strategy as per the argument. Incorrect.
C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument. --> First is an assumption which is used to oppose the states' railroad program and its timeline. And second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument. Correct.
D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy. --> First is not a consideration raised to explain any strategy rather it puts doubts in a certain strategy. Second again is no consideration raised to call anything into question rather just another strategy. Incorrect.
E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy. --> First are assumptions made by the political spokesperson to criticize certain strategy. Second is not explaining any appeal of any strategy rather second is just another strategy. Incorrect.

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Re: Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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27 Jul 2019, 05:35
1
Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the state’s railroad program, blatantly overlooked by those in power, is its timeline. 12 years’ horizon for the ambitious project is way too long given the importance it carries for development of the lagging state. In such a span, the government will change twice, technology shall advance by generations, and inflation will halve the value of the allocated budget! Given the lackadaisical record of the administering body, these practical factors have certainly not been planned for and the taxpayer’s money and state’s infrastructure are in jeopardy. A phase-wise implementation with smaller budgets and timelines shall give the project, its best chance of success.

Understanding of Boldface :
-First Boldface predicts the changes that happens over long term when project takes long time to complete.
-Second Boldface suggest the better approach to implement a project.

Lets check each option:

A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.

- This looks close but pay attention to words. First is an assumption but it does not form the basis for a course of action. It is predicted outcome of a particular course of action. It does not form basis to it. First strategy has flaw as it takes more time to complete important projects. Over the time many things changes and it impacts everything related to project ,like new technology will come in and also cost will differ with inflation. This assumptions are outcome and not basis of the strategy. So Eliminate A

B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption.

-Second clearly is not consideration used to case doubt . Argument is talking about a approach and predicts its drawbacks ( in first bold face ) and Second boldface is suggesting a better approach to avoid drawbacks mentioned in earlier strategy. So Eliminate B

C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
- Correct .First is talking about drawbacks or cons of the strategy of having long time lines for project completion. Second boldface suggests the better strategy to avoid that drawbacks.

D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy.
- First does not explain appeal of a strategy. It predicts drawbacks of it. Second clearly talks about a strategy that argument favors. Argument in first boldface talks about drawback of a strategy by highlighting few of its drawbacks and second suggest a new strategy. So Eliminate D

E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy.

-Second does not explain the appeal of strategy mentioned earlier. It presents a new strategy that argument favors.So Eliminate E

Ans Choice C

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Re: Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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27 Jul 2019, 05:57
A,B,C first is not an assumption...as government will change ,technology advances and inflation will happen...
second is questioning the method not explaining is so E is out.
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Re: Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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27 Jul 2019, 06:47
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Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the state’s railroad program, blatantly overlooked by those in power, is its timeline. 12 years’ horizon for the ambitious project is way too long given the importance it carries for development of the lagging state. In such a span, the government will change twice, technology shall advance by generations, and inflation will halve the value of the allocated budget! Given the lackadaisical record of the administering body, these practical factors have certainly not been planned for and the taxpayer’s money and state’s infrastructure are in jeopardy. A phase-wise implementation with smaller budgets and timelines shall give the project, its best chance of success.

A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.- Incorrect. first in something which is considered by the author that will prove that the strategy adopted by the government will not work, it doesn't form the basis for the course of action. Second is something which is endorsed by the politocal spokesperson
B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption.- First is correct but second is not a consideration that have been used to cast a doubt on what author assumes.
C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.- Correct. first is assumption of certain factors that are going against the strategy. i.e first is used to oppose the strategy. second is course of action that is recommended by the author.
D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy.- First is not raised in order to explain the appeal of the strategy, in fact first goes against the strategy. Second is something which is suggested by the author.
E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy.- first may be correct however second is not used to explain the apeal of the strategy adopted by the railroad program. second is something which has been suggested by author.

Hence the answer must be C
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Re: Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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27 Jul 2019, 06:50
1
Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the state’s railroad program, blatantly overlooked by those in power, is its timeline. 12 years’ horizon for the ambitious project is way too long given the importance it carries for development of the lagging state. In such a span, the government will change twice, technology shall advance by generations, and inflation will halve the value of the allocated budget! Given the lackadaisical record of the administering body, these practical factors have certainly not been planned for and the taxpayer’s money and state’s infrastructure are in jeopardy. A phase-wise implementation with smaller budgets and timelines shall give the project, its best chance of success.

A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.Incorrect.The first is definitely not forming any basis for course of action that argument criticize.
B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption. Incorrect .Second is not casting any doubt but representing a course of action.
C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.Correct.Perfect
D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy.Incorrect.The first is not appealing the strategy.The second is not calling something into question but representing a course of action.
E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy.InCorrect.The second is not appealing the strategy.
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Re: Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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27 Jul 2019, 06:51
1
Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the state’s railroad program, blatantly overlooked by those in power, is its timeline. 12 years’ horizon for the ambitious project is way too long given the importance it carries for development of the lagging state. In such a span, the government will change twice, technology shall advance by generations, and inflation will halve the value of the allocated budget! Given the lackadaisical record of the administering body, these practical factors have certainly not been planned for and the taxpayer’s money and state’s infrastructure are in jeopardy. A phase-wise implementation with smaller budgets and timelines shall give the project, its best chance of success.

A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument. WRONG. The first bolded part doesn't form the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes. It's a mechanism that supports the course of action.
B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption. WRONG. The second bolded part doesn't cast doubt on the assumption.
C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument. RIGHT.
D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy. WRONG. The second bolded part doesn't call into question strategy. It suggests the strategy.
E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy. WRONG. The second bolded part suggest another strategy.

Re: Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the   [#permalink] 27 Jul 2019, 06:51

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