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Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the

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Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2019, 08:00
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Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the state’s railroad program, blatantly overlooked by those in power, is its timeline. 12 years’ horizon for the ambitious project is way too long given the importance it carries for development of the lagging state. In such a span, the government will change twice, technology shall advance by generations, and inflation will halve the value of the allocated budget! Given the lackadaisical record of the administering body, these practical factors have certainly not been planned for and the taxpayer’s money and state’s infrastructure are in jeopardy. A phase-wise implementation with smaller budgets and timelines shall give the project, its best chance of success.

A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption.
C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy.
E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy.

 

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Re: Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2019, 08:11
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Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the state’s railroad program, blatantly overlooked by those in power, is its timeline. 12 years’ horizon for the ambitious project is way too long given the importance it carries for development of the lagging state. In such a span, the government will change twice, technology shall advance by generations, and inflation will halve the value of the allocated budget! Given the lackadaisical record of the administering body, these practical factors have certainly not been planned for and the taxpayer’s money and state’s infrastructure are in jeopardy. A phase-wise implementation with smaller budgets and timelines shall give the project, its best chance of success.

To answer this question, you need to follow the argument very closely.
A political spokesperson says The biggest and most apparent flaw in the state’s railroad program, blatantly overlooked by those in power, is its timeline.
Because he thinks 12 years’ horizon for the ambitious project is way too long given the importance it carries for development of the lagging state.
He then says In such a span, the government will change twice, technology shall advance by generations, and inflation will halve the value of the allocated budget! Given the lackadaisical record of the administering body, these practical factors have certainly not been planned for and the taxpayer’s money and state’s infrastructure are in jeopardy. A phase-wise implementation with smaller budgets and timelines shall give the project, its best chance of success.

Let's get to POE.


A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
This is incorrect because the first doesn't form the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes.

B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption.
This is incorrect because the second is not a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption.

C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
This is correct as it matches our pre-thinking. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.

D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy.
This is incorrect because the second is not a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy.

E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy.
This is incorrect because the second is not presented to explain the appeal of that strategy.


IMO C.
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Re: Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2019, 22:01
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The answer is C


A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument. - the course of action that the argument criticises is to build the railway over 12 years. However, the government changing, advancement of technology etc is NOT the basis of the course of action to build the railway over 12 years, rather it is an assumption that forms the basis of the argument against the course of action. so, out

B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption. - the first can be considered an assumption used to oppose the strategy of building the railway over 12 years; however, the second does NOT cause doubt over the assumption as it is not in conflict with the assumption. so, out


C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument. - yes, the first (changing government, tech advancement etc) is the assumption used to oppose the course of action to build over 12 years; and yes, the second is the alternative course of action supported by the argument. so, correct

D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy. - just from the surface, this implies the first and second are in conflict, but they are not and rather are supporting; wrong.

E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy. - just from the surface, this implies the first and second are in conflict, but they are not and rather are supporting; wrong.
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Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 27 Jul 2019, 04:02
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Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the state’s railroad program, blatantly overlooked by those in power, is its timeline. 12 years’ horizon for the ambitious project is way too long given the importance it carries for development of the lagging state. In such a span, the government will change twice, technology shall advance by generations, and inflation will halve the value of the allocated budget! Given the lackadaisical record of the administering body, these practical factors have certainly not been planned for and the taxpayer’s money and state’s infrastructure are in jeopardy. A phase-wise implementation with smaller budgets and timelines shall give the project, its best chance of success.

First boldface: the government will change twice, technology shall advance by generations, and inflation will halve the value of the allocated budget!
provides list of factors not planned of a certain government strategy in which 12 year's timeline is considered for the ambitious project.

Second boldface: A phase-wise implementation with smaller budgets and timelines shall give the project, its best chance of success.
provides a solution in form of a course of action for better chances of success.

Conclusion: these practical factors have certainly not been planned for and the taxpayer’s money and state’s infrastructure are in jeopardy.

A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
The first is an assumption that DOES NOT form the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument. Incorrect

B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption.
The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is NOT a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption. Incorrect

C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument. Correct

D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy.
The first is NOT a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is NOT a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy. Incorrect

E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy.
The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented NOT to explain the appeal of that strategy. Incorrect

IMO C

Originally posted by Kinshook on 26 Jul 2019, 08:51.
Last edited by Kinshook on 27 Jul 2019, 04:02, edited 2 times in total.
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Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 26 Jul 2019, 09:59
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Let us check what is happening in every BF:
BF1: the government will change twice, technology shall advance by generations, and inflation will halve the value of the allocated budget!
This is used to oppose the government’s strategy. This points out why the government’s strategy is bound to fail.

BF2: A phase-wise implementation with smaller budgets and timelines shall give the project, its best chance of success.
It states what course of action the government should take for its best chance of success.

A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
The first does not form that course action criticized by the argument.

B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption.
The second does not cast doubt on first.

C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
Matches what has been stated above. Hold.

D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy.
The second does not call anything into question.

E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy.
The second is not presented to explain the appeal of the government’s strategy.

Answer C

Originally posted by Sayon on 26 Jul 2019, 08:53.
Last edited by Sayon on 26 Jul 2019, 09:59, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2019, 08:56
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C IMO

The first boldface is an assumption author uses to oppose the government's strategy of 12 years timeline to finish the project, which author does not agree with. Second is the strategy author endorses and also the main conclusion of the argument.

Below are my reasons to eliminate each option.



Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the state’s railroad program, blatantly overlooked by those in power, is its timeline. 12 years’ horizon for the ambitious project is way too long given the importance it carries for development of the lagging state. In such a span, the government will change twice, technology shall advance by generations, and inflation will halve the value of the allocated budget! Given the lackadaisical record of the administering body, these practical factors have certainly not been planned for and the taxpayer’s money and state’s infrastructure are in jeopardy. A phase-wise implementation with smaller budgets and timelines shall give the project, its best chance of success.

A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
First doesn't form the basis for a course of action. Instead the current strategy - course of action- is used to derive these assumptions. So first is wrong. Second is endorsed by argument that is correct.

B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption.
First is correct, it is used to oppose the current strategy, however second doesn't cast doubt on those assumptions. It is a new strategy endorsed by author.

C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
Correct. Both matches prethinking discussed above.

D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy.
First doesn't appeal the existing strategy-incorrect.

E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy.
First is not raised to show that current strategy wont achieve its intended effect, second doesn't support the existing strategy, instead its a new strategy by itself.
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Re: Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2019, 09:10
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Quote:
Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the state’s railroad program, blatantly overlooked by those in power, is its timeline. 12 years’ horizon for the ambitious project is way too long given the importance it carries for development of the lagging state. In such a span, the government will change twice, technology shall advance by generations, and inflation will halve the value of the allocated budget! Given the lackadaisical record of the administering body, these practical factors have certainly not been planned for and the taxpayer’s money and state’s infrastructure are in jeopardy. A phase-wise implementation with smaller budgets and timelines shall give the project, its best chance of success.

A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption.
C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy.
E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy.


[1] premise/assumption that supports why the program is flawed;
[2] endorses a different plan;

(A) 1 doesnt form the basis that the arg critiques, it forms the basis that the arg defends;
(B) 2 not cast doubt on [1];
(D) 1 doesnt exp the appeal of the strat, it explains the inverse;
(E) 2 not pres to appeal the certain strat;

Answer (C).
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Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2019, 09:12
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Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the state’s railroad program, blatantly overlooked by those in power, is its timeline. 12 years’ horizon for the ambitious project is way too long given the importance it carries for development of the lagging state. In such a span, the government will change twice, technology shall advance by generations, and inflation will halve the value of the allocated budget! Given the lackadaisical record of the administering body, these practical factors have certainly not been planned for and the taxpayer’s money and state’s infrastructure are in jeopardy. A phase-wise implementation with smaller budgets and timelines shall give the project, its best chance of success.

The first is something that was not foreseen by the government while implementing the railroad program. The second is the author's proposal that, he believes, is a better plan.

A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.

This option is wrong because the argument itself says that "these practical factors have certainly not been planned", so the first cannot be the basis for a course of action. But second is correct.

B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption.
The second is not used to cast doubt, it is rather a recommendation.

C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
CORRECT.
Yes, the author assumes the first while evaluating the state’s railroad program when trying to explain its flaws. And the second is his proposed strategy


D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy.
No-no, the second is a recommendation, it does not call into question anything.

E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy.
The first look fine, but the second is talking about the same strategy, but in the argument, the second talks about another, proposed by the author strategy.


The answer is C
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Re: Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2019, 10:09
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Summary: flaw is the timeline. <Fact>
12 years’ horizon is way long given its importance for development of the lagging state. <filler>
In such a span, X will happen, Y might happen, and Z will happen <Assumption>
these factors have not been planned resulting in jeopardy <possible result of current plan>.
Solution proposed. <Solution to the problem>

A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument. - First does not form the basis of action (timeline is not the basis of the previous strategy), it is used to criticize the timeline
B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption. - Second is the action supported by the argument
C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument. Correct, Inline with the analysis
D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy. First is an assumption + Second is the action supported by the argument
E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy. First is an assumption + Second is the action supported by the argument

IMO C
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Re: Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2019, 10:19
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IMO C

BF1: the government will change twice, technology shall advance by generations, and inflation will halve the value of the allocated budget!
BF2: A phase-wise implementation with smaller budgets and timelines shall give the project, its best chance of success.

A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument. - The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy, it does NOT form the basis for a “course of action” (related to 12year long project strategy) that the argument criticizes. It clearly provides assumption on the practical factors, which can be used to oppose the previous strategy

B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption. - the second presents an alternative strategy/approach which is endorsed by the argument, it does NOT provide any consideration to oppose or doubt the assumption made by the first statement

C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument. - Correct, the first provides assumption on the practical factors, which can be used to oppose the previous strategy, the second introduces an alternative strategy/approach which is endorsed by the argument

D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy. - the second presents an alternative strategy/approach which is endorsed by the argument, it does NOT provide any consideration to oppose the wisdom of adopting the previous strategy (12year long project)

E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy. - the second presents an alternative strategy/approach which is endorsed by the argument, it does NOT explain the appeal of the previous strategy (12year long project)
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Re: Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2019, 10:42
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Quote:
Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the state’s railroad program, blatantly overlooked by those in power, is its timeline. 12 years’ horizon for the ambitious project is way too long given the importance it carries for development of the lagging state. In such a span, the government will change twice, technology shall advance by generations, and inflation will halve the value of the allocated budget! Given the lackadaisical record of the administering body, these practical factors have certainly not been planned for and the taxpayer’s money and state’s infrastructure are in jeopardy. A phase-wise implementation with smaller budgets and timelines shall give the project, its best chance of success.


A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument. - The first is an assumption of how the program is going to be developed, it is not the course of action that railroad program tends to choose. The role of second boldface portion is identified correctly. Incorrect
B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption. - The second boldface portion is supporting the first boldface portion, it does not cast any doubt on it. Incorrect
C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument. - The role of both sentences is identified correctly. Correct
D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy. - The first and second boldface portions share the same view. In this option is assumed they have contrary views. Incorrect
E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy. - The first and second boldface portions coincide in their support for a certain view. This version, in contrast, supposes that they differ. Incorrect

Answer: C
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Re: Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2019, 10:42
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A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
The first is actually against and in no way a basis for the original course of action.................Eliminated.

B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption.
Second doesn't question the first boldface as implied in this option..............Eliminated.


C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
The first is actually against the original course of action and second, suggest the new one.................Correct answer.


D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy.
The first is actually against and in no way explains the appeal of the original strategy................Eliminated.

E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy.
The second doesn't support the old strategy and presents a new one....................Eliminated.


ANSWER: C
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Re: Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2019, 11:01
1
A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
THe first is not the course of actions, the first is the prediction what unplanned issues may occur;
I like the second part of the option

B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption.
the first part is correct, we can use the first to oppose the current strategy
THe second is another strategy, and does not cast doubt on the first

C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
I'll bet on this
the first opposes the current strategy, the second offers another strategy, which is considered more realistic

D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy.
Both parts are wrong
the first casts doubt on the current strategy, the second is another strategy

E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy.
the first part is correct, but the second part says that the second is presented to explain current strategy, thats definitely wrong, the second is the second offered strategy by the author

IMO
Ans: C
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Re: Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2019, 11:24
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Quote:
Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the state’s railroad program, blatantly overlooked by those in power, is its timeline. 12 years’ horizon for the ambitious project is way too long given the importance it carries for development of the lagging state. In such a span, the government will change twice, technology shall advance by generations, and inflation will halve the value of the allocated budget! Given the lackadaisical record of the administering body, these practical factors have certainly not been planned for and the taxpayer’s money and state’s infrastructure are in jeopardy. A phase-wise implementation with smaller budgets and timelines shall give the project, its best chance of success.

A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption.
C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy.
E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy.


The passage presents one side of a political debate regarding a very essential but extremely large scale railroad project. The author is opposing the implementation plan and noting potential pitfalls of the plan in place. Author concludes the argument by presenting an alternate plan for the project.

BF-1: States how the extended timeframe of the project will impact the project's execution. The govt would change twice, technological developments may render the project outdated or redundant and inflation will eat away the budget.
BF-2: Presents an alternate plan where phase wise planning and implementation is instead put in place, which in the author's opinion shall enhance the project's chances of success.

Quote:
A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.

The first is for sure an assumption but it does not form the basis of the criticism, it IS the criticism. The 1st BF enlists why the project strategy is destined for failure it is not the basis for the critique. Eliminate.

Quote:
B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption.

The first is an assumption that opposes the current strategy, sure that seems fine. The 2nd though clearly does not cast doubt on the assumption rather presents an alternate plan that alleviates the criticisms that the assumptions raise. Eliminate.

Quote:
C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.

The first part is a repeat of B and we already concluded that it fits the argument. Yup! and the second does provide an alternate strategy that the argument supports. Everything seems to be in order here. Lets hold on to this one.

Quote:
D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy.

The first BF does not support but actually opposes the strategy and the 2nd one provides a workaround. All wrong.Eliminate.

Quote:
E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy.

The first part seems fine although I would argue that E softens the blow a bit, but the second definitely does not present the appeal of that strategy it says it should be reworked altogetherEliminate.

C is your answer then.
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Re: Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2019, 11:57
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Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the state’s railroad program, blatantly overlooked by those in power, is its timeline. 12 years’ horizon for the ambitious project is way too long given the importance it carries for development of the lagging state. In such a span, the government will change twice, technology shall advance by generations, and inflation will halve the value of the allocated budget! Given the lackadaisical record of the administering body, these practical factors have certainly not been planned for and the taxpayer’s money and state’s infrastructure are in jeopardy. A phase-wise implementation with smaller budgets and timelines shall give the project, its best chance of success.


ANALYSIS:
Biggest flaw is timeline.... 12 yrs is too long..... govt will change, tech will advance, inflation will devalue budget.... taxpayers moneya nd states infrastructure are in jeopardy.... phase wise implementation gives best chance.

A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
>> argument criticises 12yr plan... first is NOT BASIS for 12 yr plan... though 2nd is the endorsed course of action......DISCARDED

B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption.
>> first may be considered to be opposing A STRATEGY... even if 1st is correct, 2nd is NOT CASTING DOUBT on 1st assumption.. 2nd is a suggested course of action based on 1st assumption....DISCARDED

C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
>> Yes, 1st IS Opposing 12 Year Plan.... 2nd presents phase wise implementation which is endorsed by the argument...... THIS IS CORRECT

D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy.
>> 1st may be considered a way to explain strategy of PHASE WISE implementation... BUT, if that were true, 2nd DOES NOt QUESTION the phase implementation strategy, 2nd IS that strategy....... DISCARDED

E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy.
>> 1st may be considered to shaw that 12 YEAR PLAN is unlikely to acheive intended effect, BUT, 2nd is NOT EXPLAINING APPEAL of 12 year plan... it is suggesting another strategy.... DISCARDED


ANSWER: C
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Re: Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2019, 12:34
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Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the state’s railroad program, blatantly overlooked by those in power, is its timeline. 12 years’ horizon for the ambitious project is way too long given the importance it carries for development of the lagging state. In such a span, the government will change twice, technology shall advance by generations, and inflation will halve the value of the allocated budget! Given the lackadaisical record of the administering body, these practical factors have certainly not been planned for and the taxpayer’s money and state’s infrastructure are in jeopardy. A phase-wise implementation with smaller budgets and timelines shall give the project, its best chance of success.

A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption.
C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy.
E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy.


In the above argument the spokesperson criticises the railroad program for taking too much time to complete.
In BF1, the author gives various possibilities that can happen during the time of the program.
In Bf2, the author suggests us a better approach for execution.

POE:
A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.Incorrect --> yes BF1 is an assumption but it does not form the basis for the course of action
B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption.Incorrect --> BF2 gives another approach
C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.Correct it resolves both the issues of A and B
D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy.Incorrect --> both are incorrect as per our prethinking
E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy.Doesnt match with prethinking of BF2

Option C is the answer
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Re: Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2019, 13:16
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In the first boldface the author makes a sort of prediction of how things will change in the next 12 years. It is fair to call this an assumption.

In the second boldface, the author gives a suggestion overcome the challenges presented by the assumption

A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
The first is used as a support to draw the suggestion presented in the second but this option presents the two boldfaces in opposite sides. - Eliminate

B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption.
First and second are not on opposite sides - Eliminate

C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
First opposes the 12 year plan. Seconds presents the phase wise plan - Correct

D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy.
First and second are not on opposite sides - Eliminate

E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy.
The first does try to show that the 12 year plan won't work but the second does not explain the appeal of the 12 year plan - Eliminate

Answer is (C)
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Re: Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2019, 13:18
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The flow of the argument firstly reveals the flaw of the program, then giving the reason to explain why its flaw matters and it should be considered. So, it can be seen as opposing the program. The following sentence gives another reason to persuade readers that the program is problematic and unwise. After all, the last sentence gives the solution with possible chain of action should be taken.
---->Generally, I rely on the flow of the argument to examine the role of the boldface parts.

A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.---->Incorrect.

B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption.---->Incorrect, since the 1st part gives the reason to believe that the flaw on the program should be thought twice. It is obviously that 2 boldface is not opposite each other.

C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.---->Correct, due to basing on my explanation above.

D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy.--->Incorrect, there's no info that makes the strategy appeals.

E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy.--->Incorrect, there's no info that makes the strategy appeals.
------->The answer is C.
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Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 26 Jul 2019, 23:00
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If country’s currency is expected to depreciate by half over the next dozen years, then the state indeed seems to be in much trouble. Without improved railroad infrastructure and logistics it will probably lag many more years. So let’s dissect the argument to make it as clear as possible to those in power, because that spokesperson is saying really wise things.

What is the main message of the spokesperson? – Of course, an alternative proposal! All of what he said before his last sentence was well laid arguments against the current, but for the new strategy that he introduces at the end.

Spokesperson’s assessment: The timeline that the current strategy requires is its BIGGEST FLAW.

Spokesperson’s reasoning: Why that timeline is the biggest flaw? The reason is that during this period government will change twice, current technology will become obsolete, and the allocated budget will depreciate by half (the first boldface). However, current strategy DOESN’T address these issues.

Spokesperson’s alternative proposal: Therefore, we need a new strategy requiring less time and budget.

From our analyses we can see that the author uses the first boldface as a reason to oppose the current strategy of implementing the railroad program. Indeed the first boldface enumerates three practical factors that jeopardize the taxpayer’s money and state’s infrastructure. The second boldface is by no means the course of action (strategy) the spokesperson endorses. That’s what the correct answer choice C says.

Assumption = author’s hypothesis about the future. All those three factors are not 100% certain to happen. But there is a high probability that they will take place. Thus using the notion “assumption” is correct.

A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes. That’s incorrect because in reality, the spokesperson uses the first boldface in order to create a basis for a new strategy that he ENDORSES, but NOT criticizes.

B. The second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption (first boldface). That’s incorrect because the second boldface doesn’t cast doubt on the first boldface. In other words, the second boldface DOESN'T claim that inflation, technology obsolescence, and government change will NOT happen.

D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy. That’s incorrect because the first explains NOT the appeal, BUT the disaster of the current strategy.

The second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy. That’s incorrect because the second talks NOT about the current, BUT about the alternative strategy.

E. The second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy (the current strategy). That’s incorrect because the first explains NOT the appeal, BUT the disaster of the current strategy.

Hence C
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Originally posted by JonShukhrat on 26 Jul 2019, 15:50.
Last edited by JonShukhrat on 26 Jul 2019, 23:00, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2019, 17:23
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The stimulus is as follows:
Conclusion opposing the plan: most apparent flaw in the state’s railroad program, blatantly overlooked by those in power, is its timeline.
Assumptions justifying the conclusion against the plan: the government will change twice, technology shall advance ... --> boldface (1)
Alternative plan Proposal: A phase-wise implementation with smaller budgets and timelines shall give the project --> boldface (2)

Boldface (1) is not the basis of the criticized plan ], but assumed consequences of the criticized plan --> A out
Boldface (1) 's primary objective is to clarify the flaws of the current plan rather than to promote an alternative strategy , D is not quite right.

Boldface (2) is a alternative course of action, proposed by the author relying on the conclusion reached, not to explain the appeal the current strategy (as in E)
It is not conflicting with the author's assumptions (as in B) and, by itself, is not carrying any evidences or assumptions that criticize the current plan (as in D)

A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
B. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption.
C. The first is an assumption that has been used to oppose a certain strategy; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
D. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy.
E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy.

C
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Re: Political Spokesperson: The biggest and most apparent flaw in the   [#permalink] 26 Jul 2019, 17:23

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