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# Polling data reveal that an overwhelming majority of 9 year

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Polling data reveal that an overwhelming majority of 9 year [#permalink]

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08 Sep 2009, 11:24
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Polling data reveal that an overwhelming majority of 9 year olds can correctly identify the logos of major cigarette brands. However, of those 9 year olds who recognize such logos, less than 1% smoke. Therefore, there is little or no connection between recognition of cigarette brand logos and smoking.

Which one of the following uses flawed reasoning most similar to the flawed reasoning above?

A) The concern about the long-term effects on dolphins of small quantities of mercury in the ocean is unfounded. During a three-month period, 1,000 dolphins were exposed to small quantities of mercury in seawater, with no effect on the animal.

B) Many ten-year-olds dream of becoming actors. Yet it is not likely they will seriously consider becoming actors, because most parents discourage their children from pursuing such a highly competitive career.

C) Most dentist recommend using fluoride to reduce incidence of cavities, but few recommend giving up candy entirely; so, using fluoride is probably more effective in preventing cavities than is avoiding sweets.

D) A large percentage of men exercise moderately throughout their lives, but the average life span of tose who do so is not significantly greater than of those who get little or no exercise. So there is little or no correlation between moderate exercise and good health.

E) Most people cannot name their legislative representatives. Nonetheless, this is insignificant, for when queried, most of them displayed an adequate command of current political issues.

OA and OE will follow.

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Re: Polling data reveal that an overwhelming majority of 9 year [#permalink]

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08 Sep 2009, 11:33
ill go for A...
in original argument ,a case of 9 yr old is taken to justify a pt .. similarly in A a gp of dolphin is taken to justify the effect on the entire species..
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Re: Polling data reveal that an overwhelming majority of 9 year [#permalink]

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08 Sep 2009, 12:30
I will go for D. It is exactly same as the original argument.

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Re: Polling data reveal that an overwhelming majority of 9 year [#permalink]

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08 Sep 2009, 13:38
One more vote for D.

The problem I see with A is that, when 1000 dolphins were exposed to small quantities of mercury in sea water, none of them are effected. But the reasoning in the stimulus is stating that less thatn 1% are effected.

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Re: Polling data reveal that an overwhelming majority of 9 year [#permalink]

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08 Sep 2009, 14:21
I will also go for D and wording in D also matches with question wording . I am suspicious that D may be wrong as this was quite obvious choice .
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Re: Polling data reveal that an overwhelming majority of 9 year [#permalink]

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08 Sep 2009, 15:27
I went with D as well but I do feel it is also a trap answer.

E is my 2nd guess as it says. there is no correlation between knowing the people and knowing the issues.

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Re: Polling data reveal that an overwhelming majority of 9 year [#permalink]

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09 Sep 2009, 13:00
what is OA?

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Re: Polling data reveal that an overwhelming majority of 9 year [#permalink]

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10 Sep 2009, 02:22
you were all right D is a trap answer

The correct answer choice is A.

The method of reasoning in the stimulus is a cause-effect relationship that is denied.

The flawed in reasoning is that you cannot extract that conclusion from nine-year-olds who cannot purchase their own cigarettes.

The problem with option D is that switches terms from the premise to the conclusion. The premise is about "average life span", but the conclusion is about "good health". Another problem is that this answer relates the group to an average ("average life span") whereas the stimulus related the group to a specific result ("smoking")

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Re: Polling data reveal that an overwhelming majority of 9 year [#permalink]

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12 Nov 2009, 08:04
Agreed.

Can you please map the flaw to the correct answer option as well ??

I mean, I know why D is wrong answer, not why A is the correct answer..

Thanks

mikeCoolBoy wrote:
you were all right D is a trap answer

The correct answer choice is A.

The method of reasoning in the stimulus is a cause-effect relationship that is denied.

The flawed in reasoning is that you cannot extract that conclusion from nine-year-olds who cannot purchase their own cigarettes.

The problem with option D is that switches terms from the premise to the conclusion. The premise is about "average life span", but the conclusion is about "good health". Another problem is that this answer relates the group to an average ("average life span") whereas the stimulus related the group to a specific result ("smoking")

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Re: Polling data reveal that an overwhelming majority of 9 year [#permalink]

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12 Nov 2009, 09:27
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Both A and the stimulus follow the same method of reasoning. It helps to diagram the stimulus to see this relation

many children ---> identify logos
those children ---> not smoke
--------------------------------------------------
no correlation between identify logos and smoking

many dolphins ---> exposed to small quantities of mercury in seawater
those dolphins ---> no effect on the animal
-------------------------------------------------------------------
no correlation between mercury and effects on the animal

Let me know if this helps

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Re: Polling data reveal that an overwhelming majority of 9 year [#permalink]

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12 Nov 2009, 10:20
it did !!!

thanks..

mikeCoolBoy wrote:
Both A and the stimulus follow the same method of reasoning. It helps to diagram the stimulus to see this relation

many children ---> identify logos
those children ---> not smoke
--------------------------------------------------
no correlation between identify logos and smoking

many dolphins ---> exposed to small quantities of mercury in seawater
those dolphins ---> no effect on the animal
-------------------------------------------------------------------
no correlation between mercury and effects on the animal

Let me know if this helps

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Re: Polling data reveal that an overwhelming majority of 9 year [#permalink]

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12 Nov 2009, 10:55
mbaquestionmark wrote:
it did !!!

thanks..

you're welcome

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Re: Polling data reveal that an overwhelming majority of 9 year [#permalink]

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12 Nov 2009, 11:24
Good one!

was initially confused between A and E

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Re: Polling data reveal that an overwhelming majority of 9 year [#permalink]

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15 Nov 2009, 18:45
This question was indeed a difficult one. I see why A is the best answer now. However, I find the phrase "there is little or no connection between recognition of cigarette brand logos and smoking" so much more general than the dolphin reasoning. It's not exactly the most symmetric answer I have come across. But it's the best choice from the lot.
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Re: Polling data reveal that an overwhelming majority of 9 year [#permalink]

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15 Nov 2009, 20:22
Excellent question and excellent explaination !!!
I too had gone with D .
Thanks for the question !

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Re: Polling data reveal that an overwhelming majority of 9 year [#permalink]

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04 Jan 2010, 21:10
Ok, I understand why the flawed in reasoning is that you cannot extract that conclusion from nine-year-olds who cannot purchase their own cigarettes,

but why do you think that the fact because dolphins did not suffer of exposure to small quantities of mercury in seawater is flawed. I think it logically shows that because it worked on 100 dolphins it should work on other dolphins as well.

In the example with 9 year old kids it was understandable that they can not buy cigarettes, and that is why they may be not smoking. I do not see any of that problem in the choice A.
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Re: Polling data reveal that an overwhelming majority of 9 year [#permalink]

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14 Jan 2011, 14:39
can we discuss this
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Re: Polling data reveal that an overwhelming majority of 9 year [#permalink]

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15 Jan 2011, 01:41
i too went for D .. excellent question,..

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Re: Polling data reveal that an overwhelming majority of 9 year [#permalink]

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17 Apr 2011, 23:35
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Re: Polling data reveal that an overwhelming majority of 9 year [#permalink]

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19 Apr 2011, 06:10
A

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Re: Polling data reveal that an overwhelming majority of 9 year   [#permalink] 19 Apr 2011, 06:10

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