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"Popular art" has a number of meanings, impossible to

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"Popular art" has a number of meanings, impossible to  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jan 2019, 15:55
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"Popular art" has a number of meanings, impossible to define with any precision, which ranges from folklore to junk. The poles are clear enough, but the middle tends to blur. The Hollywood Western of the 1930's. for example, has elements of folklore, but is closer to junk than to high art or folk art. There can be great trash. just as there is bad high art. The musicals of George Gershwin are great popular art, never aspiring to high art. Schubert and Brahms, however, used elements of popular music—folk themes—in works clearly intended as high art. The case of Verdi is a different one: he took a popular genre—bourgeois melodrama set to music (an accurate definition of nineteenth-century opera)—and, without altering its fundamental nature, transmuted it into high art. This remains one of the greatest achievements in music, and one that cannot be fully appreciated without recognizing the essential trashiness of the genre.

As an example of such a transmutation, consider what Verdi made of the typical political elements of nineteenth-century opera. Generally in the plots of these operas, a hero or heroine—usually portrayed only as an individual, unfettered by class—is caught between the immoral corruption of the aristocracy and the doctrinaire rigidity or secret greed of the leaders of the proletariat. Verdi transforms this naive and unlikely formulation with music of extraordinary energy and rhythmic vitality, music more subtle than it seems at first hearing. There are scenes and arias that still sound like calls to arms and were clearly understood as such when they were first performed. Such pieces lend an immediacy to the otherwise veiled political message of these operas and call up feelings beyond those of the opera itself.

Or consider Verdi's treatment of character. Before Verdi, there were rarely any characters at all in musical drama, only a series of situations which allowed the singers to express a series of emotional states. Any attempt to find coherent psychological portrayal in these operas is misplaced ingenuity. The only coherence was the singer's vocal technique: when the cast changed, new arias were almost always substituted, generally adapted from other operas. Verdi's characters, on the other hand, have genuine consistency and integrity, even if, in many cases, the consistency is that of pasteboard melodrama. The integrity of the character is achieved through the music: once he had become established, Verdi did not rewrite his music for different singers or countenance alterations or substitutions of somebody else's arias in one of his operas, as every eighteenth-century composer had done. When he revised an opera, it was only for dramatic economy and effectiveness.
The author refers to Schubert and Brahms in order to suggest

(A) that their achievements are no less substantial than those of Verdi
(B) that their works are examples of great trash
(C) the extent to which Schubert and Brahms influenced the later compositions of Verdi
(D) a contrast between the conventions of nineteenth-century opera and those of other musical forms
(E) that popular music could be employed in compositions intended as high art


Spoiler: :: OA
E


According to the passage, the immediacy of the political message in Verdi's operas stems from the

(A) vitality and subtlety of the music
(B) audience's familiarity with earlier operas
(C) portrayal of heightened emotional states
(D) individual talents of the singers
(E) verisimilitude of the characters


Spoiler: :: OA
A


According to the passage, all of the following characterize musical drama before Verdi EXCEPT

(A) arias tailored to a particular singer's ability
(B) adaptation of music from other operas
(C) psychological inconsistency in the portrayal of characters
(D) expression of emotional states in a series of dramatic situations
(E) music used for the purpose of defining a character


Spoiler: :: OA
E


It can be inferred that the author regards Verdi's revisions to his operas with

(A) regret that the original music and texts were altered
(B) concern that many of the revisions altered the plots of the original work
(C) approval for the intentions that motivated the revisions
(D) puzzlement, since the revisions seem largely insignificant
(E) enthusiasm, since the revisions were aimed at reducing the conventionality of the operas' plots


Spoiler: :: OA
C


According to the passage, one of Verdi's achievements within the framework of nineteenth-century opera and its conventions was to

(A) limit the extent to which singers influenced the musical composition and performance of his operas
(B) use his operas primarily as forums to protest both the moral corruption and dogmatic rigidity of the political leaders of his time
(C) portray psychologically complex characters shaped by the political environment surrounding them
(D) incorporate elements of folklore into both the music and plots of his operas
(E) introduce political elements into an art form that had traditionally avoided political content


Spoiler: :: OA
A


Which of the following best describes the relationship of the first paragraph of the passage to the passage as a whole?

(A) It provides a group of specific examples from which generalizations are drawn later in the. passage.
(B) It leads to an assertion that is supported by examples later in the passage.
(C) It defines terms and relationships that are challenged in an argument later in the passage.
(D) It briefly compares and contrasts several achievements that are examined in detail later in the passage.
(E) It explains a method of judging a work of art, a method that is used later in the passage.


Spoiler: :: OA
B


It can be inferred that the author regards the independence from social class of the heroes and heroines of nineteenth-century opera as

(A) an idealized but fundamentally accurate portrayal of bourgeois life
(B) a plot convention with no real connection to political reality
(C) a plot refinement unique to Verdi
(D) a symbolic representation of the position of the bourgeoisie relative to the aristocracy and the proletariat
(E) a convention largely seen as irrelevant by audiences


Spoiler: :: OA
B



Source: GRE Official Material

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Re: "Popular art" has a number of meanings, impossible to  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Feb 2019, 05:41
extremely difficult passage. can someone please post the OEs.
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Re: "Popular art" has a number of meanings, impossible to  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Feb 2019, 06:58
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Re: "Popular art" has a number of meanings, impossible to  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Feb 2019, 12:44
carcass wrote:
"Popular art" has a number of meanings, impossible to define with any precision, which ranges from folklore to junk. The poles are clear enough, but the middle tends to blur. The Hollywood Western of the 1930's. for example, has elements of folklore, but is closer to junk than to high art or folk art. There can be great trash. just as there is bad high art. The musicals of George Gershwin are great popular art, never aspiring to high art. Schubert and Brahms, however, used elements of popular music—folk themes—in works clearly intended as high art. The case of Verdi is a different one: he took a popular genre—bourgeois melodrama set to music (an accurate definition of nineteenth-century opera)—and, without altering its fundamental nature, transmuted it into high art. This remains one of the greatest achievements in music, and one that cannot be fully appreciated without recognizing the essential trashiness of the genre.

As an example of such a transmutation, consider what Verdi made of the typical political elements of nineteenth-century opera. Generally in the plots of these operas, a hero or heroine—usually portrayed only as an individual, unfettered by class—is caught between the immoral corruption of the aristocracy and the doctrinaire rigidity or secret greed of the leaders of the proletariat. Verdi transforms this naive and unlikely formulation with music of extraordinary energy and rhythmic vitality, music more subtle than it seems at first hearing. There are scenes and arias that still sound like calls to arms and were clearly understood as such when they were first performed. Such pieces lend an immediacy to the otherwise veiled political message of these operas and call up feelings beyond those of the opera itself.

Or consider Verdi's treatment of character. Before Verdi, there were rarely any characters at all in musical drama, only a series of situations which allowed the singers to express a series of emotional states. Any attempt to find coherent psychological portrayal in these operas is misplaced ingenuity. The only coherence was the singer's vocal technique: when the cast changed, new arias were almost always substituted, generally adapted from other operas. Verdi's characters, on the other hand, have genuine consistency and integrity, even if, in many cases, the consistency is that of pasteboard melodrama. The integrity of the character is achieved through the music: once he had become established, Verdi did not rewrite his music for different singers or countenance alterations or substitutions of somebody else's arias in one of his operas, as every eighteenth-century composer had done. When he revised an opera, it was only for dramatic economy and effectiveness.
The author refers to Schubert and Brahms in order to suggest

(A) that their achievements are no less substantial than those of Verdi
(B) that their works are examples of great trash
(C) the extent to which Schubert and Brahms influenced the later compositions of Verdi
(D) a contrast between the conventions of nineteenth-century opera and those of other musical forms
(E) that popular music could be employed in compositions intended as high art


Spoiler: :: OA
E


According to the passage, the immediacy of the political message in Verdi's operas stems from the

(A) vitality and subtlety of the music
(B) audience's familiarity with earlier operas
(C) portrayal of heightened emotional states
(D) individual talents of the singers
(E) verisimilitude of the characters


Spoiler: :: OA
A


According to the passage, all of the following characterize musical drama before Verdi EXCEPT

(A) arias tailored to a particular singer's ability
(B) adaptation of music from other operas
(C) psychological inconsistency in the portrayal of characters
(D) expression of emotional states in a series of dramatic situations
(E) music used for the purpose of defining a character


Spoiler: :: OA
E


It can be inferred that the author regards Verdi's revisions to his operas with

(A) regret that the original music and texts were altered
(B) concern that many of the revisions altered the plots of the original work
(C) approval for the intentions that motivated the revisions
(D) puzzlement, since the revisions seem largely insignificant
(E) enthusiasm, since the revisions were aimed at reducing the conventionality of the operas' plots


Spoiler: :: OA
C


According to the passage, one of Verdi's achievements within the framework of nineteenth-century opera and its conventions was to

(A) limit the extent to which singers influenced the musical composition and performance of his operas
(B) use his operas primarily as forums to protest both the moral corruption and dogmatic rigidity of the political leaders of his time
(C) portray psychologically complex characters shaped by the political environment surrounding them
(D) incorporate elements of folklore into both the music and plots of his operas
(E) introduce political elements into an art form that had traditionally avoided political content


Spoiler: :: OA
A


Which of the following best describes the relationship of the first paragraph of the passage to the passage as a whole?

(A) It provides a group of specific examples from which generalizations are drawn later in the. passage.
(B) It leads to an assertion that is supported by examples later in the passage.
(C) It defines terms and relationships that are challenged in an argument later in the passage.
(D) It briefly compares and contrasts several achievements that are examined in detail later in the passage.
(E) It explains a method of judging a work of art, a method that is used later in the passage.


Spoiler: :: OA
B


It can be inferred that the author regards the independence from social class of the heroes and heroines of nineteenth-century opera as

(A) an idealized but fundamentally accurate portrayal of bourgeois life
(B) a plot convention with no real connection to political reality
(C) a plot refinement unique to Verdi
(D) a symbolic representation of the position of the bourgeoisie relative to the aristocracy and the proletariat
(E) a convention largely seen as irrelevant by audiences


Spoiler: :: OA
B



Source: GRE Official Material


Tough but interesting passage. 6/7 Correct.

Can someone explain Q5?
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"Popular art" has a number of meanings, impossible to  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Feb 2019, 14:02
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According to the passage, one of Verdi's achievements within the framework of nineteenth-century opera and its conventions was to

here we are looking for what Verdi does of such relevant

(A) limit the extent to which singers influenced the musical composition and performance of his operas

Verdi's characters, on the other hand, have genuine consistency and integrity, even if, in many cases, the consistency is that of pasteboard melodrama. The integrity of the character is achieved through the music: once he had become established, Verdi did not rewrite his music for different singers or countenance alterations or substitutions of somebody else's arias in one of his operas, as every eighteenth-century composer had done.

All this means that in Verdi's opera the singer was part of the story. I:E he or she was not above all. As such, his/her prominence was limited.

Before Verdi: The only coherence was the singer's vocal technique

Actually, Verdi had completely overhaul the entire concept of the Opera

(B) use his operas primarily as forums to protest both the moral corruption and dogmatic rigidity of the political leaders of his time

At all. Verdi transforms this naive and unlikely formulation with music of extraordinary energy and rhythmic vitality. Nothing of political in the strict sense of the word.

(C) portray psychologically complex characters shaped by the political environment surrounding them

Verdi went well over this: Such pieces lend an immediacy to the otherwise veiled political message of these operas and call up feelings beyond those of the opera itself.

(D) incorporate elements of folklore into both the music and plots of his operas

I do not see any clue of folklore in the passage. Barely a mention in the first sentence.

(E) introduce political elements into an art form that had traditionally avoided political content

Not totally true. Such pieces lend an immediacy to the otherwise veiled political message of these operas and call up feelings beyond those of the opera itself.

A is the best answer. Honestly, this was really tough. Actually, you have to have a good grasp of the entire passage to tackle it.

Please leave kudos if the explanation was useful.

Thanks you
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Re: "Popular art" has a number of meanings, impossible to  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Feb 2019, 21:13
carcass wrote:
"Popular art" has a number of meanings, impossible to define with any precision, which ranges from folklore to junk. The poles are clear enough, but the middle tends to blur. The Hollywood Western of the 1930's. for example, has elements of folklore, but is closer to junk than to high art or folk art. There can be great trash. just as there is bad high art. The musicals of George Gershwin are great popular art, never aspiring to high art. Schubert and Brahms, however, used elements of popular music—folk themes—in works clearly intended as high art. The case of Verdi is a different one: he took a popular genre—bourgeois melodrama set to music (an accurate definition of nineteenth-century opera)—and, without altering its fundamental nature, transmuted it into high art. This remains one of the greatest achievements in music, and one that cannot be fully appreciated without recognizing the essential trashiness of the genre.

As an example of such a transmutation, consider what Verdi made of the typical political elements of nineteenth-century opera. Generally in the plots of these operas, a hero or heroine—usually portrayed only as an individual, unfettered by class—is caught between the immoral corruption of the aristocracy and the doctrinaire rigidity or secret greed of the leaders of the proletariat. Verdi transforms this naive and unlikely formulation with music of extraordinary energy and rhythmic vitality, music more subtle than it seems at first hearing. There are scenes and arias that still sound like calls to arms and were clearly understood as such when they were first performed. Such pieces lend an immediacy to the otherwise veiled political message of these operas and call up feelings beyond those of the opera itself.

Or consider Verdi's treatment of character. Before Verdi, there were rarely any characters at all in musical drama, only a series of situations which allowed the singers to express a series of emotional states. Any attempt to find coherent psychological portrayal in these operas is misplaced ingenuity. The only coherence was the singer's vocal technique: when the cast changed, new arias were almost always substituted, generally adapted from other operas. Verdi's characters, on the other hand, have genuine consistency and integrity, even if, in many cases, the consistency is that of pasteboard melodrama. The integrity of the character is achieved through the music: once he had become established, Verdi did not rewrite his music for different singers or countenance alterations or substitutions of somebody else's arias in one of his operas, as every eighteenth-century composer had done. When he revised an opera, it was only for dramatic economy and effectiveness.
The author refers to Schubert and Brahms in order to suggest

(A) that their achievements are no less substantial than those of Verdi
(B) that their works are examples of great trash
(C) the extent to which Schubert and Brahms influenced the later compositions of Verdi
(D) a contrast between the conventions of nineteenth-century opera and those of other musical forms
(E) that popular music could be employed in compositions intended as high art


Spoiler: :: OA
E


According to the passage, the immediacy of the political message in Verdi's operas stems from the

(A) vitality and subtlety of the music
(B) audience's familiarity with earlier operas
(C) portrayal of heightened emotional states
(D) individual talents of the singers
(E) verisimilitude of the characters


Spoiler: :: OA
A


According to the passage, all of the following characterize musical drama before Verdi EXCEPT

(A) arias tailored to a particular singer's ability
(B) adaptation of music from other operas
(C) psychological inconsistency in the portrayal of characters
(D) expression of emotional states in a series of dramatic situations
(E) music used for the purpose of defining a character


Spoiler: :: OA
E


It can be inferred that the author regards Verdi's revisions to his operas with

(A) regret that the original music and texts were altered
(B) concern that many of the revisions altered the plots of the original work
(C) approval for the intentions that motivated the revisions
(D) puzzlement, since the revisions seem largely insignificant
(E) enthusiasm, since the revisions were aimed at reducing the conventionality of the operas' plots


Spoiler: :: OA
C


According to the passage, one of Verdi's achievements within the framework of nineteenth-century opera and its conventions was to

(A) limit the extent to which singers influenced the musical composition and performance of his operas
(B) use his operas primarily as forums to protest both the moral corruption and dogmatic rigidity of the political leaders of his time
(C) portray psychologically complex characters shaped by the political environment surrounding them
(D) incorporate elements of folklore into both the music and plots of his operas
(E) introduce political elements into an art form that had traditionally avoided political content


Spoiler: :: OA
A


Which of the following best describes the relationship of the first paragraph of the passage to the passage as a whole?

(A) It provides a group of specific examples from which generalizations are drawn later in the. passage.
(B) It leads to an assertion that is supported by examples later in the passage.
(C) It defines terms and relationships that are challenged in an argument later in the passage.
(D) It briefly compares and contrasts several achievements that are examined in detail later in the passage.
(E) It explains a method of judging a work of art, a method that is used later in the passage.


Spoiler: :: OA
B


It can be inferred that the author regards the independence from social class of the heroes and heroines of nineteenth-century opera as

(A) an idealized but fundamentally accurate portrayal of bourgeois life
(B) a plot convention with no real connection to political reality
(C) a plot refinement unique to Verdi
(D) a symbolic representation of the position of the bourgeoisie relative to the aristocracy and the proletariat
(E) a convention largely seen as irrelevant by audiences


Spoiler: :: OA
B



Source: GRE Official Material





Can you please provide an explanation for Q4, Q5 and Q7 ??
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Re: "Popular art" has a number of meanings, impossible to  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Feb 2019, 14:12
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Q4

It can be inferred that the author regards Verdi's revisions to his operas with

(A) regret that the original music and texts were altered
(B) concern that many of the revisions altered the plots of the original work
(C) approval for the intentions that motivated the revisions
(D) puzzlement, since the revisions seem largely insignificant
(E) enthusiasm, since the revisions were aimed at reducing the conventionality of the operas' plots

The author's intention is positive towards Verdi's work. As such, A, B and D are out immediately. between C and E the latter is wrong because in the 1st paragraph this sentence says

Quote:
without altering its fundamental nature, transmuted it into high art.


Which means there is no intention in Verdi to reduce any conventionality. He completely overhauls the story line.

Q5

please refer to my explanation above. I have already discussed it.

Q7

Quote:
Generally in the plots of these operas, a hero or heroine—usually portrayed only as an individual, unfettered by class—is caught between the immoral corruption of the aristocracy and the doctrinaire rigidity or secret greed of the leaders of the proletariat. Verdi transforms this naive and unlikely formulation with music of extraordinary energy and rhythmic vitality, music more subtle than it seems at first hearing


From the highlighted parts, you can clearly see how the answer is B.

Hope this helps.

Regards
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Re: "Popular art" has a number of meanings, impossible to   [#permalink] 14 Feb 2019, 14:12
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