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Practically speaking, the artistic maturing of the ci

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New post 12 Feb 2019, 12:37
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Practically speaking, the artistic maturing of the cinema was the single-handed achievement of David W. Griffith (1875-1948). Before Griffith. photography Line in dramatic films consisted of little more than placing the actors before a stationary camera and showing them in full length as they would have appeared on stage. From the beginning of his career as a director, however, Griffith. because of his love of Victorian painting, employed composition. He conceived of the camera image as having a foreground and a rear ground, as well as the middle distance preferred by most directors. By 1910 he was using close-ups to reveal significant details of the scene or of the acting and extreme long shots to achieve a sense of spectacle and distance. His appreciation of the camera's possibilities produced novel dramatic effects. By splitting an event into fragments and recording each from the most suitable camera position, he could significantly vary the emphasis from camera shot to camera shot.

Griffith also achieved dramatic effects by means of creative editing. By juxtaposing images and varying the speed and rhythm of their presentation, he could control the dramatic intensity of the events as the story progressed. Despite the reluctance of his producers, who feared that the public would not be able to follow a plot that was made up of such juxtaposed images, Griffith persisted and experimented as well with other elements of cinematic syntax that have become standard ever since. These included the flashback, permitting broad psychological and emotional exploration as well as narrative that was not chronological, and the crosscut between two parallel actions to heighten suspense and excitement. In thus exploiting fully the possibilities of editing, Griffith transposed devices of the Victorian novel to film and gave film mastery of time as well as space.

Besides developing the cinema's language, Griffith immensely broadened its range and treatment of subjects. His early output was remarkably eclectic: it included not only the standard comedies, melodramas, westerns, and thrillers, but also such novelties as adaptations from Browning and Tennyson, and treatments of social issues. As his successes mounted, his ambitions grew, and with them the whole of American cinema. When he remade Enoch Arden in 1911, he insisted that a subject of such importance could not be treated in the then conventional length of one reel. Griffith's introduction of the American-made multireel picture began an immense revolution. Two years later, Judith of Bethulia, an elaborate historicophilosophical spectacle, reached the unprecedented length of four reels, or one hour's running time. From our contemporary viewpoint, the pretensions of this film may seem a trifle ludicrous, but at the time it provoked endless debate and discussion and gave new intellectual respectability to the cinema.
The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) discuss the importance of Griffith to the development of the cinema
(B) describe the impact on cinema of the flashback and other editing innovations
(C) deplore the state of American cinema before the advent of Griffith
(D) analyze the changes in the cinema wrought by the introduction of the multireel film
(E) document Griffith's impact on the choice of subject matter in American films


Spoiler: :: OA
A


The author suggests that Griffith's film innovations had a direct effect on all of the following EXCEPT

(A) film editing
(B) camera work
(C) scene composing
(D) sound editing
(E) directing


Spoiler: :: OA
D


It can be inferred from the passage that before 1910 the normal running time of a film was

(A) 15 minutes or less
(B) between 15 and 30 minutes
(C) between 30 and 45 minutes
(D) between 45 minutes and 1 hour
(E) I hour or more


Spoiler: :: OA
A


The author asserts that Griffith introduced all of the following into American cinema EXCEPT

(A) consideration of social issues
(B) adaptations from Tennyson
(C) the flashback and other editing techniques
(D) photographic approaches inspired by Victorian painting
(E) dramatic plots suggested by Victorian theater


Spoiler: :: OA
E


The author suggests that Griffith's contributions to the cinema had which of the following results?

I. Literary works, especially Victorian novels, became popular sources for film subjects.
II. Audience appreciation of other film directors' experimentations with cinematic syntax was increased.
III. Many of the artistic limitations thought to be inherent in filmmaking were shown to be really nonexistent.

(A) II only
(B) III only
(C) I and II only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III


Spoiler: :: OA
B


It can be inferred from the passage that Griffith would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements?

(A) The good director will attempt to explore new ideas as quickly as possible.
(B) The most important element contributing to a film's success is the ability of the actors.
(C) The camera must be considered an integral and active element in the creation of a film.
(D) The cinema should emphasize serious and sober examinations of fundamental human problems.
(E) The proper composition of scenes in a film is more important than the details of their editing.


Spoiler: :: OA
C


The author's attitude toward photography in the cinema before Griffith can best be described as

(A) sympathetic
(B) nostalgic
(C) amused
(D) condescending
(E) hostile


Spoiler: :: OA
D



Source: GRE Official Material

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Re: Practically speaking, the artistic maturing of the ci  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Feb 2019, 01:45
Hi

Can you pls explain why the option in q 5 is not A.
It talks about the other techniques as well like flash back etc and not only camera.
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New post 26 Feb 2019, 04:30
surbhi1991 wrote:
Hi

Can you pls explain why the option in q 5 is not A.
It talks about the other techniques as well like flash back etc and not only camera.


Hi surbhi1991 I dont think you are referring to Q5 . Please be specific and what is the doubt about the question !!
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New post 26 Feb 2019, 04:37
generis carcass aragonn
The author asserts that Griffith introduced all of the following into American cinema EXCEPT

(C) the flashback and other editing techniques : The questions explicitly says "introduced" "what did G introduce"
But the passage states : " Griffith persisted and experimented as well with other elements of cinematic syntax that have become standard ever since. These included the flashback, permitting broad psychological and emotional exploration "
How can we say that if someone is EXPERIMENTING on something he/she is actually INTRODCUING it???

(E) dramatic plots suggested by Victorian theater : The reason i selected this asnwer is that the word "theatre" is nwhere mentioned ..we tak about paintings and novel and not theatre !!!

But i still want o know how C is incorrect !! i had to consume 1.5 mins extra !! the difference between introduce and experiment is whats troubling me !! I prefered E to C coz E was completely out of scope (theatre 0

Please share your opinon . Thank you
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New post 26 Feb 2019, 04:58
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Despite the reluctance of his producers, who feared that the public would not be able to follow a plot that was made up of such juxtaposed images, Griffith persisted and experimented as well with other elements of cinematic syntax that have become standard ever since.

From this, you can easily notice that he strongly pushed for this innovation, later on, will become the standard de facto.

I.E. he introduced those things even if they were counterintuitive at the time.

All the innovation, in general, are disruptive somehow.

Hope now you got it.

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New post 26 Feb 2019, 07:05
AdityaHongunti wrote:
surbhi1991 wrote:
Hi

Can you pls explain why the option in q 5 is not A.
It talks about the other techniques as well like flash back etc and not only camera.


Hi surbhi1991 I dont think you are referring to Q5 . Please be specific and what is the doubt about the question !!


Hi

I meant Q5 only
Can you please tell me as to how c option is correct for this and not option A.
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New post 26 Feb 2019, 15:52
Quote:
The author asserts that Griffith introduced all of the following into American cinema EXCEPT

(A) consideration of social issues
(B) adaptations from Tennyson
(C) the flashback and other editing techniques
(D) photographic approaches inspired by Victorian painting
(E) dramatic plots suggested by Victorian theater

AdityaHongunti wrote:
generis carcass aragonn
The author asserts that Griffith introduced all of the following into American cinema EXCEPT

(C) the flashback and other editing techniques : The questions explicitly says "introduced" "what did G introduce"
But the passage states : " Griffith persisted and experimented as well with other elements of cinematic syntax that have become standard ever since. These included the flashback, permitting broad psychological and emotional exploration "
How can we say that if someone is EXPERIMENTING on something he/she is actually INTRODCUING it???

(E) dramatic plots suggested by Victorian theater : The reason i selected this asnwer is that the word "theatre" is nwhere mentioned ..we tak about paintings and novel and not theatre !!!

But i still want o know how C is incorrect !! i had to consume 1.5 mins extra !! the difference between introduce and experiment is whats troubling me !! I prefered E to C coz E was completely out of scope (theatre 0

Please share your opinon . Thank you

AdityaHongunti , I'll get to your other good questions soon.
I think you missed the last sentence of the second paragraph. It's easy to do.

The good news: you are laser-focused on words and meaning.
Smart move. Too often in RC the actual text and what it means get ignored.

The other news: I think you got a little literal about "introduce" and
thus did not notice the last sentence of the second paragraph.

In thus exploiting fully the possibilities of editing,
Griffith transposed devices of the Victorian novel to film and gave film mastery of time as well as space.

The last sentence of the paragraph reinforces indications earlier in the paragraph that
Griffith introduced elements of the Victorian novel into American cinema, including the flashback and other editing techniques.

Paragraph 2
Griffith also achieved dramatic effects by means of creative editing.
He juxtaposed images and varied the speed and rhythm of their presentation, controlling dramatic intensity. . .

Griffith persisted and experimented as well with other elements of cinematic syntax that have become standard
ever since [Griffith used them].
These included the flashback

In thus exploiting fully the possibilities of editing,
Griffith transposed devices of the Victorian novel to film and gave film mastery of time as well as space.

• Griffith persisted and experimented with [elements] that have become standard . . .
ever since Griffith used them = right after he used them

Those elements, in other words, were not standard in film before he used them.
The result of his persistence and experimentation
was that the elements became standard.
Griffith introduced and his introduction then standardized the elements into American cinema.

• the last sentence of the second paragraph cements answer (C) as incorrect

From the sentence quoted above, this part is important:
Griffith transposed devices of the Victorian novel to film

To transpose devices of the Victorian novel to film means that
Griffith transplanted Victorian novel devices into his films.

To transplant that which was not previously "standard" but became so meets the definition of "introduced."

This note is for everyone with respect to RC:
In a scholarly essay whose organization resembles this sanitized history of a wretched man, (three paragraphs, three general topics, three topic sentences) . . .

If you get stuck on a question, read, in order, only the topic sentence
of each paragraph, and the last sentence of each paragraph.
(In this essay, the topic sentence of paragraph #1 is the second sentence of the essay.)

I am almost certain that such a technique would have eased your mind
more quickly about (C).
I think you would have noticed "transposed Victorian devices to film."

Even if "transposed" is not all that clear, you have a preposition (to in "to film")
indicating that he took something from the Victorian novel TO film.

And yes, you were spot on: there is zero mention of Victorian theater.
To decide between C and E, we are faced with
-- Zero mention of theater versus
-- some mention of the Victorian novel
Now what?
If reading the topic and concluding paragraph sentences does not help,
in 10 seconds, decide which is more decisive, and use your instincts, which are good . . .
Which is more decisive:
-- what is absent (is there any other word that could be a synonym for "Victorian theater"?)
-- what IS present, however imperfectly (and could "experiment = introduce")? :)

Hope that helps.


*Sanitized? To say that this GRE passage is "sanitized history" is to radically understate the case.
Dear GRE author: wanna talk about influential directors? Here is a really good list of the top 25. Choose a different director who didn't make a film that glorified the Ku Klux Klan and its murderous violence. Or don't sanitize. YMMV.

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New post 26 Feb 2019, 15:59
surbhi1991 wrote:
AdityaHongunti wrote:
surbhi1991 wrote:
Hi

Can you pls explain why the option in q 5 is not A.
It talks about the other techniques as well like flash back etc and not only camera.


Hi surbhi1991 I dont think you are referring to Q5 . Please be specific and what is the doubt about the question !!


Hi

I meant Q5 only
Can you please tell me as to how c option is correct for this and not option A.

surbhi1991 , please, copy and paste the question and the answers to which you refer.

You are referencing the wrong question number.
The answer to question #5 is E.
The answer is not A.

The way that these questions and answers are set up confused me, too.

Please copy and paste as I requested. I don't know whether you are talking about #4 or #6.
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New post Updated on: 27 Feb 2019, 00:23
Para summary :
1.
Cinema industry matured with G// before G// contributions of G
keywods : maturing , singlehanded, before G,composition, most diector, 1910, novel, splitting

2.
more contris//some new standards were adopted// devices of VN to films= space and time
keywrods : creative editiing, reluctance, public-plot, transposed VN

3.
more contris// novel subjects// one reel-4 reel///new respectaibilty to cinema
keywords : broadnened range, subjects, B an T, social , reeel, revolution, Jud, viewpoint, debate, intellect

primary purpose : to show how g's contris evolved the cinema industry
authors's tone : discriptive with a slight appreicaition !!

Originally posted by AdityaHongunti on 26 Feb 2019, 23:47.
Last edited by AdityaHongunti on 27 Feb 2019, 00:23, edited 1 time in total.
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New post 26 Feb 2019, 23:52
The primary purpose of the passage is to
Quote:
Para summary :
1.
Cinema industry matured with G// before G// contributions of G
keywods : maturing , singlehanded, before G, most diector, 1910, novel, splitting

2.
more contris//some new standards were adopted// devices of VN to films= space and time
keywrods : creative editiing, reluctance, public-plot, transposed VN

3.
more contris// novel subjects// one reel-4 reel///new respectaibilty to cinema
keywords : broadnened range, subjects, B an T, social , reeel, revolution, Jud, viewpoint, debate, intellect

primary purpose : to show how g's contris evolved the cinema industry


(A) discuss the importance of Griffith to the development of the cinema

(B) describe the impact on cinema of the flashback and other editing innovations
- only covers 2nd para.. also the IMPACTof flashback is not discussed as much

(C) deplore the state of American cinema before the advent of Griffith
- only 1 line in para 1 ...rest is all after G

(D) analyze the changes in the cinema wrought by the introduction of the multireel film
- only 3 rd para ...also no changes e dscussed

(E) document Griffith's impact on the choice of subject matter in American films
- only 3rd para
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New post 26 Feb 2019, 23:56
The author suggests that Griffith's film innovations had a direct effect on all of the following EXCEPT

refer the keywords !!!

keywods : maturing , singlehanded, before G, composition, most diector, 1910, novel, splitting
keywrods : creative editiing, reluctance, public-plot, transposed VN
keywords : broadnened range, subjects, B an T, social , reeel, revolution, Jud, viewpoint, debate, intellect


(A) film editing - found it

(B) camera work - 2nd para full

(C) scene composing- found it (keywords)

(D) sound editing- sound nowhere


(E) directing - found it (keywords)

refer the keywords !!!
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New post 27 Feb 2019, 00:02
It can be inferred from the passage that before 1910 the normal running time of a film was

before 1910 means before G.. running time i guess i read it in 3rd paa- go there !!
note :before Griff
When he remade Enoch Arden in 1911, he insisted that a subject of such importance could not be treated in the then conventional length of one reel. Griffith's introduction of the American-made multireel picture began an immense revolution. Two years later, Judith of Bethulia, an elaborate historicophilosophical spectacle, reached the unprecedented length of four reels, or one hour's running time.

pokay so before G : 1 reel
after G : 4 reels ...4 reels= 1 hour ...theorefore 1 reel= 15 mins !!

(A) 15 minutes or less

(B) between 15 and 30 minutes
We cannot say for sure that "15 mins" was not in the range !!! This asnwer choice says BETWEEN 15 and 30 and not "inclusive of"

(C) between 30 and 45 minutes
wrong

(D) between 45 minutes and 1 hour
- wrong
(E) I hour or more
-wrong
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New post 27 Feb 2019, 00:08
The author suggests that Griffith's contributions to the cinema had which of the following results?

I. Literary works, especially Victorian novels, became popular sources for film subjects.

all we know that G employed certain things which he may have based on Vic novels...BUT did the Vic noevl became POPULAR SOURCES of films??
eliminate C and E

II. Audience appreciation of other film directors' experimentations with cinematic syntax was increased.
- we only talk about G's contributions ..and what ecactly the audience appreciated is not very speicific (cinematic syntax)...additionally "other director's experimentation"?? no mention
eliminate A and D

III. Many of the artistic limitations thought to be inherent in filmmaking were shown to be really nonexistent.

(A) II only
(B) III only
(C) I and II only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III
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New post 27 Feb 2019, 00:14
It can be inferred from the passage that Griffith would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements?

note : We want to know what Griffith would agree to ...NOT AUTHOR
Use POE for open ended questions:

(A) The good director will attempt to explore new ideas as quickly as possible.
- how fast one should do not mentioned

(B) The most important element contributing to a film's success is the ability of the actors.
NO mention of MOST IMPORTANT ELEMENT

(C) The camera must be considered an integral and active element in the creation of a film.
- reached by POE ... why would G agree to this?/ coz he is basically making camera an integral part of his "Composition" sipport to this :
He conceived of the camera image as having a foreground and a rear ground, as well as the middle distance preferred by most directors. By 1910 he was using close-ups to reveal significant details of the scene or of the acting and extreme long shots to achieve a sense of spectacle and distance. His appreciation of the camera's possibilities produced novel dramatic effects. By splitting an event into fragments and recording each from the most suitable camera position, he could significantly vary the emphasis from camera shot to camera shot.
(D) The cinema should emphasize serious and sober examinations of fundamental human problems.
"should" is too strong.. G never says that it is MUST that cinemas deal with social issues..he says we can use social issue subjects..but NOT SHOULD

(E) The proper composition of scenes in a film is more important than the details of their editing.
- No base for comparison
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New post 27 Feb 2019, 00:22
The author's attitude toward photography in the cinema before Griffith can best be described as

please note : before griffith .... now scan the keywords and see where does the " before G lie" ?? 1st para... now very carefullu read the para from the start to the end and see how author's toning is.. you will notice that author is not really amazed or views the cinema before G as not really great ..supporting line :Before Griffith. photography Line in dramatic films consisted of little more than placing the actors before a stationary camera and showing them in full length as they would have appeared on stage.
- we can sense that author is not really excited or is looking down on the cinema industry before G

(A) sympathetic ...nope

(B) nostalgic..nope

(C) amused...he is not even close to amuse

now both of the remaining choices are negatives

(D) condescending - inferior / looking down upon

(E) hostile... "showing or feeling opposition or dislike; unfriendly." ...is author strongly opposing or disliking the cinema before G...no he is just comparing it with today and hence LOOKING DOWN on the before G part.."not reallygreat' is authors view
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