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# Prior to 1980, many American-made cars did not have

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Director
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18 Jun 2010, 02:28
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Question Stats:

84% (02:03) correct 16% (00:23) wrong based on 124 sessions

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Prior to 1980, many American-made cars did not have anti-lock brakes. These brakes help to prevent cars from skidding and spinning out on ice, and would therefore seem to increase driver control. However, after 1980, when all American-made cars were manufactured with anti-lock brakes, the number of U.S. drivers who experience car accidents due to skidding or spinning out on ice increased by 4 percent annually.

Which of the following, if true, most helps to explain the increase in the number of drivers who skidded and spun out on ice?

(A) During the winter, the U.S. has an unusually large number of icy roadways.
(B) Cars can be just as likely to skid and spin out just after the beginning of a snowstorm as when roads are covered by patches of ice.
(C) Prior to the introduction of anti-lock brakes in American cars, more drivers skidded and spun out in the U.S. than in any other country.
(D) After 1980, many U.S. drivers who had specifically avoided driving in icy conditions no longer did so.
(E) Many drivers skid and spin out on ice because they fail to steer appropriately rather than because their cars lack anti-lock brakes.
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18 Jun 2010, 03:34
IMO E. What is OA?
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18 Jun 2010, 03:59
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raisethebar wrote:
IMO E. What is OA?

IMO D. E is a generic statement. It doesn't explain the reason for increase in accidents. OA please?
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19 Jun 2010, 13:11
E? I dont think D is right because even if many drivers who earlier didnt drive started driving it still doesn't prove that ABS wasn't effective... E directly counters this position and says that accidents can happen even with ABS
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19 Jun 2010, 13:14
E introduces an alternate cause for the underlined effect.
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19 Jun 2010, 13:20
110% E. why do you come up with D?!
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19 Jun 2010, 13:29
This question best explains what will I do in GMAT if I see a question like this.

First choice of 98% people will be option "E". But will GMAT show a very clear answer choice? I think it should be "D". The question doesn't mention the anti locking brakes any where, so I am going with D.
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19 Jun 2010, 13:47
you will be wrong. you should read between the lines. the question asks for an alternative exp. e it is.
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19 Jun 2010, 13:52
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It sounds like some of you are confusing weakening questions with resolve-the-paradox questions.

When weakening a causal argument, you do indeed want to offer an alternative cause.

But resolve-the-paradox questions are like strengthening questions, only instead of strengthening the conclusion, you need to strengthen the sentence that starts with the word of contrast (however, but, nevertheless, etc.).

In this problem you want to explain why it is that "after 1980, ... the number of U.S. drivers who experience car accidents due to skidding or spinning out on ice increased by 4 percent annually." The only answer that explains why skidding/spinning increased after 1980 is D.

A tip for resolve-the paradox questions: Take the sentence that starts with the word of contrast (however, but, nevertheless, nonetheless, etc.), in your head add the the word 'because' after it, and then read your answer to see if it makes sense.

Ex. Skidding/spinning increased after 1980 because "after 1980, many U.S. drivers who had specifically avoided driving in icy conditions no longer did so."

For more useful tips and tricks on the topic, check out the Critical Reasoning III lesson at gmaxonline.
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19 Jun 2010, 21:50
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Thanks Sarai. This is wonderful tip.

OA is D
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20 Jun 2010, 19:25
SaraiGMAXonline wrote:
But resolve-the-paradox questions are like strengthening questions, only instead of strengthening the conclusion, you need to strengthen the sentence that starts with the word of contrast (however, but, nevertheless, etc.).

Wow that hit me. Nice catch !
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21 Jun 2010, 05:35
Hussain15 wrote:
This question best explains what will I do in GMAT if I see a question like this.

First choice of 98% people will be option "E". But will GMAT show a very clear answer choice? I think it should be "D". The question doesn't mention the anti locking brakes any where, so I am going with D.

Even i was with D and almost staking GMAT prep on this. D IS IT
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22 Apr 2012, 11:28
E explains why people tend to skid on ICY roads but it fails to address the paradox that the number of drivers who skid on ICE increased much after ABS was introduced compared to the period without ABS.

The clear answer is, more people started to drive on ICY roads. That goes with the reasoning provided in the option C
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23 Apr 2012, 00:12
STRAIGHT D.................!!!
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23 Jun 2012, 06:11
ykaiim wrote:
(E) Many drivers skid and spin out on ice because they fail to steer appropriately rather than because their cars lack anti-lock brakes.

even if this is true, it doesn't explain the rise in the incidents. the same drivers spun earlier as well; why the rise?
D explains the rise and, hence, is the correct ans.
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23 Jun 2012, 16:36
Initial guess was 'E' but from the tip provided by SaraiGMAX I go with 'D'
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24 Jun 2012, 03:23
Straight D.

Accidents increased increased despite development of ABS because drivers became less risk averse.

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14 Feb 2015, 12:26
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

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Re: Prior to 1980, many American-made cars did not have   [#permalink] 14 Feb 2015, 12:26
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