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# Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to

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Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to [#permalink]

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05 Oct 2006, 07:30
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Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much impact on the most important environmental problems, for while the ease of attributing feelings to large mammals facilitates evoking sympathy for them, it is more difficult to elicit sympathy for other kinds of organisms, such as the soil microorganisms on which large ecosystems and agriculture depend.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. The most important environmental problems involve endangered species other than large mammals.

B. Microorganisms cannot experience pain or have other feelings.

C. Publicity campaigns for the environment are the most effective when they elicit sympathy for some organism.

D. People ignore environmental problems unless they believe the problems will affect creatures with which they sympathize.

E. An organism can be environmentally significant only if it affects large ecosystems or agriculture.

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Last edited by laxieqv on 05 Oct 2006, 07:56, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to [#permalink]

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19 Nov 2013, 19:06
laxieqv wrote:
Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much impact on the most important environmental problems, for while the ease of attributing feelings to large mammals facilitates evoking sympathy for them, it is more difficult to elicit sympathy for other kinds of organisms, such as the soil microorganisms on which large ecosystems and agriculture depend.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. The most important environmental problems involve endangered species other than large mammals.

B. Microorganisms cannot experience pain or have other feelings.

C. Publicity campaigns for the environment are the most effective when they elicit sympathy for some organism.

D. People ignore environmental problems unless they believe the problems will affect creatures with which they sympathize.

E. An organism can be environmentally significant only if it affects large ecosystems or agriculture.

I guess C should be the answer; As the passage indirectly stated C , it seems to be the inference not assumption. The Q asked clearly to state the assumption on which the passage DEPENDS. So we need figure out why the author gave importance to endangered species as compared to large mammals ? Yes then it can be A /D . As the option D some irrelevance by discussing people as centre of argument ; the answer is A- which states why the argument on environmental importance of certain species in relation to publicity campaign had started.

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Re: Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to [#permalink]

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04 Jun 2014, 09:54
Do you think option A should be "Most of the environmental problems..."

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Re: Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to [#permalink]

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23 Nov 2014, 23:53
A. The most important environmental problems involve endangered species other than large mammals.
- this is correct, because it fills in the missing link between the premises and the conclusion. The premises discuss the difficulty of eliciting sympathy for types of organisms other than large mammals, which leads the author to conclude that publicity campaigns are unlikely to have an impact on the most important environmental problem. However, it fails to address if the most important environmental problems involve mostly large mammals or not.

B. Microorganisms cannot experience pain or have other feelings.
-This is completely outside the scope and has nothing to do with the conclusion.

C. Publicity campaigns for the environment are the most effective when they elicit sympathy for some organism.
-Just because they are most effective when they elicit sympathy doesn't mean that they are not effective when they do not.

D. People ignore environmental problems unless they believe the problems will affect creatures with which they sympathize.
- not really saying anything, because we still don't know if the most important problems involve large mammals or not

E. An organism can be environmentally significant only if it affects large ecosystems or agriculture.
-classifying organisms as environmentally significant or not is outside the scope.
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Re: Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to [#permalink]

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09 Jun 2015, 07:53
laxieqv wrote:
Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much impact on the most important environmental problems, for while the ease of attributing feelings to large mammals facilitates evoking sympathy for them, it is more difficult to elicit sympathy for other kinds of organisms, such as the soil microorganisms on which large ecosystems and agriculture depend.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. The most important environmental problems involve endangered species other than large mammals.

B. Microorganisms cannot experience pain or have other feelings.

C. Publicity campaigns for the environment are the most effective when they elicit sympathy for some organism.

D. People ignore environmental problems unless they believe the problems will affect creatures with which they sympathize.

E. An organism can be environmentally significant only if it affects large ecosystems or agriculture.

Hi friends,
I was able to narrow down to A and D.
D is concerned about "environmental problems" whereas the passages is concerned about "most important environmental problem".
This rules out D.
A is correct.

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Re: Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to [#permalink]

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09 Jun 2015, 15:06
gmataspirant2009 wrote:
noboru wrote:
16. Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much impact on the most important environmental problems, for while the ease of attributing feelings to large mammals facilitates evoking sympathy for them, it is more difficult to elicit sympathy for other kinds of organisms, such as the soil microorganisms on which large ecosystems and agriculture depend.
Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
Conclusion: Plublicity compaign will not much impact the most important environmental problems.
Now I will use denial method to test if negation of the answer choice undermines the conclusion. If it undermines, the answer choice will be the correct assumtion.
(A) The most important environmental problems involve endangered species other than large mammals.
==> The negation of the choice is "The most important environmental problem includes only the large mammals." Now since large mammals evoke sympathy easily, publicity compaign must have impact on the most important environmental problems. This clearly undermines the conclusion and hence it is correct assumption.
(B) Microorganisms cannot experience pain or have other feelings.
==>Irrelevent
(C) Publicity campaigns for the environment are the most effective when they elicit sympathy for some organism.
==> "the most effective" is too extreme. The conclusion talks about some impact not the most effective way to impact.
(D) People ignore environmental problems unless they believe the problems will affect creatures with which they sympathize.
==>The negation of the choice is "People do care about environmental problems even if it affect the creature they do not sympathize". This has no effect on the conclusion as we are not sure what the most important environmental problem involves.
(E) An organism can be environmentally significant only if it affects large ecosystems or agriculture.

Hi,
This is a brilliant explanation. Can you please explain or share a link about how and when to use negation of choice in CR questions?

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Re: Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to [#permalink]

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10 Jun 2015, 07:44
Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much impact on the most important environmental problems, for while the ease of attributing feelings to large mammals facilitates evoking sympathy for them, it is more difficult to elicit sympathy for other kinds of organisms, such as the soil microorganisms on which large ecosystems and agriculture depend.

The argument is that even though non-mammals are critical for large ecosystems, they don't elicit sympathy in publicity campaigns. Therefore, these campaigns won't make a significant impact on the most important environmental problems. This argument establishes two categories: other species (affect the most important environmental problems) and mammals (don't affect the most important environmental problems).
Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. The most important environmental problems involve endangered species other than large mammals.

B. Microorganisms cannot experience pain or have other feelings. out of scope

C. Publicity campaigns for the environment are the most effective when they elicit sympathy for some organism. The argument doesn't depend on the relative efficacy of campaign strategies.

D. People ignore environmental problems unless they believe the problems will affect creatures with which they sympathize. This doesn't affect the argument, which is centered on the two categories of endangered species and their importance to the environment.

E. An organism can be environmentally significant only if it affects large ecosystems or agriculture.
This is also tangential to the argment.

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Re: Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to [#permalink]

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10 Jun 2015, 09:05
Conclusion: Publicity unlikely to have impact on MOST imp problems
Premise: Publicity gives feelings for large mammals, but hardly any for soil organism on which large ecosystem & agr depend.

Assumption: MOST imp problems are soil organism than large mammals.
(Please note that the argument does NOT say that most imp problems are only soil organism!)

A. The most important environmental problems involve endangered species other than large mammals.
Correct based on pre-thinking

B. Microorganisms cannot experience pain or have other feelings.
1) Extra info, and does not bridge the gap between premise and conclusion.
2) Also the argument is talking about feelings of people, not micro-organisms.

C. Publicity campaigns for the environment are the most effective when they elicit sympathy for some organism.
"some" organism can be "large mammals" or even small mammals like "soil organism". This assumption can swing in either way.

D. People ignore environmental problems unless they believe the problems will affect creatures with which they sympathize.
Please note that people are not ignoring the problems. It is just that the publicity is not effect to provoke any feelings for small organisms.

E. An organism can be environmentally significant only if it affects large ecosystems or agriculture.
This was very tempting for me to choose.
The argument says "unlikely to have much impact on the most important environmental problems".
The choice says "An organism can be environmentally significant". Now where is the problem?
We know for sure that most important env problems are related to the ones that affect large ecosystems or agriculture.
However, we don't know for sure if these are env significant!

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Re: Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to [#permalink]

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10 Jun 2015, 12:17
It took me 3 minutes to Answer not sure whether we get this much time in real exam
Analysis:
Conclusion: Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much impact on the most important environmental problems
any choice when attached with not weakens the conclusion is answer

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Re: Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to [#permalink]

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15 Nov 2015, 00:39
Though I went with option D, I do agree now that the option A is the best among others. Option D is wrong because , if we n egate the option D, it basically means that people do care about the environment problems even if they have no sympathies with them.This means that PUBLICITY CAMPAIGN have no role to play here, and thus the negation does not break the conclusion.

Negation is a good tool. Its a pity I did not use it here, in the first place

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Re: Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to [#permalink]

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24 Nov 2015, 10:20
You have just two minutes to answer such verbal question. So, try to solve this in a practical way rather than being a scholar. Simplicity is the best strategy here. I am trying to solve this in a simple way.
when beating assumption question, try to follow the basic :determine the role whether supporter(fill up the gap/ambiguousness ) or defender( eliminates other possibilities or causes except the only way suggested here).
Now come to our question. Here, the argument needs support rather than defend.
Any gap/ambiguousness in the conclusion(Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much impact on the most important environmental problems). Always try to search gap from conclusion since premises are often viewed as unchallenged. But what is the gap here in the conclusion? Not any? Oh, found..the most important problem? right. The passage didn't explicitly say what the most important problem. So, the correct answer is option A which clears that cloud.
You can eliminate option B easily.
The option C, D and E have wording problem. When beating assumption problems being supporter role, try to stress on wording to eliminate some incorrect answers.
C is incorrect for 'Publicity campaigns for the environment'..generalized for 'Publicity campaigns for endangered species '.
D is incorrect for 'People ignore environmental problems'..too strong to use ignore .
E is incorrect to use another objectionable word 'environmentally significant'. Also,'only if' is also extreme. Moreover,trying to assume here is not more important than the conclusion, which needs to be gap free first.

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Re: Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to [#permalink]

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22 May 2016, 16:43
From the test makers perspective it appears they try to hide the most important negation by trying to make it appear as an already mentioned premise. Ultimately, though I would argue the answer choice A IS mentioned in the premise. An assumption is something that is NOT a fact (hence being an assumption). The stem clearly states in the last sentence "such as the soil microorganisms on which large ecosystems and agriculture depend".

The big gap in the logic that I felt needed a connector was publicity campaigns having an impact IS NOT EQUAL to sympathizing for the animal. People can care for the animal, but how do we know it will even impact environmental problems? I've read through all five pages of explanations, and I'm not convinced that D is not the correct answer. Especially relative to A, which was arguably implied in the stem.

Was this an official GMAT question? I would be disappointed if it were...

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Re: Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to [#permalink]

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23 May 2016, 02:57
laxieqv wrote:
Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much impact on the most important environmental problems, for while the ease of attributing feelings to large mammals facilitates evoking sympathy for them, it is more difficult to elicit sympathy for other kinds of organisms, such as the soil microorganisms on which large ecosystems and agriculture depend.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. The most important environmental problems involve endangered species other than large mammals.

B. Microorganisms cannot experience pain or have other feelings.

C. Publicity campaigns for the environment are the most effective when they elicit sympathy for some organism.

D. People ignore environmental problems unless they believe the problems will affect creatures with which they sympathize.

E. An organism can be environmentally significant only if it affects large ecosystems or agriculture.

it is hard to eliminate D.
a is more direct. in D, we do not know that the ignorance make campaign uneffective. so d is wrong.
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Re: Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to [#permalink]

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06 Jun 2016, 23:27
laxieqv wrote:
Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much impact on the most important environmental problems, for while the ease of attributing feelings to large mammals facilitates evoking sympathy for them, it is more difficult to elicit sympathy for other kinds of organisms, such as the soil microorganisms on which large ecosystems and agriculture depend.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. The most important environmental problems involve endangered species other than large mammals.

B. Microorganisms cannot experience pain or have other feelings.

C. Publicity campaigns for the environment are the most effective when they elicit sympathy for some organism.

D. People ignore environmental problems unless they believe the problems will affect creatures with which they sympathize.

E. An organism can be environmentally significant only if it affects large ecosystems or agriculture.

Premise 1 : Large mammals easier to sympathize with that microorganisms.
Premise 2 : Publicity campaign will fail

Assumption : Large mammals are not important enough. Because they are easy to sympathize with. So had they been important, campaign would have been a great success

A states it perfectly.

C states that : Publicity campaigns for the environment are the most effective when they elicit sympathy for some organism

It's a premise. This is a big GMAT TRAP!!!!!!!!

D states that : People ignore environmental problems unless they believe the problems will affect creatures with which they sympathize.
This is also a premise. Publicity campaigns won't be successful if the people don't sympathize with the cause
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Re: Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to [#permalink]

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18 Aug 2016, 23:40
Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much impact on the most important environmental problems, for while the ease of attributing feelings to large mammals facilitates evoking sympathy for them, it is more difficult to elicit sympathy for other kinds of organisms, such as the soil microorganisms on which large ecosystems and agriculture depend.

Assumptions :-

Most environmental problem is because of soil microorganisms on which large ecosystems and agriculture depend.
soil microorganisms on which large ecosystems and agriculture depend are endangered species

We have to prove that Public campaign are influential on most environmental problems.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. The most important environmental problems involve endangered species other than large mammals.
The most important environmental problems doesn't involve endangered species other than large mammals.

if it is true, Publicity campaigns for endangered species are are going to have effect on people. as it is for large mammals.

C. Publicity campaigns for the environment are the most effective when they elicit sympathy for some organism.
Publicity campaigns for the environment are not the most effective when they elicit sympathy for some organism. even if it is true we cant reach to the point that "Public campaign are influential on most environmental problems." Also we don't know what "some organism are"

D. People ignore environmental problems unless they believe the problems will affect creatures with which they sympathize.

Negate :-

People ignore environmental problems even if they believe the problems will affect creatures with which they sympathize. so no matters what, they are going to ignore environmental problem.
It's not what we want. "Public campaign are influential on most environmental problems." we want to prove this.

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Re: Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to [#permalink]

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23 Apr 2017, 03:34
People only sympathize with large mammals, and thus won't sympathize with other organisms. Thus publicity campaigns are unlikely to impact important env problems.

The assumption is clearly that the important env problems are not in fact restricted to large mammals, since if that were the case, eliciting sympathy wouldn't be a problem at all and the publicity campaigns would be likely to have an impact.

This is clearly stated in A.

As for D, while this may be tempting, remember, an assumption is essential for an argument to be true. This option seems to distort the information in the passage which clearly states, "more difficult to elicit sympathy for other organisms". So to say that people IGNORE them completely is too extreme and is not really an assumption required for the argument.
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Re: Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to [#permalink]

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22 Sep 2017, 00:06
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puneet478 wrote:
Assumption 'A' proves the importance of micro-organisms which are important for environment. Premises show that their importance is ignored and hence the campaign will not be successful.

In other words,

Author is assuming that micro-organism are important contributor (micro-organism)and since they are not cared for (sympathized), the campaign will be a failure.

Hope it clarifies.

==> The negation of the choice A is "The most important environmental problem includes only the large mammals." Now since large mammals evoke sympathy easily, publicity compaign must have impact on the most important environmental problems. This clearly undermines the conclusion and hence it is correct assumption.

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Re: Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to   [#permalink] 22 Sep 2017, 00:06

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